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ANNUAL  REPORT  OF  THE 
BOARD  OF  REGENTS  OF 

THE  SMITHSONIAN 
INSTITUTION 

SHOWING  THE 

OPERATIONS,  EXPENDITURES,  AND 
CONDITION  OF  THE  INSTITUTION 
FOR  THE    YEAR    ENDED    JUNE    30 

1944 


(Publication  3776) 


UNITED  STATES 

GOVERNMENT  PRINTING  OFFICE 

WASHINGTON  :  1945 


For  »ale  by  the  Superintendent  of  Documents,  U.  S.  Government  Printing  Office,  Washington  2S,  D.  C. 

Price  21.50  cents 


LETTER  OF  TRANSMITTAL 


Smithsonian  Institution, 
Washington,  November  20, 1944- 
To  the  Congress  of  the  United  States: 

In  accordance  with  section  5593  of  the  Revised  Statutes  of  the 
United  States,  I  have  the  honor,  in  behalf  of  the  Board  of  Regents, 
to  submit  to  Congress  the  annual  report  of  the  operations,  expendi- 
tures, and  conditions  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution  for  the  year 
ended  June  30, 1944.  I  have  the  honor  to  be, 
Respectfully, 

A.  Wetmore,  Acting  Secretary. 


CONTENTS 

Page 

List  of  officials v 

Wartime  activities  of  the  Institution 2 

Summary  of  the  year's  activities  of  the  branches  of  the  Institution 4 

The  establishment 8 

The  Board  of  Regents 9 

Finances 10 

Twelfth  Arthur  lecture 10 

Publications 11 

Library 12 

Appendix  1.  Report  on  the  United  States  National  Museum 13 

2.  Report  on  the  National  Gallery  of  Art .    29 

3.  Report  on  the  National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts 39 

4.  Report  on  the  Freer  Gallery  of  Art 44 

5.  Report  on  the  Bureau  of  American  Ethnology 51 

6.  Report  on  the  International  Exchange  Service 59 

7.  Report  on  the  National  Zoological  Park 67 

8.  Report  on  the  Astrophysical  Observatory 94 

9.  Report  on  the  library 97 

10.  Report  on  publications 103 

Report  of  the  executive  committee  of  the  Board  of  Regents 110 


GENERAL  APPENDIX 


Solar  variation  and  weather,  by  Charles  G.  Abbot 119 

Astronomy  in  a  world  at  war,  by  A.  Vibert  Douglas 155 

The  structure  of  the  universe,  by  Claude  William  Heaps 165 

Industrial  science  looks  ahead,  by  David  Sarnoff ' 183 

The  new  microscopes,  by  R.  E.  Seidel  and  M.  Elizabeth  Winter 193 

Radio  acoustic  ranging  (R.  A.  R.),  by  Commander  K.  T.  Adams 221 

The  David  W.  Taylor  Model  Basin,  by  Rear  Admiral  Herbert  S.  Howard.  239 

Research  for  aeronautics — its  planning  and  application,  by  W.  S.  Farren._  251 

Human  limits  in  flight,  by  Byran  H.  C.  Matthews 273 

Trans-Arctic  aviation,  by  Lt.  Elmer  Plischke 285 

Our  petroleum  resources,  by  Wallace  E.  Pratt 297 

Woods  and  trees:  Philosophical  implications  of  some  facts  of  science,  by 

Frederick  H.  Krecker 307 

Biology  and  medicine,  by  Asa  Crawford  Chandler 317 

The  locust  plague,  by  B.  P.  Uvarov 331 

The  codling  moth,  by  B.  A.  Porter 347 

Grassland  and  farmland  as  factors  in  the  cyclical  development  of  Eurasian 

history,  by  J.  Russell  Smith 357 

Southern  Arabia,  a  problem  for  the  future,  by  Carleton  S.  Coon 385 

The  New  World  Paleo-Indian,  by  Frank  H.  H.  Roberts,  Jr 403 

Easter  Island,  by  Alfred  M6traux 435 

Brain  rhythms,  by  E.  D.  Adrian 453 

The  development  of  penicillin  in  medicine,  by  H.  W.  Florey  and  E.  Chain.  461 

Recent  advances  in  anesthesia,  by  John  C.  Krantz,  Jr 467 

Aspects  of  the  epidemiology  of  tuberculosis,  by  Leland  W.  Parr 477 

ui 


LIST  OF  PLATES 


Secretary's  Report:  Page 

Plates  1,  2 44 

Solar  variation  and  weather  (Abbot) : 

Plates  1,  2 154 

The  new  microscopes  (Seidel  and  Winter) : 

Plates  1-5 220 

Radio  acoustic  ranging  (Adams) : 

Plate  1 238 

Taylor  Model  Basin  (Howard) : 

Plates  1-4 250 

Human  limits  in  flight  (Matthews) : 

Plates  1-3 284 

The  codling  moth  (Porter) : 

Plates  1-6 356 

Grassland  and  farmland  (Smith) : 

Plate  1 384 

New  World  Paleo-Indian  (Roberts) : 

Plates  1-12 434 

Easter  Island  (M^traux) : 

Plates  1-4 452 

IV 


THE  SMITHSONIAN  INSTITUTION 

June  30,   1944 

Presiding  Officer  ex  officio. — Feankun  D.  Roosevelt,  President  of  the  United 

States. 
CJiancellor. — Hablan  F.  Stone,  Chief  Justice  of  the  United  States. 
Members  of  the  Institution: 

Fbankun  D.  Roosevelt,  President  of  the  United  States. 

Henby  a.  Wallace,  Vice  Pi-esident  of  the  United  States. 

Hablan  F.  Stone,  Chief  Justice  of  the  United  States. 

CoBDELL  Hull,  Secretary  of  State. 

Henry  Moeqenthau,  Jr.,  Secretary  of  the  Treasury. 

Henby  L.  Stimson,  Secretary  of  War. 

Francis  Biddle,  Attorney  General. 

Fbank  C.  Walker,  Postmaster  General. 

James  V.  Foerestal,  Secretary  of  the  Navy. 

Harold  L.  Iokes,  Secretary  of  the  Interior. 

Claude  R.  Wickaed,  Secretary  of  Agriculture. 

Jesse  H.  Jones,  Secretary  of  Commerce. 

Fbances  Perkins,  Secretary  of  Labor. 
Regents  of  the  Institution: 

Harlan  F.  Stone,  Chief  Justice  of  the  United  States,  Chancellor. 

Henry  A,  Wallace,  Vice  President  of  the  United  States. 

Alben  W.  Babkley,  Member  of  the  Senate. 

Bennett  Champ  Clark,  Member  of  the  Senate. 

Clarence  Cannon,  Member  of  the  House  of  Representatives. 

Foster  Steabns,  Member  of  the  House  of  Representatives. 

Edward  E.  Cox,  Member  of  the  House  of  Representatives. 

Frederic  A.  Delano,  citizen  of  Washington,  D.  C. 

Roland  S.  Morris,  citizen  of  Pennsylvania. 

Harvey  N.  Davis,  citizen  of  New  Jersey, 

Arthur  H.  Compton,  citizen  of  Illinois. 

Vannevar  Bush,  citizen  of  Washington,  D.  C. 

Fkedeeio  C.  Walcott,  citizen  of  Connecticut. 
Executive  Committee. — Frederic  A.  Delano,  Vannevab  Bush,  Clarence  Cannon. 
Secretary. — Charles  G.  Abbot. 
Assistant  Secretary. — Alexander  Wetmore. 
Administrative  assistant  to  the  Secretary. — Harry  W.  Dobsett. 
Treasurer. — Nicholas  W.  Doksey. 
Chief,  editorial  division. — Webster  P.  True. 
Librarian. — Leila  F.  Clark. 
Personnel  officer. — B.  T.  Cabwithen. 
Property  clerk. — James  H.  Hill. 

UNITED  STATES  NATIONAL  MUSEUM 

Keeper  ex  officio. — Charles  G.  Abbot. 
Director. — Alexander  Wetmore. 
Associate  Director. — John  E.  Graf. 


VI  ANNUAL   REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

scientific  staff 

Depabtment  of  Anthropology  : 

Frank  M.  Setzler,  head  curator ;  A.  J.  Andrews,  chief  preparator. 
Division  of  Archeolog%;  Neil  M.  Judd,  curator;  Waldo  R.  Wedel,  associate 
curator ;  R.  G.  Paine,  scientific  aid  ;  J.  Townsend  Russell,  honorary  assistant 
curator  of  Old  World  archeology. 
Division  of  Ethnology:  H.  W.  Krieger,  curator;  Arthur  P.  Rice,  collaborator. 
Division  of  Physical  Anthropology:  T.  Dale  Stewart,  curator  ;  M.  T.  Newman, 
associate  curator.* 
Collaborator  in  anthropology :  George  Grant  MacCurdy. 
Depabtment  of  Biology  : 

Waldo  L.   Schmitt,  head  curator ;  W.  L.  Brown,  chief  taxidermist ; 
Aime  M.  Awl,  illustrator. 
Division  of  Mammals:  Remington  Kellogg,  curator;  D.  H.  Johnson,  associate 
curator*  ;  H.  Harold  Shamel,  scientific  aid ;  A.  Brazier  Howell,  collaborator ; 
Gerrit  S.  Miller,  Jr.,  associate. 
Division  of  Birds:  Herbert  Friedmann,  curator;  H.  G.  Deignan,  associate 
curator ;  Alexander  Wetmore,  custodian  of  alcoholic  and  skeleton  collec- 
tions ;  Arthur  C.  Bent,  collaborator. 
Division  of  Reptiles  and  Batrachians:  Doris  M.  Cochran,  associate  curator. 
Division  of  Fishes:  Leonard  P.  Schultz,  curator ;  E.  D.  Reid,  scientific  aid. 
Division  of  Insects:  L.  O.  Howard,  honorary  curator;  Edward  A.  Chapin, 
curator ;  R.  E.  Blackwelder,  associate  curator.* 

Section  of  Hymenoptera :  S.  A.  Rohwer,  custodian ;  W.  M.  Mann,  assist- 
ant custodian  ;  Robert  A.  Cushman,  assistant  custodian. 
Section  of  Myriapoda  :  O.  F.  Cook,  custodian. 
Section  of  Diptera  :  Charles  T.  Greene,  assistant  custodian. 
Section  of  Coleoptera :  L.  L.  Buchanan,  specialist  for  Casey  collection. 
Section  of  Lepidoptera  :  J.  T.  Barnes,  collaborator. 
Section  of  Forest  Tree  Beetles  :  A.  D.  Hopkins,  custodian. 
Division  of  Marine  Invertebrates:  Waldo  L.   Schmitt,  curator;  James  O. 
Maloney,  aid ;  Mrs.  Harriet  Richardson  Searle,  collaborator ;  Max  M.  Ellis, 
collaborator ;  J.  Percy  Moore,  collaborator ;  Joseph  A.  Cushman,  collabo- 
rator in  Foraminifera. 
Division  of  Mollusks:  Paul  Bartsch,  curator;  Harald  A.  Rehder,  associate 
curator ;  Joseph  P.  E.  Morrison,  assistant  curator. 

Section  of  Helminthological  Collections:  Benjamin  Schwartz,  collabo- 
rator. 
Division  of  Echinoderms:  Austin  H.  Clark,  curator. 

Division  of  Plants  {National  Herbarium) :  W.  R.  Maxon,  curator;  Ellsworth 
P.  Killip,  associate  curator ;  Emery  C.  Leonard,  assistant  curator ;  Conrad 
V.  Morton,  assistant  curator;  Egbert  H.  Walker,  assistant  curator;  John 
A.  Stevenson,  custodian  of  C.  G.  Lloyd  mycological  collection. 
Section  of  Grasses :  Agnes  Chase,  custodian. 

Section  of  Cryptogamic  Collections :  O.  F.  Cook,  assistant  curator. 
Section  of  Higher  Algae :  W.  T.  Swingle,  custodian. 
Section  of  Lower  Fungi :  D.  G.  Fairchild,  custodian. 
Section  of  Diatoms :  Paul  S.  Conger,  associate  curator. 
Associates  in  Zoology :  Theodore  S.  Palmer,  William  B.  Marshall,  A.  G.  Rov- 
ing, W.  K.  Fisher,  C.  R.  Shoemaker,  E.  A.  Goldman. 
Associates  in  Botany:  Henri  Pittier,  F.  A.  McClure. 


•Now  on  war  duty. 


REPORT   OF   THE    SECRETARY  VII 

Department  of  Biology — Continued. 

Collaborator  in  Zoology :  Robert  Sterling  Clark. 
Collaborators  in  Biology :  A.  K.  Fisher,  David  C.  Graham. 
Department  of  Geology: 

R.  S.  Bassler,  head  curator ;  Jessie  G.  Beach,  aid. 
Division  of  Mineralogy  and  Petrology:  W.  F.  Foshag,  curator ;  E.  P.  Hender- 
son, associate  curator ;  B.  O.  Reberholt,  scientific  aid ;  Frank  L.  Hess, 
custodian  of  rare  metals  and  rare  earths. 
Division  of  Invertebrate  Paleontology  and  Paleobotany :  Gustav  A.  Cooper, 
curator. 

Section   of   Invertebrate   Paleontology:   T.   W.    Stanton,   custodian    of 
Mesozoic  collection  ;  J.  B.  Reeside,  Jr.,  honorary  custodian  of  Mesozoic 
collection ;  Paul  Bartsch,  curator  of  Cenozoic  collection. 
Division  of  Vertebrate  Paleontology:  Charles  W.  Gilmore,  curator ;  C.  Lewis 

Gazin,  associate  curator*  ;  Norman  H.  Boss,  chief  preparator. 
Associates  in  Mineralogy :  W.  T.  Schaller,  S.  H.  Perry. 
Associate  in  Paleontology :  T.  W.  Vaughan. 
Associate  in  Petrology :  Whitman  Cross. 
Des'abtment  op  Engineeking  and  Industbibs  : 
Carl  W.  Mitman,  head  curator. 
Division  of  Engineering:  Carl  W.  Mitman,  head  curator  in  charge ;  Frank  A. 
Taylor,  curator.* 

Section  of  Transportation  and  Civil  Engineering:  Frank  A.  Taylor,  in 

charge.* 
Section  of  Aeronautics :  Paul  E.  Garber,  associate  curator,*  F.  C.  Reed, 

acting  associate  curator. 
Section  of  Mechanical  Engineering:  Frank  A.  Taylor,  in  charge.* 
Section    of    Electrical    Engineering    and    Communications:    Frank    A 

Taylor,  in  charge.* 
Section  of  Mining  and  Metallurgical  Engineering :  Carl  W.  Mitman,  in 

charge. 
Section  of  Physical  Sciences  and  Measurensent :   Frank  A.  Taylor,  in 

charge.* 
Section  of  Tools :  Frank  A.  Taylor,  in  charge.* 
Division  of  Crafts  and  Industries:  Frederick  L.  Lewton,  curator;  Elizabeth 
W.  Rosson,  assistant  curator. 

Section  of  Textiles :  Frederick  L.  Levrton,  in  charge. 

Section  of  Woods  and  Wood  Technology :  William  N.  Watkins,  associate 

curator. 
Section  of  Chemical  Industries :  Fi'ederick  L.  Lewton,  in  charge. 
Section  of  Agricultural  Industries:  Frederick  L.  Lewton,  in  charge. 
Division  of  Medicine  and   Public  Health:  ^harles  Whitebread,   associate 

curator. 
Division  of  Graphic  Arts:  R.  P.  Tolraan,  curator. 

Section  of  Photography :  A.  J.  Olmsted,  associate  curator. 
Dn^isiON  OF  History:  T.  T.  Belote,  curator;  Charles  Carey,  associate  curator; 
J.  Russell  Sirlouis,  scientific  aid ;  Catherine  L.  Manning,  assistant  curator 
(philately). 

administrative  staff 

Chief  of  correspondence  and  documents. — H.  S.  Bryant. 

Assistant  chief  of  correspondence  and  documents. — L.  E.  Commebford. 


•Now  on  war  duty. 


VIII  ANNUAL   REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

Superintendent  of  buildings  and  labor. — L.  L.  Oliver. 

Assistant  superintendent  of  buildings  and  labor. — Chaeles  C.  Sinclair. 

Editor. — Paul  H.  Oehser. 

Accountant  and  auditor. — N.  W.  Dorset. 

Photographer. — G.  I.  Hightower. 

Property  officer. — A.  W.  Wilding. 

Assistant  librarian. — Elisabeth  H.  Gazin. 

NATIONAL  GALLERY  OF  ART 
Trustees: 

The  Chief  Justice  of  the  United  States,  Chairman. 

The  Secretary  of  State. 

The  Secretary  of  the  Treasury. 

The  Secretary  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution. 

David  K.  E.  Bruce. 

Ferdinand  Lam  mot  Belin. 

Duncan  Phillips. 

Samuel  H.  Kress. 

Chester  Dale. 
President. — David  K.  B.  Bruce. 
Vice  President. — Ferdinand  Lammot  Belin. 
Secretary-Treasurer. — Huntington  Cairns. 
Director. — David  E.  Finley. 
Administrator. — H.  A.  McBbide. 
General  Counsel. — Huntington  Cairns. 
Chief  Curator. — John  Walker. 
Assistant  Director. — Macgiix  James. 

NATIONAL  COLLECTION  OF  FINE  ARTS 

Acting  Director. — Ruel  P.  Tolman. 

FREER  GALLERY  OF  ART 

Director. — A.  G.  Wenley. 

Assistant  Director. — Grace  Dunham  Guest. 

Associate  in  research. — J.  A.  Pope. 

BUREAU  OF  AMERICAN  ETHNOLOGY 

Chief. — ^Matthew  W.  Stirling. 

Senior  ethnologists. — H.  B.  Collins,  Jr.,  John  P.  Harrington,  John  R.  Swanton. 
Senior  archeologist. — F^ank  H.  H.  Roberts,  Jr. 
Senior  anthropologist. — H.  G.  Barnett. 
Senior  ethnologist. — W.  N.  Fenton. 
Editor. — M.  Helen  Palmer. 
Librarian. — Miriam  B.  Ketchum. 
Illustrator. — Edwin  G.  Cassedy. 

Institute  of   Social  Anthropology. — Julian  H.   Steward,  Director;  Alfred 
MfiTEAUx,  Assistant  Director. 

INTERNATIONAL  EXCHANGE  SERVICE 

Secretary  (in  charge). — Charles  G.  Abbot. 
Acting  Chief  Clerk. — F.  E.  Gass. 


REPORT   OF   THE    SECRETARY  DC 

NATIONAL  ZOOLOGICAL  PARK 

Director. — William  M.  Mann. 
Assistant  Director. — Ernest  P.  Walkek. 

ASTROPHYSICAL  OBSERVATORY 

Director. — Chables  G.  Abbot. 

Division  of  Astrophysical  Research:  Loyal  B,  Aldrich,  assistant  director; 

William  H.  Hoover,  senior  astrophysicist. 
Division  of  Radiation  and  Organisms:  Earl  S.  Johnston,  assistant  director; 

Edward  D.  JIcAlister,  senior  physicist;  Leland  B.  Clark,  engineer  (precision 

instruments)  ;  Robert  L.  Weintraub,  associate  biochemist  ;*Leonard  Price,  junior 

physicist  ( biophysics ) . 


REPOET  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  THE 
SMITHSONIAN  INSTITUTION 

C.  G.  ABBOT 
FOR  THE  YEAR  ENDED  JUNE  30,  1944 

To  the  Board  of  Regents  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution. 

Gentlemen  :  I  have  the  honor  to  submit  herewith  my  report  show- 
ing the  activities  and  condition  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution  and  the 
Government  bureaus  under  its  administrative  charge  during  the  fiscal 
year  ended  June  30,  1944.  The  first  12  pages  contain  a  summary  ac- 
count of  the  affairs  of  the  Institution ;  it  will  again  be  noted  that  many 
activities  usually  included  in  this  section  are  missing,  wartime  con- 
ditions having  forced  their  suspension.  Appendixes  1  to  10  give  more 
detailed  reports  of  the  operations  of  the  National  Museum,  the  Na- 
tional Gallery  of  Art,  the  National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts,  the 
Freer  Gallery  of  Art,  the  Bureau  of  American  Ethnology,  the  Inter- 
national Exchanges,  the  National  Zoological  Park,  the  Astrophysical 
Observatory,  which  now  includes  the  divisions  of  astrophysical  re- 
search and  of  radiation  and  organisms,  the  Smithsonian  library,  and  of 
the  publications  issued  under  the  direction  of  the  Institution.  On 
page  110  is  the  financial  report  of  the  executive  committee  of  the  Board 
of  Regents. 

Change  in  the  Secretaryship. — This  will  be  my  last  report,  as  on 
June  20, 1944, 1  addressed  the  following  communication  to  the  Board 
of  Regents : 

Having  occupied  the  post  of  Secretary  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution  since 
February  1928,  and  of  Acting  Secretary  for  one  year  prior  to  that,  and  having 
passed  the  age  of  72  years,  I  wish  to  resign  from  that  ofllce,  my  resignation  to  take 
effect  as  of  July  1, 1944. 

I  feel  that  it  would  be  quite  unfair  to  the  Institution  to  continue  in  this  re- 
sponsible position  when  in  the  nature  of  things  my  capacity  must  gradually  begin 
to  decline.  In  tendering  my  resignation,  I  wish  to  express  my  gratitude  to  the 
Board  for  its  kindly  and  helpful  attitude,  and  my  desire  to  be  of  any  service 
which  the  Board  or  my  successor  may  feel  disposed  to  suggest. 

Accordingly  on  July  1,  1944,  I  ceased  to  be  Secretary  of  the  In- 
stitution, and  Dr.  Alexander  Wetmore,  Assistant  Secretary,  took  over 
the  duties  of  the  position  as  Acting  Secretary.  I  wish  to  record  here 
publicly  my  appreciation  of  the  unfailing  helpfulness  and  support 

1 


2  ANNUAL  REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

accorded  to  me  by  the  staff  of  the  Institution,  and  to  bespeak  for  my 
successor  and  for  the  Institution  their  continued  loyalty  and  devoted 
service. 

WARTIME   ACTIVITIES    OF   THE    INSTITUTION 

During  another  full  year  of  war,  the  Institution  again  utilized  its 
capabilities  to  the  fullest  extent  in  aiding  the  Army  and  Navy  and  the 
various  war  agencies.  Its  normal  peacetime  research  and  exploration 
program  was  largely  abandoned  except  for  those  projects  designed 
to  promote  better  cultural  relations  with  the  other  American  re- 
publics, and  its  publications  were  restricted  almost  entirely  to  papers 
having  a  bearing  on  the  war  or  on  the  other  Americas.  To  visitors 
to  the  Institution,  these  changes  would  not  be  apparent,  as  its  visible 
features — museums  and  art  galleries — ^liave  continued  to  operate  on 
full  schedule.  In  fact,  hours  of  opening  have  been  expanded  to  in- 
clude Sundays  for  the  benefit  of  the  large  numbers  of  service  per- 
sonnel stationed  around  Washington  and  passing  through.  But  the 
time  of  the  staff — aside  from  necessary  curatorial  work  and  the 
recording  of  observations  the  cessation  of  which  would  result  in  gaps 
in  the  scientific  record — ^has  been  devoted  largely  to  furnishing  tech- 
nical information  and  assistance  urgently  needed  by  Army,  Navy, 
and  war  agencies. 

Strategic  information  to  Army  and  Navy. — ^The  scientific  staff  of 
the  Institution  and  its  branches  includes  specialists  in  many  branches 
of  biology,  geology,  anthropology,  astrophysics,  engineering,  and 
technology,  and  these  scientists  have  been  called  upon  constantly  since 
Pearl  Harbor  to  answer  questions  confronting  Army  and  Navy 
officials.  The  present  war,  covering  as  it  does  widelj'^  scattered 
regions  of  the  earth,  many  of  them  little  known  to  Americans,  hat 
required  the  assembling  of  large  amounts  of  data  on  the  peoples, 
geography,  disease-harboring  insects,  animals  and  plants,  and  other 
features  of  these  far-flung  regions.  The  Smithsonian  Institution  has 
been  able  to  furnish,  both  directly  and  through  the  Etlinogeographic 
Board,  described  below,  replies  to  hundreds  of  urgent  questions  of  this 
nature,  and  some  staff  members  have  been  in  almost  constant  con- 
sultation with  Army  and  Navy  officials.  Furthermore,  a  number  of 
war-connected  research  projects  have  been  assigned  to  the  Institution, 
and  its  laboratory  facilities  have  been  utilized  from  time  to  time  for 
Army  and  Navy  investigations. 

Ethnogeographic  Board. — ^As  stp,ted  in  my  last  report,  the  Ethno- 
geographic  Board  is  a  nongovernmental  agency,  set  up  jointly  by 
the  Smithsonian  Institution,  the  National  Eesearch  Council,  the 
American  Council  of  Learned  Societies,  and  the  Social  Science  Ee- 
search Council,  to  serve  as  a  clearinghouse  between  the  Army,  Navy, 


REPORT   OF   THE    SECRETARY  6 

and  war  agencies  on  the  one  hand,  and  the  scientific  and  educational 
institutions  of  the  Nation  on  the  other.  Many  urgent  reports  and 
items  of  strategic  information  have  been  furnished  by  the  Board  prin- 
cipally on  the  peoples,  geography,  and  related  features  of  war  areas. 
The  offices  of  the  Board  are  in  the  Smithsonian  building,  and  three 
members  of  the  Institution's  staff  were  assigned  to  assist  the  Director, 
Dr.  William  Duncan  Strong.  The  Army  and  Navy  found  the  ser- 
vices of  the  Board  so  useful  that  each  appointed  liaison  officers  to 
facilitate  contact.  The  Board  plans  to  continue  in  operation  as  long 
as  needed  during  the  coming  fiscal  year. 

Inter- American  Cooperation. — Through  invitation  by  other  agen- 
cies and  through  its  own  initiative,  the  Institution  engaged  in  a 
number  of  activities  designed  to  promote  better  cultural  relations  with 
the  other  American  republics.  Work  on  the  monumental  Handbook 
of  South  American  Indians,  under  the  editorship  of  Dr.  Julian  H. 
Steward,  was  advanced  materially.  Volume  1,  "The  Marginal 
Tribes,"  and  volume  2,  "The  Andean  Civilizations,"  went  to  the 
printer  toward  the  close  of  the  fiscal  year,  and  the  manuscripts  of 
volumes  3  and  4  were  well  on  toward  completion.  The  editorial  work 
on  this  project  is  financed  by  the  State  Department,  and  the  printing 
costs  will  be  borne  by  the  Bureau  of  American  Ethnology,  Smithsonian 
Institution,  as  the  Handbook  will  appear  in  the  Bureau's  Bulletin 
series. 

In  September  1943  Dr.  Steward  was  appointed  Director  of  the 
Institute  of  Social  Anthropology,  an  autonomous  unit  of  the  Bureau 
of  American  Ethnology  reporting  to  the  Secretary,  created  to  carry 
out  cooperative  training  in  anthropological  teaching  and  research 
with  the  other  American  republics  as  part  of  the  program  of  the 
Interdepartmental  Committee  for  Cooperation  with  the  American 
Republics.  The  work  of  the  Institute  in  Mexico  was  begun  in  co- 
operation with  the  Escuela  Nacional  de  Antropologia  of  the  Instituto 
Nacional  de  Antropologia  e  Historia,  and  plans  were  pending  for 
work  in  several  other  American  republics.  Dr.  Steward  also  served 
on  the  Temporary  Organizing  Committee  of  the  Inter-American 
Society  of  Anthropology  and  Geography,  which  had  been  started  on 
his  initiative  during  the  previous  year.  Dr.  Ralph  L.  Beals  served 
as  secretary  of  the  committee  and  editor  of  the  quarterly  journal  of 
the  Society,  Acta  Americana.  Paid  membership  in  the  Society  from 
all  parts  of  the  Americas  reached  a  total  of  800. 

A  valuable  biological  project  is  the  publication  by  the  Institution 
of  a  "Checklist  of  the  Coleopterous  Insects  of  Mexico,  Central  America, 
the  West  Indies,  and  South  America,"  by  Dr.  R.  E.  Blackwelder. 
No  list  of  this  important  insect  group  now  exists,  and  entomologists  of 
all  the  Americas  will  find  it  indispensable  in  future  researches.    The 


4  ANNUAL   REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

first  and  second  parts  appeared  in  print  during  the  year,  and  the 
third  part  was  in  press. 

A  number  of  scientists  on  the  Institution's  staff  made  trips  to  other 
American  republics  during  the  year  in  the  furtherance  of  cooperative 
scientific  projects  in  biology,  geology,  and  anthropology. 

Other  wartiTne  activities. — As  stated  above,  for  the  benefit  of  mili- 
tary and  naval  personnel  and  war  workers  the  Smithsonian  and 
National  Museum  buildings  have  again  been  kept  open  all  day  on  Sun- 
days. To  accomplish  this  with  available  funds,  it  was  necessary  to 
have  the  buildings  closed  on  Monday  mornings.  Sunday  Museum 
tours  for  service  personnel  were  arranged  in  the  Natural  History 
building  through  cooperation  with  the  U.  S.  O.  A  Field  Collector's 
Manual  in  Natural  History  was  published  and  distributed  free  on 
request  to  Army  and  Navy  personnel.  One  thousand  copies  each  were 
turned  over  to  the  Army  and  Navy  for  distribution  through  their  own 
channels. 

War  Committee. — The  Smithsonian  War  Committee  appointed  early 
in  1941,  after  canvassing  fully  all  the  possibilities  of  increasing  the 
Institution's  usefulness  in  the  war  and  embodying  the  results  of  this 
study  in  recommendation  for  action,  felt  that  its  function  was  fulfilled 
and  asked  that  it  be  dissolved.  In  assenting  to  the  dissolution  of  the 
committee,  I  wrote  to  the  chairman,  C.  W.  Mitman,  as  follows: 

I  beg  to  express,  for  myself  and  on  behalf  of  the  Institution,  a  deep  sense  of 
the  value  of  the  work  of  the  committee  in  these  several  years,  and  the  feeling 
that  those  of  its  recommendations  which  have  been  carried  through  cannot  but 
have  been  very  helpful  to  the  war  effort. 

SUMMARY  OF  THE  YEAR'S  ACTIVITIES  OF  THE  BRANCHES  OF  THE 

INSTITUTION 

National  Museum. — Again  this  year  the  time  of  the  scientific  staff 
has  been  largely  occupied  with  conferences  on  war  problems  with 
Army,  Navy,  and  war  agency  officials  and  with  furnishing  technical 
information  on  requests  to  military  and  naval  organizations.  The 
Museum  buildings  have  again  been  kept  open  all  day  on  Sundays  for 
the  benefit  of  service  personnel,  and  Sunday  Museum  tours  were  ar- 
ranged for  them  in  cooperation  with  the  U.  S.  O.  New  accessions 
for  the  year  totaled  239,640  specimens,  an  increase  of  more  than 
9,000  over  last  year.  Among  the  outstanding  additions  to  the  col- 
lections were  the  following:  In  anthropology,  an  important  lot  of 
material  from  Indian  sites  on  DeSoto's  route  through  the  south- 
eastern United  States  in  1539-42,  a  collection  pertaining  to  the  Huichol 
Indians  of  northern  Jalisco,  Mexico,  and  an  assemblage  of  Moro  and 
Indonesian  brasses  and  Philippine  metalwork  presented  to  the  Tafts 
during  their  residence  in  the  Philippines;  in  biology,  2,000  mammal 
specimens  from  Colombia  collected  by  Philip  Hershkovitz,  a  bird 


REPORT   OF   THE    SECRETARY  O 

collection  from  the  same  country  numbering  3,281  specimens,  more 
than  10,000  mosquito  specimens  from  the  sanitary  and  medical  corps 
of  the  armed  forces,  a  molluscan  collection  of  51,000  Jamaican  Neri- 
tidae,  the  valuable  Chickering  herbarium  of  10,550  plant  specimens, 
and  the  Albert  Mann  diatom  collection,  which  with  the  other  material 
on  hand  in  this  field  makes  the  Museum  diatom  collection  one  of  the 
most  important  in  the  world ;  in  geology,  a  number  of  important  gems 
and  minerals  obtained  through  the  Roebling,  Chamberlain,  and  Can- 
field  funds,  7  new  meteorites,  6  of  them  undescribed  falls,  and  500 
specimens  of  rare  Paleozoic  fossils  collected  by  the  curator  during  field 
work  in  Mexico;  in  engineering,  a  jeep,  the  prototype  of  these  vehicles 
made  famous  by  World  War  II,  and  a  Winton  automobile  of  1903,  the 
first  automobile  to  be  driven  across  the  United  States;  in  history,  a 
number  of  Army  and  Navy  medals  and  decorations  of  types  estab- 
lished during  the  present  war.  The  few  expeditions  that  were  in  the 
field  during  the  year  were  related  directly  or  indirectly  to  the  war. 
Visitors  for  the  year  numbered  1,532,765,  an  increase  of  177,496  over 
last  year;  approximately  40  percent  were  service  personnel.  The 
Museum  published  an  Annual  Report,  3  Bulletins,  1  Contribution  from 
the  National  Herbarium,  and  14  Proceedings  papers.  Staff  changes 
included  the  loss  by  death  of  the  curator  of  invertebrate  paleontology. 
Dr.  Charles  E.  Resser;  Dr.  G.  Arthur  Cooper  was  appointed  curator 
to  succeed  him. 

National  Gallery  of  Art. — Visitors  to  the  Gallery  totaled  2,060,071 
for  the  year,  the  largest  attendance  since  its  opening.  Thirty  percent 
of  the  visitors  were  men  and  women  in  the  armed  services.  Features 
of  particular  interest  to  service  personnel  were  the  Servicemen's 
Room,  which  provides  a  place  of  relaxation  for  them,  the  Sunday 
evening  concerts,  and  the  special  exhibitions.  The  Board  of  Trustees 
was  directed  by  the  Treasury  Department  to  assume  custodianship  of 
all  works  of  art  and  exhibition  material  sent  to  this  country  for  various 
exhibitions  by  the  former  French  Government,  and  several  officers 
of  the  Gallery  were  appointed  to  serve  as  officers  of  the  American  Com- 
mission for  the  Protection  and  Salvage  of  Artistic  and  Historic  Mon- 
uments in  War  Areas,  the  headquarters  of  which  are  located  in  the 
Gallery  building.  In  March  1944,  at  the  request  of  the  State  De- 
partment, the  Gallery  established  the  Inter-American  Office  to  act 
as  the  official  Government  clearinghouse  for  the  exchange  of  informa- 
tion concerning  art  activites  in  the  American  republics.  The  Gallery 
accepted  a  number  of  gifts  of  paintings,  prints,  and  drawings,  in- 
cluding 8  paintings  and  196  prints  and  drawings  from  Lessing  J. 
Rosenwald.  Among  the  13  special  exhibitions  held  during  the  year 
were  a  number  relating  to  war  subjects.  More  than  72,000  people 
attended  the  various  programs  conducted  by  the  Gallery's  educational 


6  ANNUAL   REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

department ;  these  included  Gallery  tours,  discussions  of  the  "Picture 
of  the  Week,"  and  lectures  on  special  topics. 

National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts. — The  annual  meeting  of  the 
Smithsonian  Art  Commission  was  again  omitted  because  of  war  con- 
ditions. The  Commission  lost  one  member  by  death — Dr.  Frederick  P. 
Keppel,  a  member  since  1932.  Four  miniatures  were  acquired  through 
the  Catherine  Walden  Myer  fund.  Several  proffered  gifts  of  art 
works  are  being  held  for  action  of  the  Art  Commission  at  its  next 
meeting.  A  number  of  paintings  and  other  art  works  have  been  ac- 
cepted by  the  National  Collection  as  loans;  other  paintings  and 
miniatures  belonging  to  the  Collection  have  been  lent  to  museums  and 
art  galleries,  mostly  for  special  exhibitions.  Only  one  painting  was 
purchased  from  the  Henry  Ward  Ranger  fund,  ''Fifteenth  Century 
French  Madonna  and  Child,"  by  Harry  W.  Watrous.  Eight  special 
exhibitions  were  held  during  the  year,  as  follows :  Oil  paintings  and 
other  art  works  by  Ceferino  Palencia,  of  Mexico;  water  colors  of 
Mexico  by  Walter  B.  Swan,  of  Omaha,  Nebr. ;  miniatures  by  52  artists 
of  the  Pennsylvania  Society  of  Miniature  Painters ;  water  colors  and 
block  prints  by  Ealph  H.  Avery,  United  States  Navy;  paintings  by 
John  Mix  Stanley,  Jane  C.  Stanley,  and  Alice  Stanley  Acheson ;  paint- 
ings and  other  art  works  by  the  National  League  of  American  Pen 
Women;  "Portraits  of  Leading  American  Negro  Citizens,"  by  Mrs. 
Laura  Wheeler  Waring,  of  Philadelphia,  and  Mrs.  Betsy  Graves 
Reyneau,  of  Washington;  and  mural  paintings  from  the  caves  of 
India  and  other  paintings  of  India  by  Sarkis  Katchadourian,  of  New 
York  City. 

Freer  Gallery  of  Art. — Additions  to  the  collections  included  Chinese 
bronzes,  ceramics,  jade,  and  painting;  Japanese  lacquer  and  painting; 
and  one  Armenian  manuscript.  Much  of  the  time  of  the  staff  was  de- 
voted to  war  work  for  several  Government  agencies,  including  Jap- 
anese translations,  compilation  of  a  glossary  of  Chinese  geographical 
and  topograhpical  terms,  and  the  examination  of  Japanese  documents. 
The  Director  attended  a  meeting  in  New  York  of  the  Committee  of 
the  American  Council  of  Learned  Societies  on  Protection  of  Cultural 
Treasures  in  War  Areas.  Visitors  to  the  Gallery  totaled  62,462  for 
the  year.    Fifteen  groups  received  instruction  by  staff  members. 

Bureau  of  American  Ethnology. — Emphasis  on  activities  concerned 
with  Latin  America  has  continued  during  the  year.  Dr.  M.  W. 
Stirling,  Chief  of  the  Bureau,  directed  the  Sixth  National  Geographic 
Society-Smithsonian  Institution  expedition  to  Mexico,  locating  sev- 
eral new  archeological  sites  in  southern  Veracruz,  Tabasco,  and 
Campeche.  Dr.  J.  R.  S wanton  read  the  proof  of  his  extensive  work 
on  "The  Indians  of  the  Southeastern  United  States,"  and  completed 
a  manuscript  on  the  much  discussed  Norse  expeditions  to  America. 


REPORT   OF   THE    SECRETARY  7 

Dr.  Swanton  retired  at  tlie  end  of  the  year  after  44  years  of  service. 
In  continuation  of  his  studies  of  Indian  languages,  Dr.  J.  P.  Harring- 
ton discovered  evidence  that  the  two  South  American  languages 
Quechua  and  Aymara  are  related  to  the  Hokan  of  western  North 
America,  the  first  time  a  linguistic  relationship  between  North  and 
South  America  has  been  indicated.  Dr.  F.  H.  H.  Roberts,  Jr.,  in- 
vestigated a  prehistoric  Indian  burial  near  Abilene,  Tex.,  his  studies 
indicating  that  the  burial  was  made  about  10,000  years  ago.  Dr. 
Roberts  also  assembled  and  edited  a  manual,  "Survival  on  Land  and 
Sea,"  which  was  prepared  for  the  Navy  by  the  Ethnogeographic 
Board  and  the  staff  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution.  Dr.  J.  H. 
Steward  continued  work  on  the  Handbook  of  South  American  Indians. 
He  was  appointed  Director  of  the  Institute  of  Social  Anthropology, 
an  autonomous  unit  of  the  Bureau  reporting  to  the  Secretary,  on 
September  1,  1943.  Dr.  Alfred  Metraux,  of  the  Bureau  staff,  was  ap- 
pointed Assistant  Director  of  the  above  Institute  on  September  18, 
1943.  Dr.  H.  B.  Collins,  Jr.,  served  as  Assistant  Director  of  the 
Ethnogeographic  Board,  conducting  researches  connected  with 
regional  and  other  information  requested  by  the  Army,  Navy,  and 
war  agencies.  Dr.  W.  N.  Fenton  served  as  research  associate  of  the 
Board  and  participated  in  a  survey  of  area  and  language  teaching 
in  the  Army  Specialized  Training  Program  and  the  Civil  Affairs 
Training  Schools  in  American  universities  and  colleges.  Dr.  H.  G. 
Barnett,  who  joined  the  Bureau  staff  in  December  1943,  served  as 
executive  secretary  of  a  committee  formed  under  the  sponsorship  of 
the  Ethnogeographic  Board  for  the  purpose  of  assembling  data  upon 
the  existing  state  of  our  scientific  knowledge  of  the  Pacific  island  area. 
Miss  Frances  Densmore,  a  collaborator  of  the  Bureau  completed  a 
manuscript  on  "Omaha  Music."  The  Bureau  published  its  Annual 
Report  and  six  Bulletins  during  the  year. 

International  Exchanges. — The  International  Exchange  Service 
acts  as  the  official  agency  of  the  United  States  Government  for  the 
interchange  of  governmental  and  scientific  publications  between  this 
country  and  all  other  countries.  The  total  number  of  packages  of 
such  material  handled  during  the  fiscal  year  was  407,764,  weighing 
243,180  pounds.  Shipments  to  foreign  countries  continued  to  be 
greatly  curtailed  by  war  conditions.  All  countries  in  the  Western 
Hemisphere  received  shipments  as  usual,  but  in  the  Eastern  Hemi- 
sphere, the  only  countries  to  which  shipments  could  be  made  were 
Great  Britain  and  Northern  Ireland,  Portugal,  the  U.  S.  S.  R.,  Union 
of  South  Africa,  India,  Australia,  and  New  Zealand.  In  normal 
times  93  sets  of  United  States  official  publications  are  sent  abroad 
through  the  Exchange  Service.  At  present,  however,  only  58  sets 
can  be  sent,  the  other  35  sets  being  held  until  after  the  war. 

619830 — 45 2 


8  ANNUAL   REPORT    SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

National  Zoological  Park. — In  spite  of  expected  difficulties  in 
obtaining  food  and  supplies  and  those  resulting  from  manpower 
shortages,  the  Park  and  the  animal  collection  were  maintained  in  good 
condition  and  continued  to  be  used  and  appreciated  by  large  numbers 
of  visitors.  The  total  for  the  year  reached  1,803,532,  including  a  large 
proportion  of  service  personnel.  Many  requests  for  information  on 
biological  problems  were  received  from  the  Army  and  Navy  and  other 
Government  agencies,  and  numerous  schools  and  medical  and  other 
groups  came  to  study  the  collections.  Very  few  animals  could  be 
obtained  by  purchase,  but  a  number  of  desirable  specimens  were 
received  by  exchange  and  as  gifts  from  Army  personnel  and  others 
interested  in  the  Park.  Births  and  hatchings  at  the  Park  totaled  73 
mammals,  180  birds,  and  126  reptiles.  Losses  by  death  included  the 
African  rhinoceros,  the  maned  wolf,  and  other  animals,  birds,  and 
reptiles,  including  a  large  python  that  measured  well  over  25  feet 
in  length  and  weighed  305  pounds.  At  the  close  of  the  year  the  col- 
lection totaled  2,626  animals  representing  696  species  and  subspecies. 

Astrophysical  Ohservatory. — In  the  division  of  astrophysical  re- 
search, secret  war  research  problems  occupied  most  of  the  time  of  two 
members  of  the  staff;  the  other  members  were  engaged  in  reducing 
and  determining  the  statistical  correction  for  the  solar-constant  work 
of  the  three  Smithsonian  observing  stations  at  Montezuma,  Chile, 
Table  Mountain,  Calif.,  and  Tyrone,  N.  Mex.,  since  1939.  Most  of 
the  Director's  work  consisted  in  the  study  of  solar-constant  variation 
and  associated  solar  changes  in  connection  with  the  weather,  resulting 
in  the  publication  of  a  paper  entitled  "Weather  Predetermined  by 
Solar  Variation."  As  unusual  weather  conditions  are  expected  dur- 
ing the  coming  year  following  a  predicted  depression  of  the  solar  con- 
stant, every  effort  was  made  to  keep  the  three  observing  stations  in 
operation.  In  spite  of  manpower  shortages,  this  was  accomplished 
by  the  assistance  of  the  wives  of  the  field  directors  in  observing  and 
computing.  In  the  division  of  radiation  and  organisms,  the  staff 
was  occupied  mainly  with  war  research  projects. 

THE  ESTABLISHMENT 

The  Smithsonian  Institution  was  created  by  act  of  Congress  in 
1846,  according  to  the  terms  of  the  will  of  James  Smithson,  of  Eng- 
land, who  in  1826  bequeathed  his  property  to  the  United  States  of 
America  "to  found  at  Washington,  under  the  name  of  the  Smithsonian 
Institution,  an  establishment  for  the  increase  and  diffusion  of  knowl- 
edge among  men."  In  receiving  the  property  and  accepting  the  trust. 
Congress  determined  that  the  Federal  Government  was  without 
authority  to  administer  the  trust  directly,  and,  therefore,  constituted 
an  "establishment"  whose  statutory  members  are  "the  President,  the 


REPORT   OF   THE    SECRETARY  9 

Vice  President,  the  Chief  Justice,  and  the  heads  of  the  executive 
departments." 

THE  BOARD  OF  REGENTS 

The  Board  suffered  the  loss  by  death  of  one  member,  Senator  Charles 
L.  McNary,  of  Oregon,  who  died  on  February  25, 1944.  He  had  served 
us  a  Senatorial  regent  since  January  23,  1935. 

The  roll  of  regents  during  the  fiscal  year  was  as  follows :  Harlan 
F.  Stone,  Chief  Justice  of  the  United  States,  Chancellor;  Henry  A. 
Wallace,  Vice  President  of  the  United  States;  members  from  the 
Senate— Alben  W.  Barkley,  Bennett  Champ  Clark;  members  from 
the  House  of  Representatives — Clarence  Cannon,  Foster  Stearns,  Ed- 
ward E.  Cox;  citizen  members — Frederic  A.  Delano,  Washington, 
D.  C. ;  Roland  S.  Morris,  Pennsylvania ;  Harvey  N.  Davis,  New  Jersey ; 
Arthur  H.  Compton,  Illinois ;  Vannevar  Bush,  Washington,  D.  C. ;  and 
Frederic  C.  Walcott,  Connecticut. 

Proceedings. — The  annual  meeting  of  the  Board  of  Regents  was  held 
on  January  14, 1944.  The  regents  present  were  Chief  Justice  Harlan 
F.  Stone,  Chancellor ;  Vice  President  Henry  A.  Wallace ;  Representa- 
tives Clarence  Cannon,  Foster  Stearns,  and  Edward  E.  Cox;  citizen 
regents  Frederic  A.  Delano,  Roland  S.  Morris,  Harvey  N.  Davis, 
Arthur  H.  Compton,  and  Vannevar  Bush;  and  the  Secretary,  Dr. 
Charles  G.  Abbot. 

The  Secretary  presented  his  annual  report  covering  the  activities 
of  the  parent  Institution  and  of  the  several  Government  branches, 
and  including  the  financial  report  of  the  executive  committee,  for  the 
fiscal  year  ended  June  30,  1943,  which  was  accepted  by  the  Board. 
The  usual  resolution  authorizing  the  expenditure  by  the  Secretary 
of  the  income  of  the  Institution  for  the  fiscal  year  ending  June  30, 
1945,  was  adopted  by  the  Board. 

The  Secretary  stated  that  in  order  that  the  employees  paid  from 
Smithsonian  funds  might  share  the  same  liberalized  retirement  ad- 
vantages as  the  Government-paid  employees  in  the  Institution,  a  bill 
covering  this  matter  (S.  1558)  had  been  introduced  by  Senator  Bark- 
ley  and  referred  to  the  Senate  Committee  on  the  Civil  Service. 

Owing  to  the  exigencies  of  wartime  travel,  the  annual  meeting  of 
the  Smithsonian  Art  Commission,  usually  held  in  December,  was 
again  omitted. 

The  Board  formally  ratified  certain  resolutions  adopted  by  a  mail 
vote  authorizing  the  Secretary  to  execute  an  indenture  dated  March 
31,  1943,  by  Samuel  H.  Kress  and  the  Samuel  H.  Kress  Foundation 
modifying  and  amending  an  indenture  dated  June  29,  1939,  by  the 
same  parties,  and  further  authorizing  the  Secretary  to  accept  the 
offer  of  additional  art  objects  by  these  parties  for  the  collections  of 
the  National  Gallery  of  Art. 


10  ANNUAL  REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

A  resolution  was  adopted  providing  for  the  appointment  of  com- 
mittees to  handle  matters  connected  with  the  proposed  celebration 
in  1946  of  the  centenary  of  the  founding  of  the  Institution. 

In  his  special  report  the  Secretary  outlined  to  the  regents  some 
of  the  more  important  wartime  activities  carried  on  by  the  Institution 
and  its  several  branches. 

FINANCES 

A  statement  on  finances  will  be  found  in  the  report  of  the  execu- 
tive committee  of  the  Board  of  Kegents,  page  110. 

TWELFTH  ARTHUR  LECTURE 

Under  the  terms  of  the  will  of  the  late  James  Arthur,  of  New 
York,  the  Smithsonian  Institution  received  in  1931  a  fund,  part  of 
the  income  from  which  should  be  used  for  an  annual  lecture  on  some 
aspect  of  the  science  of  the  sun. 

The  twelfth  Arthur  lecture  was  given  by  Secretary  C.  G.  Abbot 
on  February  29,  1944,  under  the  title  "Solar  Variation  and  Weather." 
The  lecture  will  be  published  with  illustrations  in  the  Report  of  the 
Smithsonian  Institution  for  1944. 

The  11  previous  Arthur  lectures  have  been  as  follows : 

1.  The  Composition  of  the  Sun,  by  Henry  Norris  Russell,  professor  of 

astronomy  at  Princeton  University.     January  27,  1932. 

2.  Gravitation  in  the  Solar  System,  by  Ernest  William  Brown,  professor 

of  mathematics  at  Yale  University.     January  25,  1933. 

3.  How  the  Sun  Warms  the  Earth,  by  Charles  G.  Abbot,  Secretary  of  the 

Smithsonian  Institution.     February  26,  1934. 

4.  The  Sun's  Place  among  the  Stars,  by  Walter  S.  Adams,  director  of 

the  Mount  Wilson  Observatory.    December  18,  1934. 

5.  Sun  Rays  and  Plant  Life,  by  Earl  S.  Johnston,  assistant  director  of 

the  division  of  radiation  and  organisms,  Smithsonian  Institution. 
February  25,  1936. 

6.  Discoveries  from  Eclipse  Expeditions,  by  Samuel  Alfred  Mitchell,  di- 

rector of  the  Leander  McCormick  Observatory,  University  of  Vir- 
ginia.    February  9,  1937. 

7.  The  Sun  and  the  Atmosphere,  by  Harlan  True  Stetson,  research  asso- 

ciate, Massachusetts  Institute  of  Technology.    February  24,  1938. 

8.  Sun  Worship,  by  Herbert  J.  Spinden,  curator  of  American  Indian  Art 

and  Primitive  Culture,  Brooklyn  Museums.    February  21,  1939. 

9.  Solar  Prominences  in  Motion,  by  Robert  R.  McMath,  director  of  the 

McMath-Hulbert  Observatory  of  the  University  of  Michigan.    Janu- 
ary 16,  1940. 

10.  Biological  Effects  of  Solar  Radiation  on  Higher  Animals  and  Man,  by 

Brian   O'Brien,    professor   of   Physiological    Optics,    University   of 
Rochester.     February  25,  1941. 

11.  The  Sun  and  the  Earth's  Magnetic  Field,  by  John  A.  Fleming,  Depart- 

ment of  Terrestrial  Magnetism,  Carnegie  Institution  of  Washington. 
February  26,  1942. 


REPORT   OF   THE    SECRETARY  11 

PUBLICATIONS 

The  Institution's  publication  program  has  again  emphasized  ma- 
terial pertaining  to  the  war  or  to  Latin  America  as  a  part  of  its 
endeavor  to  make  every  phase  of  its  activities  serve  a  useful  wartime 
purpose. 

The  papers  in  the  series  Smithsonian  War  Background  Studies 
continued  to  be  in  great  demand,  particularly  from  Army  and  Navy 
organizations  and  personnel.  Seven  numbers  were  issued  during  the 
year — Nos.  13  to  19 — and  No.  20,  on  China,  appeared  soon  after  the 
close  of  the  year.  A  list  of  these,  as  well  as  other  publications  of  the 
year,  will  be  found  in  appendix  10.  The  demand  for  the  War  Back- 
ground papers  continued  to  increase  until  it  became  necessary  to  make 
a  charge  for  copies  requested  by  civilians  and  for  large  lots  of  copies 
ordered  by  service  organizations,  while  continuing  the  free  service 
distribution  of  single  copies  and  small  lots.  Soon  after  the  close  of  the 
year  the  total  number  of  copies  of  Nos.  1-20  printed  by  the  Institution 
had  reached  203,500,  and  211,525  additional  copies  have  been  ordered 
for  the  Army  and  Navy,  a  grand  total  of  nearly  half  a  million  books. 

A  pocket-size  field  collectors'  manual  was  published  with  the  aim 
of  providing  a  worth-while  activity  for  service  personnel  stationed  in 
areas  not  actually  in  the  fighting  zones.  The  manual  gives  detailed 
directions  for  preparing,  preserving,  and  packing  specimens  of 
animals,  plants,  and  minerals.  This  book  also  is  given  free  to  service 
personnel  and  sold  to  civilians. 

In  the  Miscellaneous  Collections  series,  a  paper  intended  chiefly 
for  the  use  of  medical  officers  was  issued  under  the  title  "The  Feeding 
Apparatus  of  Biting  and  Disease-carrying  Flies:  A  Wartime  Con- 
tribution to  Medical  Entomology,"  by  R.  E.  Snodgrass.  Several 
hundred  copies  were  made  available  to  Army  and  Navy  medical  per- 
sonnel. Also  for  use  in  connection  with  wartime  medical  problems 
in  the  Pacific  theater,  it  was  necessary  to  reprint  an  edition  of  a 
previous  paper,  "Molluscan  Intermediate  Hosts  of  the  Asiatic  Blood 
Fluke,  Schistosoma  japonicum^  and  Species  Confused  with  Them,"  by 
Paul  Bartsch. 

Many  papers  in  all  series  of  Smithsonian  publications  dealt  with 
studies  in  biology  and  anthropolog;^'  of  the  other  American  republics, 
as  a  part  of  the  Government's  progi^am  of  improving  cultural  rela- 
tions  between  the  Americas.  In  the  Miscellaneous  Collections  a  sur- 
vey of  existing  archeological  knowledge  of  the  Andean  region  ap- 
peared under  the  title  "Cross  Sections  of  New  World  Prehistory :  A 
Brief  Report  on  the  Work  of  the  Institute  of  Andean  Research,  1941- 
1942,"  by  William  Duncan  Strong.  The  Smithsonian  Annual  Report 
included  a  comprehensive  pap6r  on  the  "Past  and  Present  Status  of 
the  Marine  Mammals  of  South  America  and  the  West  Indies,"  by 


12  ANNUAL   REPORT    SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

Remington  Kellogg.  National  Museum  publications  included  a  num- 
ber of  Proceedings  papers  on  various  phases  of  biology  in  Latin 
America  and  a  Bulletin  entitled  "Checklist  of  the  Coleopterous  In- 
sects of  Mexico,  Central  America,  the  West  Indies,  and  South  Amer- 
ica," parts  1  and  2,  by  Richard  E.  Blackwelder.  This  last  will  be  an 
essential  tool  for  all  future  entomological  work  in  Latin  America. 
In  the  series  Contributions  from  the  United  States  National  Her- 
barium appeared  "Taxonomic  Studies  of  Tropical  American  Plants," 
by  C.  V.  Morton.  The  Bureau  of  American  Ethnology  published  four 
Bulletins  on  the  archeology  of  Mexico,  among  them  one  entitled  "Stone 
Monuments  of  Southern  Mexico,"  by  Matthew  W.  Stirling. 

The  total  number  of  publications  issued  during  the  year  was 
67,  and  172,027  copies  of  the  various  series  were  distributed. 

LIBRARY 

The  Smithsonian  library  has  been  increasingly  used  by  the  Army, 
Navy,  and  war  agencies.  In  the  Museum  branch  library  alone,  520 
requests  for  information  from  these  sources  were  recorded.  The 
branch  libraries  of  the  Bureau  of  American  Ethnology  and  the  Astro- 
physical  Observatory  were  also  frequently  called  upon,  and  the 
staff  of  the  Ethnogeographic  Board  used  all  the  branch  libraries  in 
search  of  material  needed  to  aid  the  armed  services  and  war  agencies. 
Through  the  Library  of  Congress,  the  Smithsonian  library  is  co- 
operating with  the  American  Library  Association  in  collecting  material 
to  aid  libraries  in  war  areas.  The  gradual  decline  in  the  receipt  of 
publications  from  abroad  has  continued,  but  domestic  scientific  series 
showed  very  little  decline.  Changes  in  library  procedure  shortened 
the  interval  between  the  receipt  of  new  publications  and  their  avail- 
ability for  use.  Statistics  of  the  year's  activities  show  194  new 
exchanges  arranged,  4,422  "wants"  received,  6,673  volumes  and  pam- 
phlets cataloged,  11,360  books  and  periodicals  loaned,  and  1,683  vol- 
umes sent  to  the  bindery. 

Respectfully  submitted. 

C.  G.  Abbot,  Secretary. 


APPENDIX  1 
KEPORT  ON  THE  UNITED  STATES  NATIONAL  MUSEUM 

Sir  :  I  have  the  honor  to  submit  the  following  report  on  the  con- 
dition and  operation  of  the  National  Museum  for  the  fiscal  year 
ended  June  30, 1944. 

Appropriations  for  the  maintenance  and  operation  of  the  National 
Museum  for  the  year  totaled  $929,999,  which  was  $37,369  more  than 
for  the  previous  year. 

THE  MUSEUM   IN   WARTIME 

Visitors  during  the  year  numbered  1,532,765,  an  increase  of  177,496 
over  those  of  the  previous  fiscal  year;  approximately  40  percent  of 
all  visitors  were  men  and  women  in  uniform. 

Although  the  possibility  of  enemy  attack  on  Washington  became 
steadily  less,  measures  for  safeguard  of  visitors,  collections,  and  build- 
ings were  continued  in  force.  The  air-raid  defense  organization  re- 
mained in  operation  under  the  direction  of  the  general  defense  co- 
ordinator, F.  M.  Setzler,  head  curator  of  anthropology.  Collections 
removed  from  the  buildings  as  a  precaution  against  enemy  attack 
were  inspected  regularly,  and  careful  guard  was  maintained  over 
them. 

As  a  result  of  a  recommendation  by  the  Smithsonian  War  Committee 
a  free  guide  service  through  the  National  Museum  for  members  of 
the  armed  forces  was  arranged  through  the  U.  S.  O.  groups  of  Wash- 
ington. Under  the  direction  of  F.  M.  Setzler  a  route  was  estab- 
lished within  the  Natural  History  building  and  a  script  was  pre- 
pared describing  the  exhibits  selected  for  the  tour.  Classes  for  in- 
structing the  volunteer  hostesses  were  held  on  Sunday  afternoons 
from  August  22  to  October  17,  1943,  and  during  February  1944.  On 
October  24  the  first  U.  S.  O.  guide  service  for  men  and  women  in 
uniform  was  inaugurated.  Tours  were  conducted  each  Sunday  at 
15-minute  intervals  from  11  a.  m.  to  3 :  30  p.  m.  Each  tour  required 
approximately  45  minutes.  From  October  24,  1943,  to  June  25,  1944, 
5,325  military  visitors  were  escorted  through  the  building.  Credit 
for  the  success  of  this  service  is  due  to  the  excellent  cooperation  of 
U.  S.  O.  headquarters,  to  the  chairman  and  head  receptionist,  Miss 
Margaret  Bledsoe,  and  to  other  U.  S.  O.  hostesses. 

13 


14  ANNUAL  REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

Eequests  for  information  from  the  various  war  agencies  continued 
to  come  to  the  staff  during  the  year,  and  numerous  war  services 
were  rendered  by  most  of  the  laboratories  and  by  many  individuals 
on  the  staff. 

Dr.  Remington  Kellogg,  curator  of  mammals,  served  as  chairman 
of  the  American  delegation  at  the  International  Conference  on  the 
Regulation  of  Whaling  in  London  during  January  1944.  At  the 
request  of  the  National  Research  Council,  Dr.  Kellogg  prepared  text, 
keys,  distribution  maps,  and  illustrations  of  monkeys  known  to  be 
susceptible  to  infection  by  malarial  parasites  to  aid  in  studies  of 
malaria  in  man.  Other  services  provided  by  the  personnel  of  the 
division  of  mammals  to  officers  of  special  Army  and  Navy  units 
and  other  agencies  concerned  with  the  war  included  the  furnishing  of 
information  relative  to  the  distribution  and  identification  of  mam- 
mals involved  in  the  transmission  of  diseases.  Herbert  G.  Deignan, 
associate  curator  of  birds,  assisted  in  work  on  maps  and  on  geographic 
names  of  the  Far  East  and  in  a  compilation  of  literature  dealing  with 
parts  of  that  area.  Dr.  Doris  Cochran,  associate  curator  of  reptiles 
and  amphibians,  assisted  the  Surgeon  General's  Office  in  the  prepara- 
tion of  lists  of  Asiatic  reptiles.  Personnel  of  the  division  of  fishes 
furnished  information  in  response  to  numerous  inquiries  relative  to 
dangerous,  poisonous,  and  useful  fishes,  methods  of  fishing,  sound- 
making  fishes,  and  emergency  fishing  equipment.  Many  identifica- 
tions were  made  in  the  division  of  insects,  particularly  of  mosquitoes, 
mites,  and  ectoparasites,  and  information  was  supplied  on  the  habits  of 
these  forms,  at  the  request  of  the  Army  and  Navy.  About  1,200 
specimens  of  insects  and  Acarina  were  specially  mounted  on  pins  and 
approximately  450  slide  mounts  were  made  for  use  in  Army  and  Navy 
training  centers  throughout  the  country  in  training  programs  in 
which  health  problems  are  involved.  In  addition,  nearly  200  officers 
assigned  to  malaria  survey  or  control  units,  or  to  similar  activities, 
received  instructions  or  other  help  from  personnel  of  the  division,  and 
information  on  the  disease-bearing  insects  of  specific  foreign  areas 
was  furnished  the  Division  of  Medical  Intelligence  of  the  Surgeon 
General's  Office.  At  the  request  of  the  National  Research  Council, 
Dr.  Paul  Bartsch,  curator  of  moUusks,  served  as  a  member  of  a  com- 
mittee charged  with  the  preparation  of  a  list  of  helminth  parasites  of 
the  Southwest  Pacific  and  their  intermediate  hosts.  Dr.  E.  H.  Walker, 
assistant  curator  of  plants,  prepared  an  account  of  the  emergency 
food  plants  of  the  Tropics.  Paul  S.  Conger,  associate  curator  of  the 
section  of  diatoms,  studied  samples  of  material  involved  in  the  fouling 
of  ships,  mines,  and  other  marine  structures.  He  likewise  prepared  a 
bibliography  of  literature  concerning  the  value  of  plankton  as  food. 


REPORT   OF   THE    SECRETARY  15 

Services  of  the  department  of  anthropology  dealt  with  a  wide  variety 
of  subjects  relating  to  people  in  the  Caribbean  islands,  Pacific  and 
Indonesian  areas,  Oceania,  Micronesia,  Burma,  Japan,  China,  the 
Philippine  Islands,  Central  America,  Europe,  and  Africa.  The  in- 
formation furnished  included  suggestions  for  Tropical  and  Arctic 
clothing,  and  footgear  for  aviators,  water  supply,  population,  primi- 
tive weapons,  house  types,  degree  of  western  influence,  physical  char- 
acteristics, and  leather  products.  The  collections  of  the  division  were 
used  in  a  study  of  the  resources  of  particular  strategic  geographical 
areas  with  a  view  to  conservation  of  shipping  space.  Dr.  T.  Dale 
Stewart  was  granted  a  6-month  furlough  to  teach  anatomy  to  Army 
and  Navy  medical  students  at  the  Washington  University  School  of 
Medicine  in  St.  Louis,  Mo.  Dr.  Waldo  R.  Wedel,  associate  curator 
of  archeology,  was  detailed  for  special  services  to  the  Military  Plan- 
ning Division,  Office  of  the  Quartermaster  General,  AVar  Department, 
from  September  1943  to  March  1944.  The  division  of  physical 
anthropology  supplied  the  Office  of  Strategic  Services  with  photo- 
graphs of  various  eastern  physical  types.  It  also  supplied  detailed 
data  on  average  body  weights  of  Europeans  and  various  peoples  of 
the  Far  East  to  the  Office  of  the  Quartermaster  General. 

In  the  department  of  geology,  two  members  of  the  staff,  in  coopera- 
tion with  the  Geological  Institute  of  Mexico,  have  continued  field 
studies  in  the  economic  geology  of  that  country  as  a  part  of  the  war 
effort.  Curator  W.  F.  Foshag  spent  the  year  on  detail  from  the 
Museum  in  a  continuation  of  the  supervision  of  surveys  for  strategic 
minerals  in  Mexico.  Dr.  G.  A.  Cooper,  similarly,  spent  3  months  in 
the  field  in  Sonora  concluding  studies  begun  last  year  on  the  stratified 
rocks.  The  results,  soon  to  be  published,  will  be  useful  in  the  location 
of  new  mineral  areas.  Dr.  Cooper  also  concluded  field  work  on  the 
project  dealing  with  the  subsurface  geology  of  the  Devonian  rocks 
of  Illinois,  obtaining  information  for  use  in  the  oil  development  of 
that  and  neighboring  States. 

Members  of  the  geological  staff  in  the  home  office  have  been  more 
occupied  than  ever  before  in  furnishing  information  to  the  various 
war  agencies.  These  services  have  included  such  diverse  items  as  the 
preparation  of  analyses,  assisting  in  selecting  and  grading  calcite  for 
the  War  Production  and  other  Boards,  editing  a  scientific  volume  for 
an  allied  country,  and  furnishing  information  of  all  kinds  to  an  ever- 
increasing  number  of  service  men  and  women  visiting  the  Museum. 

Other  services,  especially  from  the  department  of  engineering  and 
industries,  have  included  the  following: 

Construction  of  two  demonstration  models  of  new  ordnance  devices 
for  the  National  Inventors'  Council;  transfer  of  a  series  of  model 


16  ANNUAL   REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

buildings  to  the  War  Department,  Corps  of  Engineers,  Camouflage 
Section;  information  on  revolving  airfoils  to  the  Technical  Data 
Laboratory,  Wright  Field,  Dayton,  Ohio;  furnishing  photographs 
for  Navy  training  films ;  identification  of  woods ;  also  information  on 
properties  and  uses  of  woods  for  Navy  Department,  War  Production 
Board,  Foreign  Economic  Administration,  and  Inter- American  De- 
velopment Commission;  methods  of  preserving  specimens  of  dehy- 
drated foods  for  War  Food  Administration;  advice  on  disposition 
of  hemp  produced  in  Kentucky  to  Commodity  Credit  Corporation; 
assistance  in  drawing  up  contract  specifications  involving  a  true  lock- 
stitch in  sewing  safety  seams,  to  United  States  Maritime  Commission ; 
suitability  of  palmyra  fiber  as  a  substitute  for  rattan  for  stiff  brushes 
to  the  Navy  Department;  and  aid  in  the  training  of  document  in- 
spectors of  Federal  Bureau  of  Investigation  in  identification  of  various 
printing  processes. 

COLLECTIONS 

Accessions,  for  the  year  numbered  1,159  separate  lots,  totaling 
239,640  specimens.  This  was  an  increase  over  those  received  last  year 
of  9,409  specimens,  but  a  decrease  of  18  in  the  number  of  accessions. 
Specimens  were  accessioned  by  the  five  departments  as  follows :  An- 
thropology, 852;  biology,  229,546;  geology,  3,466;  engineering  and 
industries,  1,388;  history,  4,388.  Most  of  the  accessions  were  gifts 
from  individuals  or  specimens  transferred  from  other  Government 
agencies.  The  more  important  of  these  are  summarized  below. 
Catalog  entries  in  all  departments  now  total  18,098,775. 

Anthropology. — The  division  of  archeology  received  an  important 
gift  of  115  lots  of  potsherds  and  other  materials  from  various  Indian 
sites,  many  of  which  are  on  or  near  the  presumed  route  of  De  Soto's 
expedition  of  1539-42  through  the  southeastern  United  States.  Two 
gold-and-silver  book  ends,  reflecting  the  Tiahuanacan  style  of  archi- 
tecture and  sculpture,  were  presented  by  Vice  President  Henry  A. 
Wallace,  who  received  them  as  gifts  from  the  Chamber  of  Commerce 
in  Bolivia,  on  the  occasion  of  his  visit  to  La  Paz.  The  division  of 
ethnology  was  presented  with  a  documented  collection  (159  speci- 
mens) pertaining  to  the  Huichol  Indians  of  northern  Jalisco.  Two 
other  important  collections  received  by  the  division  were  26  oil  por- 
traits of  Navaho,  Apache,  and  Pueblo  Indians  of  Arizona  and  New 
Mexico,  painted  by  Carl  Moon,  and  an  assemblage  of  excellent  ex- 
amples of  Moro  and  Indonesian  brasses  and  Philippine  metalwork, 
which  had  been  presented  to  the  late  President  and  Mrs.  William 
Howard  Taft,  during  their  residence  in  the  Philippines. 

Biology. — The  largest  single  collection  received  by  the  division  of 
mammals  in  the  past  25  years  consisted  of  about  2,400  specimens  from 


REPORT   OF   THE    SECRETARY  17 

Colombia,  collected  by  Philip  Hershkovitz  during  his  tenure  of  the 
Walter  Rathbone  Bacon  Traveling  Scholarship  of  the  Smithsonian 
Institution.  From  the  Fish  and  Wildlife  Service  came  by  transfer 
the  year's  second-largest  mammalian  accession,  624  mammals  from 
various  North  American  localities.  A  beaked  whale  foetus,  about  7 
feet  long,  the  largest  in  the  National  collections,  is  also  notable. 

As  in  the  division  of  mammals,  the  largest  accession  of  the  year 
to  the  division  of  birds  came  from  Colombia.  This  collection  com- 
prised 3,281  specimens,  sufficient  to  give  the  Museum  a  reasonably 
complete  representation  of  the  bird  life  of  northeastern  Colombia. 
A  smaller  avian  collection,  85  specimens,  also  from  Colombia,  repre- 
sents localities  not  included  in  the  larger  collection  first  mentioned. 
Another  collection  included  20  species  of  birds  hitherto  unrepresented 
in  the  study  series. 

As  a  result  of  exchanges  with  other  institutions,  several  species 
of  reptiles  and  amphibians  hitherto  unrepresented  or  poorly  repre- 
sented in  the  Museum  have  been  added  to  the  collections.  Specimens 
from  the  Great  Smoky  Mountains  National  Park,  Jamaica,  and  Hon- 
duras were  received,  and  60  turtles,  lizards,  snakes,  and  frogs  were 
contributed  by  Philip  Hershkovitz,  through  the  Walter  Rathbone 
Bacon  Traveling  Scholarship. 

Exchanges  consummated  during  the  year  brought  much  valuable 
material,  including  321  cotypes,  to  the  division  of  fishes.  Smaller 
ichthyological  collections,  received  as  gifts,  also  included  type  ma- 
terial and  some  specimens  from  type  localities  not  previously  repre- 
sented in  the  National  collections. 

The  vital  and  significant  role  played  by  entomology  and  entomol- 
ogists in  the  war  is  reflected  in  the  host  of  mosquitoes  and  mosquito 
larvae  received  from  the  sanitary  and  medical  corps  of  the  armed 
forces — more  than  10,000  specimens.  About  67,000  bees,  butterflies, 
and  insects,  including  some  holotype  and  paratype  material,  came  as 
gifts  and  by  transfer  from  other  Government  departments. 

Seven  of  the  year's  accessions  in  the  division  of  marine  invertebrates 
included  type  material.  Especially  noteworthy  is  the  fact  that  dur- 
ing the  past  year  seven  accessions,  totaling  2,380  specimens,  many  of 
them  rare,  were  collected  and  donated  to  the  Museum  by  men  in  the 
armed  forces. 

The  collection  of  Mexican  land  shells  in  the  division  of  moUusks 
was  materially  enhanced  by  three  gifts,  totaling  1,490  specimens.  The 
largest  known  single  collection  of  Jamaican  representatives  of  the 
molluscan  family  Neritidae,  consisting  of  51,000  specimens  and  ac- 
companying 850  microscopic  slides,  came  as  a  gift. 

Several  valuable  accessions  in  the  form  of  types  and  cotypes  came 
to  the  helminthological  collections  as  gifts.    These  included  species  of 


18  ANNUAL  REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

the  genera  Ochoterenella^  Choledocystus,  Choricotyle,  Diphylloboth- 
rium,  Hexostoma^  Cyclocotyla^  and  Raillietina. 

Among  the  89  echinoderms  accessioned  were  6  undescribed  species, 
6  paratypes  of  new  ophiurans,  and  2  interesting  abnormal  starfishes. 

Outstanding  among  the  36,240  plants  received  during  the  year  was 
the  Chickering  herbarium  of  approximately  10,550  specimens.  This 
herbarium,  formed  by  the  late  John  White  Chickering,  Jr.,  is  a  valu- 
able addition  as  it  includes  material  of  historical  importance  from 
collections  not  at  all  or  scantily  represented  previously.  Also  in- 
cluded are  numerous  specimens  from  the  District  of  Columbia,  of 
which  many  were  collected  in  plant  habitats  now  destroyed.  Most 
of  the  smaller  collections  received  came  from  South  American  or 
West  Indian  localities.  Of  special  importance  among  these  were 
about  2,500  specimens  of  bamboos,  including  an  unusually  good  repre- 
sentation of  vegetative  structures  important  to  the  field  identification 
of  the  bamboos. 

The  Albert  Mann  diatom  collection,  consisting  of  approximately 
8,000  slides  of  moimted  specimens,  more  than  10,000  samples  of  crude 
diatom  material,  and  over  200  negatives  and  300  lantern  slides,  trans- 
ferred from  the  Carnegie  Institution  of  Washington,  was  formally 
accessioned  during  the  year.  In  combination  with  the  other  material 
this  makes  the  Museum  collection  of  diatoms  one  of  the  most  im- 
portant in  the  world. 

Geology. — Income  from  the  Roebling  fund,  provided  for  the  pur- 
chase of  important  gems  and  minerals,  was  used  to  procure  31  gem 
stones  of  rare  quality  and  high  exhibition  value  and  2  mineral  acces- 
sions, consisting  of  4  unusually  formed  quartz  crystals  and  8  trans- 
parent colorless  scheelites.  A  beautiful  pink  Brazilian  topaz  of  34.1 
carats  was  acquired  through  the  Frances  Lea  Chamberlain  fund,  and 
the  Canfield  endowment  fund  provided  two  specimens  of  libethenite 
and  a  covellite.  Several  important  single  accessions  came  as  the  result 
of  the  associate  curator's  efforts  to  interest  people  in  making  collec- 
tions for  the  Museum.  By  transfer  from  another  Government  de- 
partment the  division  of  mineralogy  and  petrology  received  specimens 
of  weinschenite  (yttrium  phosphate),  representing  the  first  occurrence 
of  this  rare  mineral  in  the  United  States. 

Seven  new  meteorites  were  added  to  the  collection,  six  of  them  being 
undescribed  falls. 

The  largest  addition  to  the  ore  collection  consisted  of  a  series  of 
manganese  and  chromium  ores  from  world-wide  foreign  deposits. 

The  most  important  new  material  received  by  the  division  of  in- 
vertebrate paleontology  and  paleobotany  consisted  of  500  specimens  of 
rare  Paleozoic  fossils  collected  by  the  curator  during  his  field  work 
in  northwestern  Sonora,  Mexico. 


REPORT   OF   THE    SECRETARY  19 

Plaster  casts  of  type  fossils  today  have  great  scientific  value,  in 
view  of  the  destruction  taking  place  in  foreign  museums.  Such  a 
cast,  an  important  English  Carboniferous  crinoid,  the  holotype  and 
only  specimen  of  which  was  in  the  ill-fated  Bristol  Museum,  was 
received  as  a  gift.  Numerous  types  and  holotypes  of  foraminifers, 
bryozoans,  mollusks,  echinoids,  cephalopods,  and  corals  were  welcome 
additions  to  the  collection.  Important  among  the  acquisitions  of 
specimens  of  fossil  vertebrates  was  a  composite  skeleton  of  an  extinct 
antelope,  as  well  as  casts  of  the  followin,g:  Complete  skull  of  a  curious 
three-horned  antelope ;  type  specimen  of  a  flying  reptile ;  and  skeleton 
of  a  rare  Triassic  armored  reptile.  The  ichnite  collection  was  en- 
riched by  nine  slabs  containing  the  trails  of  Paramphibius  didactylus^ 
once  considered  a  vertebrate  animal  but  now  regarded  as  a  horseshoe 
crab. 

Engineering  and  industries. — From  the  standpoints  of  historical 
merit  and  of  popular  appeal  first  honors  among  the  acquisitions  of 
the  year  in  this  department  are  bestowed  upon  two  automobiles.  One 
of  these  is  a  U.  S.  Army  14-ton,  4x4  truck,  one  of  the  first  of  62  of 
these  vehicles  built  in  1940,  and  the  prototype  of  these  vehicles 
made  famous  by  World  War  II.  The  other  is  a  Winton,  1903,  the 
first  automobile  to  be  driven  across  the  United  States,  a  trip  that  re- 
quired 63  days  on  the  road.  Outstanding  among  the  gifts  to  the 
watercraft  collection  was  an  original  kerosene-burning  brass  bulk- 
head lantern  of  the  first  S.  S.  Mauretania,  1907-37,  presented  by  Presi- 
dent Franklin  D.  Roosevelt.  The  lantern  now  stands  in  the  exhibi- 
tion case  containing  the  handsome  model  of  this  famous  vessel  pre- 
■  sented  to  the  Museum  by  the  President  several  years  ago. 

Through  the  Textile  Color  Card  Association  of  the  United  States, 
the  textile  section  received  the  ninth  edition  of  the  Standard  Color 
Card,  with  its  two  supplements,  the  United  States  Arms  and  Serv- 
ices Color  Card  and  the  United  States  Army  Standard  Thread  Card. 
The  Association  is  supported  by  textile  manufacturers  and  representa- 
tive firms  of  almost  every  industry  using  color.  These  firms  agree  to 
have  their  products  match  the  colors  included  in  the  ofiicial  standard 
card,  resulting  in  a  great  saving  of  time  to  consiuners  in  obtaining 
exact  shades  of  colors  in  materials  that  are  to  be  used  together.  This 
standardization  is  especially  valuable  to  the  United  States  Arms  and 
Services,  each  service  having  an  official  color  requirement  for  its  uni- 
forms, trimmings,  badges,  and  similar  equipment.  The  Standard 
Thread  Card  is  furnished  by  the  Quartermaster  General's  office  to 
quartermaster  depots  and  contractors  making  clothing  or  equipage 
for  the  United  States  Army. 

An  important  accession  in  the  section  of  chemical  industries  was 
an  exhibit  illustrating  the  chemistry  and  applications  of  refined  alpha- 


20  ANNUAL   REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

cellulose  derived  from  wood  pulp.  Since  the  military  services'  re- 
quirements for  ordnance  purposes  cover  practically  all  the  annual 
production  of  cotton  linters,  the  manufacturers  of  rayon  found  it 
necessary  to  turn  to  alpha-cellulose  for  their  raw  material.  The  appli- 
cations of  the  wood-pulp  cellulose  shown  in  the  exhibit  include  rayon, 
molded  and  laminated  plastics,  cellophane,  artificial  leather,  rayon 
tire-cord  fabric,  and  electric-arc  welding  rods. 

An  interesting  addition  to  the  collection  of  commercial  furs  was 
a  gift  from  Vice  President  Henry  A.  Wallace  of  two  robes  made 
from  strips  of  vicuna  skins.  The  robes  were  presented  to  him  by 
Miss  Kosa  Prado,  daughter  of  the  President  of  Peru,  on  the  occasion 
of  Mr.  Wallace's  good-will  tour. 

In  the  division  of  medicine  and  public  health  the  most  valuable 
items  were  added  to  the  section  of  pharmacy.  These  included  a  com- 
plete exhibit  illustrating  the  manufacture  and  use  of  dried  blood 
plasma  now  effectively  employed  by  our  armed  forces ;  a  series  of  ob- 
jects picturing  the  method  of  obtaining  penicillin,  the  recently  dis- 
covered miracle-performing  bacteriostatic  drug ;  and  a  collection  out- 
lining the  life  history  of  Carl  Wilhelm  Scheele,  the  internationally 
famous  apothecary.  To  the  history  of  medicine  section  was  added 
the  first  portable  X-ray  machine  known  to  have  been  operated  suc- 
cessfully on  a  battlefield. 

The  outstanding  accession  in  the  section  of  graphic  arts  was  a  French 
color  print  of  the  eighteenth  century,  "L'Amant  Surpris,"  by  C.  M, 
Descourtis  after  F.  Schall.  This  type  of  print,  the  estampe  galante^ 
is  highly  prized  and  much  sought  after  by  collectors.  Descourtis 
was  one  of  the  important  engravers  of  the  period,  and  it  is  said  that 
"L'Amant  Surpris"  is  one  of  his  masterpieces.  Walter  Tittle,  a  well- 
known  drypoint  artist,  presented  the  section  with  19  examples  of  his 
work,  following  his  special  exhibition  in  the  Museum.  VOKS,  the 
Soviet  Russian  Society  for  Cultural  Relations  with  Foreign  Countries, 
gave  the  section  six  war  posters  produced  by  the  hand-stencil  process.' 
No  printing  equipment  is  necessary  in  making  posters  of  this  kind, 
which  the  Russians  have  developed  to  a  high  degree.  Guerrilla  artists 
have  used  this  method  extensively  in  occupied  territories  where  the 
absence  of  printing  and  transportation  facilities  eliminates  other 
methods. 

History. — The  collection  of  civil,  naval,  marine,  and  military  medals 
and  decorations  was  increased  by  specimens  of  several  awards  of 
these  types  established  during  the  present  war.  Among  these  were 
specimens  of  the  Air  Medal,  awarded  to  members  of  the  armed  forces 
of  the  United  States  who  have  distinguished  themselves  since  Sep- 
tember 8, 1939,  by  meritorious  achievement  in  flight.  It  is  second  only 
to  the  Distinguished  Flying  Cross.     They  include  also  specimens  of 


REPORT   OF   THE    SECRETARY  21 

the  decorations  representing  the  four  degrees  of  the  Legion  of  Merit, 
namely,  Chief  Commander,  Commander,  Officer,  and  Legionnaire. 
These  decorations  are  for  award  to  the  personnel  of  armed  forces  of 
the  United  States  and  the  Philippines,  and  of  the  armed  forces  of 
friendly  foreign  nations.  The  recipients  must  have  distinguished 
themselves  by  exceptionally  meritorious  conduct  in  the  performance 
of  outstanding  services  since  the  Presidential  proclamation  of  emer- 
gency, September  8,  1939.  These  decorations  are  the  first  to  be 
founded  by  the  United  States  Government  for  award  to  foreigners. 
Other  specimens  illustrate  the  Merchant  Marine  Distinguished  Serv- 
ice Medal  and  the  Mariner's  Medal.  The  first  of  these  was  established 
for  award  to  an^^  person  in  the  American  Merchant  Marine  who  on 
or  after  September  3,  1939,  "has  distinguished  himself  *  *  *  jn 
the  line  of  duty."  The  second  is  awarded  to  any  seaman  who,  while 
serving  on  a  ship  during  the  war  period,  is  wounded,  suffers  physical 
injury,  or  suffers  through  dangerous  exposure  as  the  result  of  an  act 
of  an  enemy  of  the  United  States. 

The  collection  of  uniforms  was  increased  by  the  addition  of  several 
United  States  Army  and  United  States  Military  Academy  uniforms 
of  the  early  part  of  the  twentieth  century.  Uniforms  of  the  types 
worn  by  Army  nurses  and  officers  and  members  of  the  Women's  Army 
Corps  were  received  from  the  AVar  Department.  A  series  of  German 
and  Japanese  uniforms  captured  in  Italy  and  the  Aleutian  Islands 
was  received  as  a  loan  from  the  War  Department. 

An  interesting  gift  to  the  philatelic  collection  was  a  series  of 
Aguinaldo  (Philippine)  stamps  totaling  more  than  2,000  specimens. 
A  cover  franked  with  a  2-cent  red  Aguinaldo  stamp  postmarked 
Bataan,  the  locality  famous  for  the  valiant  fight  against  the  Japanese 
of  the  American  forces  under  the  leadership  of  Gen.  Douglas  Mac- 
Arthur,  is  included.  Among  the  stamps  transferred  by  the  Post 
Office  Department  was  a  special  series  of  12  United  States  stamps 
commemorating  the  European  countries  that  have  been  overrun  and 
occupied  by  the  Axis  powers — Albania,  Austria,  Belgium,  Czecho- 
slovakia, Denmark,  France,  Greece,  Luxembourg,  Norway,  The  Nether- 
lands, Poland,  and  Yugoslavia.  Each  stamp  bears  in  color  the  na- 
tional flag  of  the  country  concerned.  The  Soviet  Union  presented  a 
30-kopeck  and  a  3-nible  stamp  showing  the  Russian,  British,  and 
American  flags,  commemorating  the  recent  historic  conference  at 
Tehran.  Among  the  stamps  emanating  from  enemy  countries  that 
found  their  way  into  the  Museum  collections  were  2  Japanese  stamps 
commemorating  the  fall  of  Bataan  and  Corregidor,  11  stamps  issued 
by  the  Japanese  military  authorities  for  use  in  the  occupation  of  the 
Dutch  Indies,  and  14  varieties  of  Japanese  stamps  for  the  army  of 


22  ANNUAL  REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

occupation  in  the  Philippine  Islands.    A  large  number  of  German 
stamps  also  were  received. 

EXPLORATIONS   AND  BESEARCH 

Although  field  explorations  for  the  year  were  concerned  principally 
with  the  conduct  of  the  war,  important  research  was  accomplished 
along  many  other  collateral  lines. 

Anthropology. — During  his  assignment  as  teacher  of  anatomy  to 
Army  and  Navy  medical  students  at  Washington  University  School 
of  Medicine,  St.  Louis,  Mo.,  studies  were  carried  on  by  the  curator, 
Dr.  T.  Dale  Stewart,  on  age  and  sex  changes  in  the  human  skeleton. 
This  was  possible  because  the  skeletal  collections  preserved  in  the 
university's  department  of  anatomy  were  obtained  from  the  dis- 
secting rooms  and  therefore  were  accurately  identified.  During  the 
course  of  this  work  Dr.  Stewart  took  the  opportunity  also  of  studying 
arthritic  changes  in  the  skeleton.  Since  arthritis  is  closely  correlated 
with  age,  it  was  hoped  that  the  university's  identified  material  would 
aid  in  the  interpretation  of  the  condition  in  the  groups  in  the  Museum 
collections  where  exact  age  is  unknown.  In  addition  to  his  work  at 
the  university.  Dr.  Stewart  spent  some  time  in  studying  Indian  skele- 
tons excavated  in  Illinois  by  Dr.  P.  F.  Titterington,  a  St.  Louis  physi- 
cian. Two  cultural  horizons  are  represented  by  these  Indian  re- 
mains, the  Hopewell  and  the  Jersey  County  bluff  focus  of  the  Middle 
Mississippi. 

Up  to  the  time  of  his  death  on  September  5,  Dr.  Ales  Hrdlicka 
continued  the  work  of  analyzing  his  data  on  the  human  tibia.  The 
year  also  saw  the  publication  by  the  Museum  of  the  seventh  and 
last  part  of  Dr.  Hrdlicka's  "Catalog  of  Human  Crania  in  the  United 
States  National  Museum  Collections,"  a  work  on  which  he  had  been 
engaged  for  many  years.  The  final  part  covers  the  non-Eskimo 
people  of  the  Northwest  Coast,  Alaska,  and  Siberia  and  includes 
measurements  of  all  skulls  of  this  provenience  deposited  in  the  Na- 
tional Museum  as  well  as  of  many  supplementary  ones  in  various 
Kussian  institutions.  The  entire  series  of  catalogs  presents  measure- 
ments of  more  than  7,500  non-White  crania  and  has  been  described 
as  constituting  "one  of  the  most  valuable  sources  of  basic  anthropo- 
metric data  in  existence." 

Biology. — Under  the  auspices  of  the  Division  of  Cultural  Kelations 
of  the  Department  of  State,  Ellsworth  P.  Killip,  associate  curator  of 
plants,  visited  Colombia  during  April,  May,  and  June  for  consulta- 
tions and  work  in  botanical  centers  in  Bogota  and  Cali.  In  working 
over  the  Museum's  South  American  material,  which  includes  large 
recent  collections  of  plants,  as  well  as  a  considerable  accumulation  of 


REPORT   OF   THE    SECRETARY  23 

specimens  received  for  identification  in  the  past,  Mr.  Killip  assembled 
much  valuable  data  for  the  proposed  "Flora  of  Colombia." 

Philip  Hershkovitz,  holder  of  the  Walter  Kathbone  Bacon  Scholar- 
ship for  1941-43,  returned  from  Colombia  in  October,  after  an  absence 
of  almost  2  years.  The  collection  he  amassed  forms  the  largest  single 
accession  of  mammals  received  by  the  Museum  during  the  past  25 
years. 

Under  the  W.  L.  Abbott  fund,  M.  A.  Carriker,  Jr.,  continued 
ornithological  field  work  in  Colombia  mitil  October.  He  brought  to 
the  Museum  the  results  of  two  seasons'  work,  one  of  the  finest  collec- 
tions of  birds  that  has  ever  been  made  in  that  area. 

Dr.  Remington  Kellogg,  curator  of  mammals,  served  as  chairman 
of  the  American  delegation  to  the  International  Conference  on  the 
Regulation  of  Whaling  held  in  London  during  January.  Between 
sessions  of  the  conference  he  studied  at  the  British  Museum  in  prepara- 
tion of  a  report  on  the  recent  porpoises.  Dr.  Kellogg  spent  part  of 
September  at  the  Museum  of  Comparative  Zoology  examining  a  col- 
lection of  cetacean  remains  from  Polk  County,  Fla.  Also,  at  the  re- 
quest of  the  National  Research  Council,  for  the  Board  for  the  Co- 
ordination of  Malarial  Studies,  in  collaboration  with  Major  E.  A. 
Goldman  of  the  Fish  and  Wildlife  Service,  Dr.  Kellogg  prepared 
the  first  of  a  series  of  descriptive  accounts  of  the  kinds  of  monkeys 
that  may  carry  malarial  infections. 

The  curator  of  birds.  Dr.  Herbert  Friedmann,  completed  part  10, 
the  gallinaceous  birds,  of  Ridgway's  unfinished  monograph,  "The 
Birds  of  North  and  Middle  America,"  and  began  the  revision  of  his 
own  previously  completed  manuscript  on  the  falconiform  birds. 
H.  G.  Deignan,  associate  curator  of  birds,  completed  his  monograph 
on  "The  Birds  of  Northern  Thailand,"  now  in  press. 

The  associate  curator  of  reptiles.  Dr.  Doris  M.  Cochran,  reports 
further  substantial  progress  in  her  studies  on  South  American  frogs. 
She  also  undertook  to  expand  her  popular  handbook  on  "Poisonous 
Reptiles  "  Number  10  of  the  Smithsonian  War  Background  Studies, 
into  a  treatise  on  "Dangerous  Reptiles,"  nonpoisonous,  as  well  as  poi- 
sonous, for  the  general  appendix  to  the  Smithsonian  Annual  Report. 

Dr.  Paul  Bartsch,  curator  of  moUusks,  has  worked  in  close  coopera- 
tion with  a  special  committee  of  the  National  Research  Council,  in 
preparing  a  list  of  known  or  suspected  molluscan  intermediate  hosts 
of  human  parasites. 

In  connection  with  the  preparation  of  survivor  manuals,  Dr.  L.  P. 
Schultz,  curator  of  fishes,  and  Earl  D.  Reid,  scientific  aid,  demonstrated 
to  members  of  the  U.  S.  Navy  the  use  of  derris  root  for  securing 
fish  for  food  in  emergencies. 

619830 — 15 3 


24  ANNUAL   REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

Dr.  Schultz  also  made  notable  progress  with  his  studies  on  the 
extensive  material  that  he  collected  in  Venezuela,  finishing  a  report  on 
the  Characinidae  and  completing  manuscript  for  the  families  Gymno- 
tidae,  Cichlidae,  Cyprinodontidae,  Dasyatidae,  Tetradontidae,  and 
Centropomidae. 

The  curator  of  insects,  Dr.  E.  A.  Chapin,  made  further  progress 
with,  the  manuscript  embodying  the  results  of  liis  investigations 
on  the  beetle  genus  Hippodamia  and  continued  work  on  other  sections 
of  the  Coccinellidae. 

Dr.  R.  E.  Blackwelder,  associate  curator  of  insects,  continuing  his 
work  on  Bulletin  185  of  the  National  Museum,  "Checklist  of  the  Col- 
eopterous Insects  of  Mexico,  Central  America,  the  West  Indies,  and 
South  America,"  submitted  the  manuscript  for  part  3.  Parts  1  and  2 
were  published  during  the  year. 

Austin  H.  Clark,  curator  of  echinoderms,  completed  part  4  of  Bul- 
letin 82,  "Monograph  of  the  Existing  Crinoids,"  except  for  assembling 
the  plates.  He  also  published  "Iceland  and  Greenland,"  the  fifteenth 
of  the  Smithsonian's  War  Background  Studies,  and,  in  collaboration 
with  Dr.  E.  H.  Walker,  assistant  curator  of  plants,  prepared  material 
for  the  biological  section  of  another  volume  of  this  series  dealing  with 
the  Aleutian  Islands. 

All  divisions  in  the  department  contributed  to  the  Navy's  "Survival 
on  Land  and  Sea,"  published  in  December,  to  "A  Field  Collector's 
Manual  in  Natural  History,"  recently  issued  by  the  Smithsonian,  and 
to  the  preparation  of  nine  mimeographed  leaflets  for  distribution  to 
correspondents  inquiring  about  the  animal  and  plant  life  of  the 
Southwest  Pacific. 

Geology. — As  in  the  other  departments  of  the  Museum,  several 
members  of  the  staff  of  the  department  of  geology  are  on  military 
detail.  The  researches  of  the  head  curator,  Dr.  R.  S.  Bassler,  have 
been  limited  to  three  projects;  first,  his  monographic  study  of  Lower 
Paleozoic  corals;  second,  a  paper  on  the  giant  Paleozoic  Ostracoda 
known  as  the  Leperditiidae ;  and  third,  a  continuation  of  researches 
on  American  Ordovician  crinoids  and  cystids  contained  in  the 
Springer  collection.  The  manuscript  and  illustrations  of  all  three 
have  been  more  than  half  completed. 

Curator  William  F.  Foshag  was  occupied  the  entire  year  in  Mexico 
with  his  supervisory  work  for  the  Geological  Survey  in  surveys  for 
strategic  minerals.  In  addition,  he  spent  some  time  at  the  Paricutin 
Volcano  making  observations  and  collecting  material  for  the  Museum 
exhibition  series. 

E.  P.  Henderson  completed  several  analyses  of  new  meteorites. 
"The  Metallography  of  Meteoric  Iron,"  a  monograph  by  Dr.  Stuart  H. 


REPORT   OF   THE    SECRETARY  25 

Perry,  associate  in  mineralogy,  was  published  during  the  year  as  a 
Bulletin  of  the  National  Museum. 

Dr.  G.  A.  Cooper,  in  collaboration  with  Prof.  A.  S.  Warthin,  of 
Vassar  College,  completed  his  survey  of  Illinois  Devonian  oil  strata, 
and,  in  collaboration  with  the  Instituto  Geologic©  de  Mexico,  con- 
tinued field  and  laboratory  studies  of  the  geology  of  northwestern 
Sonora.  A  month  and  a  half  of  field  work  in  Sonora,  in  association 
with  his  Mexican  colleague,  Ing.  A.  K.  V.  Arellano,  resulted  in  note- 
worthy paleontological  collections  and  considerable  increase  in  knowl- 
edge of  the  structure  and  stratigraphy  of  the  area. 

Under  the  Walcott  fund  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution,  in  collabo- 
ration with  Drs.  Myron  N.  Cooper  and  K.  S.  Edmundson,  of  the  Vir- 
ginia Geological  Survey,  Dr.  Cooper  made  an  investigation  of  the 
relationships  of  the  limestones  that  occur  on  the  flanks  of  Clinch 
Mountain  in  southwestern  Virginia  and  northern  Tennessee. 

Before  his  untimely  death  Dr.  Charles  E.  Resser  was  engaged  in  the 
study  of  the  Lower  Ordovician  trilobites  of  Vermont  and  adjacent 
areas  and  was  continuing  his  Cambrian  Summary  and  Bibliography. 
Many  years  of  work  by  Drs.  Walcott  and  Resser  have  gone  into  this 
summary  and  bibliography,  both  of  which  when  finished  will  be  valu- 
able contributions  to  science. 

Field  work  in  vertebrate  paleontology,  usually  one  of  the  best  sources 
of  striking  exhibition  material,  was  necessarily  restricted.  In  a 
short  trip  to  the  nearby  Calvert  Cliffs  on  Chesapeake  Bay,  Curator 
C.  W.  Gilmore  and  his  assistants  had  the  good  fortune  to  excavate  a 
sirenian  skeleton  of  Miocene  age,  a  fossil  sea  cow  over  10  feet  long. 

MISCEIJLANEOUS 

Visitors. — The  number  of  visitors  to  the  Museum  buildings  during 
the  year  showed  an  increase  of  177,496  over  the  previous  year.  The 
total  number,  1,532,765,  is,  of  course,  far  below  the  peacetime  record 
of  2,408,170  in  1937-38,  but  the  increase  does  indicate  a  salutary  up- 
trend in  the  degree  to  which  the  National  Museum  exhibits  and  col- 
lections are  being  viewed  and  studied  by  the  people  even  in  wartime. 
August  1943  and  April  1944  saw  the  largest  number  of  visitors,  162,016 
and  164,221,  respectively,  being  recorded  for  these  months.  The 
attendance  in  the  four  Smithsonian  and  Museum  buildings  was  as 
follows :  Smithsonian  building,  301,212 ;  Arts  and  Industries  building, 
566,496 ;  Natural  History  building,  493,239 ;  Aircraft  building,  171,818. 

Since  a  considerable  proportion  of  the  visitors  consisted  of  men  and 
women  in  the  armed  forces,  special  services  were  proffered  this  group 
and  every  effort  was  made  to  enhance  their  visits.  In  the  Natural 
History  building  a  program  of  Sunday  docent  service,  for  guiding 


26  ANNUAL  REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

parties  through  the  Museum,  was  inaugurated.  A  number  of  women 
U.  S.  O.  volunteers  were  especially  trained  to  act  as  guides,  and  the 
"tours"  conducted  by  them  have  proved  very  popular.  During  the 
period  covering  the  last  35  Sundays  of  the  fiscal  year,  over  5,000  mem- 
bers of  the  military  personnel  took  advantage  of  this  guide  service. 

Publications  and  printing. — The  sum  of  $30,000  was  available  dur- 
ing the  fiscal  year  for  the  publication  of  the  Annual  Report,  Bulletins, 
and  Proceedings  of  the  National  Museum.  Twenty  publications  were 
issued — the  Annual  Report,  4  Bulletins,  1  Contribution  from  the 
National  Herbarium,  and  14  Proceedings  papers.  A  list  of  these 
publications  is  given  in  the  report  on  publications,  appendix  10. 

The  distribution  of  volumes  and  separates  to  libraries  and  individ- 
uals on  the  regular  mailing  lists  aggregated  40,817  copies. 

Special  exhibits. — Seventeen  special  exhibits  were  held  during  the 
year  in  the  foyer  and  adjacent  space  of  the  Natural  History  building, 
under  the  auspices  of  various  educational,  scientific,  recreational,  and 
governmental  groups.  In  addition  the  department  of  engineering  and 
industries  arranged  28  special  displays — 5  in  engineering,  12  in  graphic 
arts,  and  11  in  photography. 

CHANGES  IN  ORGANIZATION  AND   STAFF 

There  was  no  major  change  in  the  organization  of  the  National 
Museum,  but  some  work  has  been  done  in  allocating  positions  to  their 
proper  grades  under  the  Classification  Act  on  the  basis  of  the  duties 
of  each  position. 

Honorary  appointments  were  conferred  on  Maj.  Edward  A.  Gold- 
man as  associate  in  zoology  on  August  1,  1943,  Dr.  Floyd  A.  McClure 
as  research  associate  in  botany  on  April  21, 1944,  Dr.  J.  B.  Reeside,  Jr., 
as  custodian  of  Mesozoic  collection  on  June  19,  1944,  and  Clarence  R. 
Shoemaker  as  associate  in  zoology  on  April  1, 1944. 

In  the  department  of  biology,  Dr.  David  H.  Johnson,  associate 
curator,  division  of  mammals,  was  furloughed  for  military  duty  on 
November  15,  1943,  and  Dr.  Richard  E.  Blackwelder,  associate  cura- 
tor, division  of  insects,  was  furloughed  temporarily  for  war  work  on 
August  23,  1943.  Other  changes  were  the  resignation  on  March  22, 
1944,  of  Walter  A.  Weber,  assistant  curator,  division  of  birds;  the 
retirement  of  Clarence  R.  Shoemaker,  associate  curator,  division  of 
marine  invertebrates,  and  Julian  S.  Warmbath,  taxidermist.  The 
latter  vacancy  was  filled  by  the  promotion  of  Watson  M.  Perrygo  on 
December  9,  1943.  In  the  section  of  diatoms,  Paul  S.  Conger  was 
appointed  associate  curator  on  March  9,  1944. 

In  the  department  of  geology.  Dr.  G.  Arthur  Cooper  was  advanced 
to  the  curatorship  of  the  division  of  invertebrate  paleontology  and 


REPORT   OF   THE    SECRETARY  27 

paleobotany  on  October  2, 1943,  to  succeed  Dr.  Charles  E.  Resser,  who 
died  on  September  18,  1943.  Miss  Marion  F.  "Willoughby,  scientific 
aid,  transferred  to  the  United  States  Geological  Survey  on  October 
31,  1943. 

In  the  department  of  engineering  and  industries,  Dr.  A.  J.  Olmsted, 
for  a  number  of  years  chief  photographer  of  the  Museum,  was  relieved 
of  the  duties  of  that  position  on  November  9, 1943,  and  was  appointed 
associate  curator  in  charge  of  the  section  of  photography,  Gurney  I. 
Hightower  succeeded  Dr.  Olmsted  in  charge  of  the  photographic 
laboratory  on  January  9, 1944,  with  Floyd  B.  Kestner  as  assistant. 

Other  changes  in  the  administrative  staff  during  the  year  were  the 
retirement  of  Royal  H.  Trembly,  superintendent  of  buildings  and 
labor,  who  was  succeeded  by  Lawrence  L.  Oliver  on  December  10, 1943. 
Anthony  W.  Wilding  was  appointed  property  officer  on  December  21, 

1943.  The  vacancy  created  by  the  death  of  Miss  Helen  A.  Olmsted, 
personnel  officer,  was  filled  by  the  appointment  of  Mrs.  Bertha  T. 
Carwithen  on  February  1,  1944;  and  Mrs.  Margaret  L.  Vinton  was 
appointed  personnel  assistant  on  March  9, 1944. 

Employees  furloughed  for  military  duty  during  the  year  were  as 
follows :  Robert  L.  Bradshaw,  on  October  12,  1943 ;  Joseph  R.  Burke, 
Jr.,  on  October  13,  1943;  John  Carl  Carter,  on  May  5,  1944;  Walter 
McCree,  on  April  3,  1944;  and  David  H.  Johnson  on  November  15, 
1943. 

Ernest  Desantis  returned  to  duty  from  military  furlough  on  Oc- 
tober 18, 1943. 

Eleven  persons  were  retired,  three  having  reached  retirement  age, 
five  on  account  of  disability,  and  three  by  optional  retirement,  as  fol- 
lows :  For  age,  William  Rice,  laborer,  on  September  30, 1943,  after  15 
years,  3  months  of  service ;  Thomas  J.  Shannon,  guard,  on  April  30, 

1944,  after  18  years,  6  months ;  and  Clarence  R.  Shoemaker,  associate 
curator,  on  March  31,  1944,  with  over  33  years,  4  months  of  service. 
For  disability,  Eugene  C.  Miller,  guard,  on  December  9,  1943,  with  6 
years,  1  month  of  service;  Cecil  R.  Mulnix,  guard,  on  March  31,  1944, 
with  13  years,  7  months  service ;  Arthur  G.  Rodgers,  guard,  on  Novem- 
ber 10,  1943,  with  8  years,  5  months  service ;  Ann  M.  Stokes,  laborer, 
on  October  4,  1943,  with  18  years,  6  months  service;  and  Charles  O. 
Watson,  laborer,  on  April  5,  1944,  with  35  years,  3  months  service. 
By  optional  retirement,  Royal  H.  Trembly,  superintendent  of  build- 
ings and  labor,  November  30, 1943,  with  over  49  years  of  service ;  Bertie 
Turner,  attendant,  on  November  30,  1943,  with  32  years,  6  months 
service ;  and  Julian  S.  Warmbath,  taxidermist,  with  15  years  of  service. 

Through  death,  the  Museum  lost  during  the  year  five  employees 
from  its  active  roll:  Dr.  Charles  E.  Resser,  curator,  division  of  in- 


28  ANNUAL  REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

vertebrate  paleontology  and  paleobotany,  on  September  18, 1943,  after 

29  years,  5  months ;  Miss  Helen  A.  Olmsted,  personnel  officer,  on  Jan- 
uary 11,  1944,  after  43  years,  9  months;  Benjamin  F.  Coe,  guard,  on 
March  1,  1944,  after  25  years,  5  months ;  George  E.  Matheny,  guard, 
on  July  20,  1943,  after  24  years,  6  months;  and  Cornelius  S.  Jones, 
laborer,  on  March  17, 1944,  after  32  years,  6  months. 

From  its  honorary  staff,  the  Museum  lost  by  death  on  September  5, 
1943,  Dr.  Ales  Hrdlicka,  associate  in  anthropology  since  April  1, 1942 ; 
and  on  February  22,  1944,  Dr.  E.  O.  Ulrich,  associate  in  paleontology 
since  June  9, 1914.  ' 

KespectfuUy  submitted. 

Alexander  Wetmore,  Director. 
The  Secretary, 

Smithsonian  Institution. 


APPENDIX  2 
EEPORT  ON  THE  NATIONAL  GALLERY  OF  ART 

Sir  :  I  have  the  honor  to  submit,  on  behalf  of  the  Board  of  Trustees 
of  the  National  Gallery  of  Art,  the  seventh  annual  report  of  the  Board 
covering  its  operations  for  the  fiscal  year  ended  June  30,  1944.  This 
report  is  made  pursuant  to  the  provisions  of  the  Act  of  March  24, 1937 
(50  Stat.  51),  as  amended  by  the  public  resolution  of  April  13,  1939 
(Pub.  Res.  No.  9, 76th  Cong.) . 

ORGANIZATION  AND  STAFF 

During  the  fiscal  year  ended  June  30, 1944,  the  Board  was  comprised 
of  the  Chief  Justice  of  the  United  States,  Harlan  F.  Stone ;  the  Sec- 
retary of  State,  Cordell  Hull;  the  Secretary  of  the  Treasury,  Henry 
Morgenthau,  Jr.;  and  the  Secretary  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution, 
Dr.  C.  G.  Abbot,  ex  officio ;  and  five  general  trustees,  David  K.  E.  Bruce, 
Ferdinand  Lammot  Belin,  Duncan  Phillips,  Samuel  H.  Kress,  and 
Chester  Dale.  Mr.  Dale  was  elected  as  general  trustee  on  November  1, 
1943,  to  succeed  Joseph  E.  Widener,  who  died  on  October  26,  1943. 

At  its  annual  meeting,  held  on  February  14,  1944,  the  Board  re- 
elected David  K.  E.  Bruce,  President,  and  Ferdinand  Lammot  Belin, 
Vice  President,  to  serve  for  the  ensuing  year.  The  executive  officers 
continuing  in  office  during  the  year  were : 

Huntington  Cairns,  Secretary-Treasurer. 
David  B.  Finley,  Director. 
Harry  A.  McBride,  Administrator. 
Huntington  Cairns,  General  Counsel. 
John  Walker,  Chief  Curator. 
Macgill  James,  Assistant  Director. 

Donald  D.  Shepard  continued  to  serve  during  the  year  as  Adviser  to 
the  Board. 

During  the  year  E.  Roy  Bergholz  was  appointed  as  Assistant  Treas- 
urer to  succeed  Charles  Zinsner,  who  resigned ;  John  A.  Gilmore  was 
appointed  as  Assistant  General  Counsel ;  Hanns  Swarzenski  was  ap- 
pointed Curator  of  Sculpture ;  and  Porter  A.  McCray  was  appointed 
Chief  of  the  Inter-American  Office. 

The  Board  of  Trustees  during  the  year  was  authorized  and  directed 
by  the  Foreign  Funds  Control  of  the  United  States  Treasury  Depart- 
ment, and  at  the  request  of  the  State  Department,  to  assume  custodian- 

29 


30  ANNUAL  REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

ship  of  all  works  of  art  and  exhibition  material  sent  to  the  United 
States  under  the  auspices  of  the  former  French  Government  for  exhi- 
bition purposes  at  various  places  in  the  United  States,  including  the 
World's  Fairs  at  New  York,  N.  Y.,  and  San  Francisco,  Calif. 

On  August  20,  1943,  The  American  Commission  for  the  Protection 
and  Salvage  of  Artistic  and  Historic  Monuments  in  War  Areas  was 
organized,  and  several  executive  officers  of  the  Gallery  were  appointed 
to  serve  as  officers  of  the  Commission.  The  headquarters  of  the  Com- 
mission are  located  in  the  Gallery  building. 

In  March  1944  the  Gallery,  at  the  request  of  the  State  Department, 
established  the  Inter- American  Office.  This  office  was  created  to  act 
as  the  official  Government  clearinghouse  for  the  exchange  of  informa- 
tion concerning  art  activities  in  the  American  Kepublics. 

The  three  standing  committees  of  the  Board,  provided  for  in  the 
bylaws,  as  constituted  at  the  annual  meeting  of  the  Board,  held  Febru- 
ary 14, 1944,  were : 

EXECUTIVE  COMMITTEE 

Chief  Justice  of  the  United  States,  Harlan  F.  Stone,  chairman. 

David  K.  E.  Bruce,  vice  chairman. 

Secretary  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution,  Dr.  C.  G.  Abbot. 

Ferdinand  Lammot  Belin. 

Duncan  Phillips. 

FINANCE  COMMITTEE 

Secretary  of  the  Treasury,  Henry  Morgenthau,  Jr.,  chairman. 
David  K.  E.  Bruce,  vice  chairman. 
Secretary  of  State,  Cordell  Hull. 
Ferdinand  Lammot  Belin. 
Samuel  H.  Kress. 

ACQUISITIONS   COMMITTEE 

David  K.  E.  Bruce,  chairman. 

Ferdinand  Lammot  Belin,  vice  chairman. 

Duncan  Phillips. 

Chester  Dale. 

David  E.  Finley,  ex  ofBcio. 

The  permanent  Government  positions  of  the  Gallery  are  filled 
from  the  registers  of  the  United  States  Civil  Service  Commission  or 
with  its  approval.  On  June  30, 1944,  the  permanent  Government  staff 
numbered  243  employees.  Since  the  beginning  of  the  war,  58  mem- 
bers of  the  staff,  or  approximately  25  percent,  have  entered  the  armed 
services. 

The  operation  and  maintenance  of  the  Gallery  building  and  grounds 
and  the  protection  of  the  works  of  art  have  been  continued  through 
the  fiscal  year  1944  at  as  high  a  standard  as  possible  with  the  reduced 
staffs  now  available.  These  staffs  have  been  cut  to  a  minimum  owing 
to  the  fact  that  th»  Gallery  has  desired  to  reduce  expenditures  and 


REPORT   OF   THE    SECRETARY  31 

the  use  of  manpower  to  the  greatest  possible  extent  durmg  the  war 
period.  That  it  has  been  possible  to  maintain  a  fairly  high  standard 
is  due  solely  to  the  intensive  efforts,  efficiency,  and  interest  of  the  main- 
tenance staff  and  the  guard  force.  However,  it  will  be  necessary 
to  increase  both  the  maintenance  staff  and  the  guard  force  as  soon 
us  possible  in  order  adequately  to  operate  and  maintain  the  Gallery 
building  and  grounds  and  to  enable  the  Trustees  to  carry  out  their 
duties  in  the  protection  and  care  of  the  works  of  art  in  the  Gallery's 
collections. 

APPROPRIATIONS 

For  salaries  and  expenses  for  the  upkeep  and  operation  of  the  Na- 
tional Gallery  of  Art,  the  protection  and  care  of  works  of  art  acquired 
by  the  Board,  and  all  administrative  expenses  incident  thereto  as 
authorized  by  the  Act  of  March  24,  1937  (50  Stat.  51),  and  amended 
by  public  resolution  of  April  13,  1939  (Pub.  Res.  No.  9,  76th  Cong.), 
the  Congress  appropriated  for  the  fiscal  year  ending  June  30,  1944, 
the  sum  of  $623,365.00.  This  amount  includes  the  present  appropria- 
tion of  $541,365.00  and  a  supplementary  deficiency  appropriation 
amounting  to  $82,000,00  for  the  payment  of  "overtime  compensation" 
as  authorized  by  Public  Law  49,  78th  Congress.  From  these  appro- 
priations the  following  expenditures  and  encumbrances  were  incurred : 

EXPENDITUEES  AND  EnCTTMBKANCBS 

Personal  services $510,  665.  00 

Printing  and  binding 4,  047.  22 

Supplies  and  equipment,  etc 103,315.03 

Unencumbered  balance 5, 337.  75 

Total 623,  365.  CO 

In  addition  to  the  above-mentioned  appropriations,  the  Gallery  re- 
ceived $15,932.16  from  the  Federal  Works  Agency,  Public  Buildings 
Administration,  to  cover  expenses  incurred  in  connection  with  the 
special  protection  of  paintings  and  sculpture  evacuated  from  the 
Gallery. 

ATIENDANCE 

During  the  fiscal  year  ended  June  30,  1944,  the  visitors  to  the 
National  Gallery  of  Art  totaled  2,060,071,  the  largest  annual  attendance 
since  the  opening  of  the  Gallery.  This  compares  with  1,508,081  dur- 
ing the  fiscal  year  ended  June  30,  1943,  or  an  increase  of  551,990  or 
36.6  percent.  The  increase  in  popularity  of  the  Gallery  is  evidenced 
by  the  fact  that  the  average  daily  attendance  during  the  fiscal  year 
1944  was  5,659  visitors,  as  compared  with  4,143  for  the  fiscal  year  1943. 
On  Sunday,  December  21, 1943,  there  were  22,248  visitors,  the  greatest 
number  in  any  one  day. 


32  ANNUAL   REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

Contributing  to  the  public's  increasing  interest  in  the  Gallery 
are  the  evening  hours  on  Sunday,  the  special  exhibitions,  particularly 
those  of  wartime  art,  the  Sunday  evening  concerts  without  charge,  and 
the  Servicemen's  Room,  which  provides  a  place  of  relaxation  for  men 
and  women  in  the  armed  services.  Approximately  30  percent  of  the 
visitors  to  the  Gallery  are  men  and  women  in  the  armed  services. 

PUBLIOATIONS 

The  Information  Rooms  in  the  Gallery  continue  to  offer  an  in- 
creasing variety  of  fine,  although  moderately  priced,  colored  repro- 
ductions of  paintings  in  the  Gallery's  collections,  as  well  as  post  cards, 
illustrated  catalogs,  and  a  general  information  booklet  that  is  of 
great  assistance  to  visitors  and  which  may  be  obtained  without  charge. 
With  the  acquisition  of  the  Lessing  J.  liosenwald  collection  of  prints 
and  drawings,  a  large  illustrated  catalog  of  this  collection  and  a  set 
of  32  post-card  reproductions  of  some  of  the  prints  and  drawings  in 
the  collection  have  been  added  to  the  publications  now  available. 

During  the  past  year  there  has  been  a  great  increase  in  the  number 
of  orders  for  the  Gallery's  publications  from  servicemen  overseas,  who 
are  purchasing  color  prints  and  catalogs  for  use  in  recreation  rooms 
at  military  posts  all  over  the  world.  There  has  also  been  an  unusual 
demand  from  public  schools  throughout  the  United  States  for  color 
reproductions  and  text  material  descriptive  of  the  Gallery's  collections. 
These  publications  also  are  in  demand  in  the  Latin-American 
republics. 

WORKS  OF  ART  STORED  IN  PLACE  OF  SAFEKEEPING 

Early  in  January  1942  a  limited  number  of  fragile  and  irreplace- 
able works  of  art  in  the  Gallery's  collections  were  removed  to  a  place 
of  greater  safety.  These  works,  stored  in  a  place  adapted  for  the  pur- 
pose, have  since  been  under  constant  guard  by  members  of  the  Gal- 
lery's guard  force  and  under  supervision  and  inspection  by  a  member 
of  the  curatorial  staff  of  the  Gallery. 

ACQUISITIONS 
GIFTS  OF  PRINTS  AND  DRAWINGS 

The  Board  of  Trustees,  on  December  4,  1943,  accepted  six  etchings 
from  David  Keppel,  five  by  Piranesi  and  one  by  Ugo  de  Carpi.  Also 
on  December  4  the  Board  accepted  a  gift  of  two  drawings,  "Seated 
Figure,"  by  Pascin,  and  "Head  of  a  Girl,"  by  Puvis  de  Chavannes, 
from  Lessing  J.  Rosenwald.  On  May  20, 1944,  the  Board  accepted  an 
additional  gift  of  approximately  196  prints  and  drawings  from  Mr. 


REPORT   OF   THE    SECRETARY  33 

Kosenwald.  The  Index  of  American  Design,  consisting  of  22,000  or 
more  drawings  and  water  colors,  which  was  accepted  by  the  Board  on 
June  7, 1943,  from  the  Works  Progress  Administration,  was  received  in 
the  Gallery  during  the  fiscal  year  1944. 

GIFTS   OF  PAINTINGS 

On  December  4, 1943,  the  Board  of  Trustees  accepted  eight  paintings 
from  Lessing  J.  Rosenwald,  viz : 

Title  Artist 

The  Stockade Forain. 

The   Petitioner Forain. 

Artist  and  Model Forain. 

.     Behind  the  Scenes Forain. 

Feast  of  the  Gods Daumier. 

In  Chui'ch Daumier. 

Peach   Blossom Whistler. 

Arnold  Hannay Whistler. 

On  the  same  date  it  also  accepted  the  painting  entitled  "Breezing  Up," 
by  Winslow  Homer,  from  the  W.  L.  and  May  T.  Mellon  Foundation. 
On  December  18, 1943,  the  Board  accepted  the  portrait  of  "Commodore 
John  Rodgers,"  by  John  Wesley  Jarvis,  from  the  Misses  Christina  and 
Nannie  R.  Macomb.  On  February  14,  1944,  the  Board  accepted  two 
paintings,  "The  Stream,"  by  Courbet,  and  "The  Eel  Gatherers,"  by 
Corot,  from  Mr.  and  Mrs.  P.  H.  B.  Frelinghuysen.  From  the  children 
of  the  late  Rt.  Rev.  William  Lawrence,  the  Board  on  the  same  date 
accepted  the  painting  entitled  "Amos  Lawrence,"  by  Chester  Harding ; 
and  on  May  20,  1944,  the  Board  accepted  the  painting  of  "Horace 
Binney,"  by  Gilbert  Stuart,  as  a  gift  from  Dr.  Horace  Binney. 

SALE  OR  EXCHANGE  OF  WORKS  OF  ART 

During  the  year  no  works  of  art  belonging  to  the  Gallery  were  sold 
or  exchanged. 

LOAN  or  WORKS  OF  ART  TO  THE  GALLERY 

During  the  year  the  following  works  of  art  were  received  on  loan : 
From  Mrs.  John  C.  Clark  of  New  York,  N.  Y. : 

69  etchings  by  Pennell. 
From  Mrs.  Gary  Grant,  Pacific  Palisades,  Calif. : 

Titl^  Artist 

A  Fete  Day,  Venice Canaletto. 

The  Courtyard,  Doge's  Palace,  with  the  Procession  of  the  Papal 

Legate Canaletto. 


34  ANNUAL   REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

LOAN    OF    WORKS    OF    ART    BY    THE    GALLERY 

In  the  fiscal  year  ended  June  30,  1944,  the  Gallery  loaned  the  fol- 
lowing five  paintings  to  the  Lyman  Allyn  Museum,  New  London, 
Conn.,  for  exhibition  purposes : 

From  the  collection  of  the  National  Gallery  of  Art : 

Title  Artist 

Self  Portrait Benjamin  West. 

Major  Tliomas  Biddle Thomas  Sully  and  Thomas  Wilcocks  Sully. 

From  the  loan  collection  of  The  A.  W.  Mellon  Educational  and 
Charitable  Trust: 

Title  Artist 

Anna  Cora  Mowatt  ( ?) attributed  to  John  James  Audubon. 

Gilbert  Stuart's  Family  (?) attributed  to  Washington  Allston. 

Peter  R.  Livingston  ( ?) attributed  to  Abraham  Delanoy. 

LOANED    WORKS    OF    ART    RETURNED 

During  the  year  the  following  works  of  art  lent  to  the  Gallery  by 
Chester  Dale  of  New  York,  N.  Y.,  were  returned  to  him : 

Title  Artist 

Crouching  Lion Delacroix. 

Nude  Woman  Seated  on  a  Bed Forain. 

Woman  Seated  on  a  Chair Forain. 

Monsieur  Louis  Roy Gauguin. 

Cottage  Interior  with  Woman  and  Little  Girl Millet. 

EXHIBrnONS 

The  following  exhibitions  were  held  at  the  National  Gallery  of  Art 
during  the  fiscal  year  ended  June  30, 1944 : 

Group  of  political  caricatures  by  French  and  British  artists,  from 
the  Lessing  J.  Rosenwald  collection,  from  July  31  to  September  5, 
1943. 

Nineteenth-  and  twentieth-century  drawings  and  water  colors  from 
French  museums  and  private  collections  (2d  showing)  from  August 
8  to  September  5, 1943. 

"Art  for  Bonds,"  by  American  artists  and  sponsored  by  the  Treasury 
Department's  National  Committee  of  Honorary  Patrons,  in  connec- 
tion with  the  Treasury's  Third  War  Loan  Campaign,  from  September 
12  to  October  10, 1943. 

Marine  water  colors  and  drawings  by  officers  and  enlisted  men  of 
the  U.  S.  Marine  Corps,  through  cooperation  of  the  Division  of  Public 
Relations,  U.  S.  Marine  Corps,  from  September  12  to  October  10, 1943. 

Navaho  pollen  and  sand  paintings.  Selections  from  a  group  of 
paintings  executed  by  Miss  Maud  Oakes,  and  accompanied  by  a  group 


REPORT   OF   THE    SECRETARY  35 

collected  by  Miss  Mary  Wheelwright,  from  October  17  to  November 
14, 1943. 

Paintings  of  naval  aviation  by  American  artists.  From  the  Abbott 
Laboratories  and  in  cooperation  with  the  U.  S.  Navy,  from  November 
21  to  December  12, 1943. 

Prints  and  drawings  from  the  Rosenwald  collection.  The  first 
general  exhibition  of  prints  and  drawings  from  the  Lessing  J.  Rosen- 
wald collection,  comprising  a  group  of  selections  from  the  fifteenth 
century  to  the  present  time,  from  December  19,  1943,  to  February  13, 
1944. 

Etchings  and  lithographs  by  Goya  from  the  Gallery's  collection, 
from  January  23  to  February  13, 1944. 

"The  Army  at  War,"  paintings  and  drawings  by  American  artists 
at  Army  bases  throughout  the  world.  Exhibition  lent  by  the  War 
Department  to  the  Treasury  Department,  and  shown  at  the  National 
Gallery  of  Art  from  February  20  to  March  19,  1944. 

Index  of  American  Design.  First  exhibition  of  a  selection  of  draw- 
ings and  water  colors  (from  the  Metal  Work  and  Hooked  Rug  sec- 
tions), from  March  26  to  April  23, 1944. 

Nanteuil  engraved  portraits.  A  selection  of  35  of  Nanteuil's  works, 
from  the  Lessing  J.  Rosenwald  collection,  from  March  26  to  June  21, 
1944. 

British  war  paintings.  An  exhibition  of  official  British  war  paint- 
ings, recording  military  operations  and  civilian  activities  in  wartime 
Britain.  Lent  by  the  British  Ministry  of  Information,  from  April  23 
to  May  20,  1944. 

Rembrandt  prints  and  drawings.  A  survey  of  the  work  of  the  great 
Dutch  master,  selected  from  the  Rosenwald,  Widener,  Rice,  and 
Nowell-Usticke  collections,  from  April  30  to  June  21,  1944. 

TRAVELING  EXHIBITIONS 

During  the  fiscal  year  ended  June  30, 1944,  the  following  drawings, 
water  colors,  and  prints  were  placed  on  exhibition : 

INDEX    OF    AMERICAN    DESIGN 

Exhibition  made  up  from  the  documented  drawings  and  water  colors  con- 
tained in  the  Index  of  American  Design.  Six  drawings,  together  with  data  sheets, 
for  use  in  an  Exhibition  of  Maine  Art,  opening  April  14,  1944,  were  shipped  to 
Colby  College,  Waterville,  Me.,  and  were  returned  to  the  Gallery  June  15,  1944. 

Ninety-five  duplicate  data  sheets  of  Texas  material  contained  in  the  Index, 
from  which  to  make  a  selection  of  photographs,  were  shipped  to  the  University 
of  Texas,  Austin,  Tex.,  on  June  27,  1944. 

EOSENWALD    PRINTS 

A  traveling  exhibition,  consisting  of  35  prints  from  the  Lessing  J.  Rosenwald 
collection.    Sent  on  May  6,  1944,  to  Brooks  Memorial  Art  Gallery,  Memphis, 


36  ANNUAL  REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

Tenn. ;  then  to  the  Virginia  Museum  of  Fine  Arts,  Richmond,  Va.,  on  June  12, 
1944,  from  where  it  will  be  returned  to  the  National  Gallery  of  Art  about  August  1, 
to  be  held  for  further  bookings. 

VARIOUS  GALLERY   ACTIVITIES 

In  the  period  from  July  1,  1943,  to  June  30, 1944,  a  total  of  53  con- 
certs were  given,  of  which  52  were  in  the  East  Garden  Court  on  Sun- 
day evenings  and  one  on  Saturday  afternoon  in  the  Auditorium.  The 
concerts  were  free  to  the  public,  and  were  attended  to  capacity.  The 
National  Gallery  Sinfonietta,  under  the  direction  of  Kichard  Bales, 
played  13  concerts.  An  American  Festival  of  works  of  native  com- 
posers was  held  during  March  and  April,  1944,  when  five  perform- 
ances were  given. 

The  Sunday  night  suppers  for  servicemen  have  been  continued 
during  the  year,  approximately  35  being  served  each  Sunday  in  the 
cafeteria  at  the  Gallery.  Funds  to  defray  the  cost  of  the  suppers  were 
contributed  by  members  of  the  staff  and  by  friends  of  the  Gallery. 

A  total  of  195  special  permits  to  copy  paintings  in  the  National 
Gallery  of  Art  were  issued  during  the  fiscal  year  1944,  and  72  special 
permits  were  issued  during  the  same  period  to  photograph  paintings. 

CURATORIAL  DEPARTMENT 

During  the  year  the  work  of  the  curatorial  department  consisted 
mainly  of  installing  a  large  number  of  gifts  and  additional  works  of 
art  from  the  Widener  collection;  arranging  17  temporary  exhibitions; 
cataloging  paintings,  sculpture,  and  prints;  assisting  the  American 
Commission  for  the  Protection  and  Salvage  of  Artistic  and  Historic 
Monuments  in  War  Areas  by  providing  information  on  damaged  and 
looted  works  of  art  in  war  areas;  and  the  assumption  of  additional 
responsibility  resulting  from  the  appointment  of  the  Trustees  of  the 
Gallery  as  custodian  of  Avorks  of  art  and  exhibition  material  sent  to 
this  country  under  the  auspices  of  the  former  French  Government. 

Two  publications,  "Great  American  Paintings  from  Smibert  to 
Bellows,"  edited  by  John  Walker  and  Macgill  James,  and  "Master- 
pieces of  Painting  from  the  National  Gallery  of  Art,"  edited  by  Hunt- 
ington Cairns  and  John  Walker,  were  prepared  with  the  assistance  of 
members  of  the  curatorial  department.  One  book,  two  catalogs,  and 
three  pamphlets  were  issued  by  the  curatorial  and  educational  depart- 
ments in  collaboration.  Six  members  of  the  staff  contributed  eight 
articles  to  several  periodicals  and  pamphlet  series. 

During  the  past  year  approximately  622  works  of  art  were  sub- 
mitted to  the  acquisitions  conmiittee  (the  largest  individual  gift  being 
490  prints  and  drawings  to  be  added  to  the  Rosenwald  collection)  with 
recommendations  regarding  their  acceptability  for  the  collections  of 


REPORT   OF   THE    SECRETARY  37 

the  National  Gallery  of  Art;  45  private  collections  were  viewed  in 
connection  with  offers  to  the  Gallery  of  gifts  or  loans ;  94  consultations 
were  held  concerning  139  works  of  art  brought  to  the  Gallery  for 
expert  opinion;  and  58  written  replies  were  made  to  inquiries  in- 
volving research  in  the  history  of  art. 

RESTORATION  AND  REPADR  OF  WORKS  OF  ART 

With  the  authorization  of  the  Board,  and  the  approval  of  the  Direc- 
tor and  Chief  Curator,  the  necessary  restoration  and  repair  of  paint- 
ings and  sculpture  in  the  Gallery's  collection  were  made  by  Stephen  S. 
Pichetto,  Consultant  Restorer  to  the  Gallery.  All  the  work  was  com- 
pleted in  the  Restorer's  studio  in  the  Gallery  with  the  exception  of 
several  paintings  that  required  restoration  before  shipment  to  Wash- 
ington, and  one  where  the  work  was  of  such  a  delicate  and  complicated 
nature  that  it  was  necessary  for  the  work  to  be  done  in  Mr.  Pichetto's 
New  York  studio. 

EDUCATIONAL  PROGRAM 

More  than  72,000  people  attended  the  various  programs  conducted 
by  the  educational  department  during  the  year.  The  Gallery  tours 
of  the  collection  attracted  nearly  15,000  people,  while  22,000  attended 
the  "Picture  of  the  Week,"  a  10-minute  discussion  of  a  single  painting 
given  twice  daily  on  Mondays  through  Fridays.  More  than  9,000 
attended  the  regular  lectures  on  special  topics  delivered  by  the  educa- 
tional staff  and  guest  speakers. 

During  the  first  4  months  of  the  fiscal  year,  a  new  project  undertaken 
by  the  educational  department  was  that  of  an  automatic  program 
(no  speaker)  employing  2x2  Kodachromes  and  titles  on  slides,  en- 
titled "What  To  See  in  the  National  Gallery  of  Art — A  Suggestion 
for  Your  First  Visit."  This  program  was  accompanied  by  recorded 
music,  and  more  than  15,000  people  attended. 

LIBRARY 

The  most  important  contribution  to  the  library  during  the  year  was 
the  art  library  of  the  late  Joseph  E.  Widener.  This  gift  consisted  of 
1,373  books  and  579  periodicals. 

As  a  gift  from  Solomon  R.  Guggenheim,  the  library  received  the 
Richter  Archives,  consisting  of  over  60,000  photographs  and  reproduc- 
tions. Mr.  Guggenheim  also  gave  975  photographs  of  art  objects  in 
the  Solomon  R.  Guggenheim  collection.  A  number  of  books  on  works 
of  art  were  also  added  to  the  library  collection  through  funds  donated 
by  Capt.  Paul  Mellon. 


38  ANNUAL   REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

PHOTOGRAPHIC  DEPARTMENT 

During  the  fiscal  year  1944,  the  photographic  laboratory  of  the 
Gallery  made  6,037  black-and-white  prints  and  510  black-and-white 
and  1,117  color  slides. 

OTHER  GIFTS 

In  the  fiscal  year  ended  June  30, 1944,  gifts  of  books  on  works  of  art 
and  related  material  were  made  to  the  Gallery  library  by  the  Honor- 
able Solomon  Bloom,  Mrs.  Juliana  Force,  Mrs.  Victor  Harris,  Macgill 
James,  Pvt.  Lincoln  Kirstein,  Leander  McCormick-Goodhart,  Capt. 
Paul  Mellon,  Lamont  Moore,  John  H.  Morgan,  W.  Francklyn  Paris, 
Duncan  Phillips,  and  Maj.  Ray  L.  Trautman.  Gifts  of  money  were 
made  to  the  Gallery  during  the  year  by  Mrs.  Florence  Becker,  David 
E.  Finley,  Mrs.  Deering  Howe,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Macgill  James,  Life 
Magazine,  Mrs.  H.  A.  McBride,  Capt.  Paul  Mellon,  Donald  D.  Shep- 
ard.  Col.  and  Mrs.  O.  J.  Troster,  and  the  late  Joseph  E.  Widener. 

AUDIT  OF  PRIVATE  FUNDS  OF  THE  GALLERY 

An  audit  is  being  made  of  the  private  funds  of  the  Gallery  for  the 
year  ended  June  30,  1944,  by  Price,  Waterhouse  &  Company,  public 
accountants,  and  the  certificate  of  that  company  on  its  examination 
of  the  accounting  records  maintained  for  such  funds  will  be  submitted 
to  the  Gallery. 

Respectfully  submitted. 

F.  L.  Belin,  Acting  President. 
The  Secretary, 

/Smithsonian  Institution. 


APPENDIX  3 

KEPORT  ON  THE  NATIONAL  COLLECTION  OF  FINE  ARTS 

Sib  :  I  have  the  honor  to  submit  the  following  report  on  the  activities 
of  the  National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts  for  the  fiscal  year  ended  June 
30,1944: 

APPROPRIATIONS 

For  the  administration  of  the  National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts  by 
the  Smithsonian  Institution,  including  compensation  of  necessary  em- 
ployees, purchase  of  books  of  reference  and  periodicals,  traveling 
expenses,  and  other  necessary  incidental  expenses,  $17,486  was  allot- 
ted, of  which  $6,364.74  was  expended  in  connection  with  the  care  and 
maintenance  of  the  Freer  Gallery  of  Art,  a  unit  of  the  National  Collec- 
tion of  Fine  Arts.  The  balance  was  spent  for  the  care  and  upkeep 
of  the  National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts,  nearly  all  of  this  sum  being 
required  for  the  payment  of  salaries,  traveling  expenses,  purchase 
of  books  and  periodicals,  and  necessary  disbursements  for  the  care 
of  the  collection. 

THE  SMITHSONIAN  ART  COMMISSION 

Owing  to  crowded  transportation  conditions  and  lack  of  proper 
hotel  facilities,  it  was  decided  to  omit  again  the  December  annual 
meeting  of  the  Smithsonian  Art  Commission.  Several  proffered  gifts 
of  art  works  have  been  deposited  with  the  National  Collection  of  Fine 
Arts  to  be  passed  upon  at  the  next  meeting  of  the  Commission. 

The  Commission  lost  one  member  by  death  during  the  year.  Dr. 
Frederick  P.  Keppel,  a  member  of  the  Commission  since  1932,  died 
September  8,  1943. 

THE  CATHERINE  WAXDEN  MTER  FUND 

Four  miniatures,  water  color  on  ivory,  were  acquired  from  the  fund 
established  through  the  bequest  of  the  late  Catherine  Walden  Myer, 
as  follows : 

42.  "Charles  Carroll,"  by  Henry  Inman  (1801-1846)  ;  from  Mrs.  Dora  Lee 
Curtis,  Arlington,  Va. 

43.  "William  E.  Dickson,"  by  Rembrandt  Peale  (1778-1860)  ;  from  Mrs.  J.  J. 
Hooper,  Washington,  D.  C. 

619830—45' 4  39 


40  ANNUAL   REPORT    SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

44.  "Katherine  Douglas  Dickson,"  by  Raphael  Peale  (1774-1825)  ;  from  Mrs. 
J.  J.  Hooper,  Washington,  D.  C. 

45.  "British  Officer,"  by  Alfred  T.  Agate  (1812-1846)  ;  from  Miss  Elizabeth  A. 
DuHamel,  Washington,  D.  C. 

LOANS  ACCEPTED 

A  miniature,  "Otto,  Count  de  Mosloy,"  by  Charles  Willson  Peale, 
1779,  was  lent  by  Dr.  L.  P.  Shippen  on  September  24, 1943. 

An  oil  painting,  "Portrait  of  Mrs.  Stephen  Decatur,  nee  Susan 
Wheeler  (1776-1860),"  by  Gilbert  Stuart  (1755-1828),  and  four 
crayon  drawings  on  paper,  "Portrait  of  Ann  Decatur  Pine,"  "Portrait 
of  Capt.  James  Mcl^ight,"  "Portrait  of  Capt.  Stephen  Decatur,  Sr.," 
and  "Portrait  of  Ann  Pine  McKnight  Decatur,"  by  Saint-Memin 
(1770-1852) ,  were  lent  by  Mrs.  William  F.  Machold,  nee  Sarah  Morris, 
on  November  22,  1943. 

Thirty  Chinese  jade  ornaments  were  lent  anonymously  on  March  1, 
1944. 

A  miniature,  "Col.  Nathaniel  Darby,"  by  an  unknown  artist,  was 
lent  by  Dr.  L.  P.  Shippen  on  March  25, 1944. 

Two  miniatures,  "John  Church  Hamilton,"  and  "Unknown  Lady," 
by  Alfred  T.  Agate  (1812-1846),  were  lent  by  Miss  Elizabeth  A. 
DuHamel  on  April  7,  1944. 

A  miniature,  "William  Parsons,  2nd,  of  Gloucester,  Mass.,"  by 
Washington  Blanchard  (ac.  1831-43,  Boston),  was  lent  by  Mrs.  Alba 
Walling  on  May  18,  1944. 

An  oil  painting,  "Portrait  of  Lt.  Gen.  Mark  W.  Clark,"  by  M.  Arnold 
Nash,  was  lent  by  Mrs.  Mark  W.  Clark  on  June  7, 1944. 

LOANS  TO  OTHER  MUSEUMS  AND  ORGANIZATIONS 

The  following  13  paintings  were  lent  to  the  Civilian  Medical  Di- 
vision, Office  of  the  Secretary  of  War,  Dr.  F.  C.  Smith,  Medical  Di- 
rector, Room  1  E  356,  Pentagon  Building,  on  July  21,  1943,  with  the 
understanding  that  they  can  be  recalled  at  any  time. 

"Street  Scene  in  Ajmere,"  by  William  S.  Bagdatopoulos. 

"Peshawar  City  from  the  Fort,"   by  William  S.  Bagdatopoulos 

"Peachbloom,"  by  Alice  Pike  Barney. 

"Landscape  with  Pond,"  by  John  L.  Bennett. 

"The  Woodland  Way,"  by  William  Baxter  Closson. 

"Joyous  Childhood,"  by  William  Baxter  Closson. 

"Near  the  Ocean,"  by  Robert  Swain  Gifford. 

"On  the  Lagoon,  Venice,"  by  Robert  Swain  Gifford. 

"Landscape  with  Windmill,"  by  E.  Landseer  Harris. 

"Great  Silas  at  Night,"  by  Robert  C.  Minor. 

"The  Brook,"  by  Clinton  Ogilvie. 

"The  Patriarchs,  Zion  National  Park,"  by  Gunnar  Widforss.     , 

"The  Artist's  Children,"  by  John  Wood. 


I 


REPORT   OF   THE    SECRETARY  41 

A  marble  statue,  "Greek  Slave,"  by  Hiram  Powers  (without  the 
pedestal),  was  lent  to  the  Metropolitan  Museum  of  Art,  New  York 
City,  for  an  exhibition  "The  Greek  Revival  in  the  United  States," 
November  8, 1943,  to  March  1, 1944.     (Returned  March  7,  1944.) 

Two  oil  paintings,  "Cliffs  of  the  Upper  Colorado  River,  Wymoing 
Territory,"  by  Thomas  Moran,  and  "Fired  On,"  by  Frederic  Reming- 
ton, were  lent  to  The  Museum  of  Modern  Art,  New  York  City,  for  an 
exhibition  of  "Romantic  Painting  in  America,"  November  IT  through 
February  6, 1944.     (Returned  February  18,  1944.) 

An  oil  painting,  "Thomas  A.  Edison  Listening  to  his  First  Per- 
fected Phonograph,"  by  Col.  A.  A.  Anderson,  was  lent  to  the  Depart- 
ment of  Engineering  and  Industries,  United  States  National  Museum, 
on  February  11, 1944,  to  be  used  in  connection  with  a  special  exhibition 
commemorating  the  ninety-seventh  birthday  of  Edison.  (Returned 
March  3, 1944.) 

The  following  five  miniatures  were  lent  to  the  Lyman  Allyn  Museum, 
New  London,  Conn.,  to  be  included  in  the  exhibition  of  John  Trum- 
bull and  his  contemporaries  from  March  5  to  April  16,  1944.  (Re- 
turned April  19,  1944.) 

"Mr.  Nichol,"  by  John  Wesley  Jarvis. 
"Elizabeth  Oliphant,"  by  James  Peale. 
"Elizabeth  Knapp,"  by  James  Peale. 
"Robert  Oliphant,"  by  Raphael  Peale. 
"Rubens  Peale,"  by  Raphael  Peale. 

An  oil  painting,  "Portrait  of  Frank  B.  Noyes,"  by  Ossip  Perelma, 
was  lent  to  the  artist  to  be  shown  in  connection  w4th  his  exhibition  of 
portraits  held  at  the  Mayflower  Hotel,  Washington,  D.  C,  May  9  to 
June  1, 1944.     (Returned  June  5,  1944.) 

WITHDRAWALS    BY    OWNERS 

The  following  six  paintings,  lent  by  the  Rev.  F.  Ward  Denys,  were 
withdrawn  November  3, 1943,  by  the  executor  of  his  estate,  the  Ameri- 
can Security  and  Trust  Company. 

"The  Salutation,"  copy  after  Albertinelll. 

"Holy  Family,"  copy  after  Del  Sarto. 

"Gathering  Flowers,"  by  E.  Keyser. 

"St.  Michael  and  the  Dragon,"  copy  after  Guido  Reni. 

"Madonna  and  Child,"  copy  after  Perugino. 

"St.  Anthony  and  the  Lions,"  by  unknown  artist. 

The  bronze  statue  of  Lincoln,  by  Augustus  Saint-Gaudens,  lent  by 
the  estate  of  Mrs.  John  Hay,  was  withdrawn  December  13,  1943. 

An  oil  painting,  "Portrait  of  a  Dutch  Girl,"  by  Jan  Victoors,  was 
withdrawn  December  31,  1943,  by  Mrs.  Feroline  Perkins  Wallach, 
Administratrix  of  the  Estate  of  Cleveland  Perkins. 


42  ANNUAL  REPORT  SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

Two  oil  paintings,  "The  Windmill,"  by  Salomon  Ruysdael,  and 
"Portrait  of  a  Dutch  Girl,"  by  Paul  Moreelse,  were  withdrawn  May 
15,  1944,  by  Mrs.  Feroline  Perkins  Wallach,  Administratrix  of  the 
Estate  of  Cleveland  Perkins. 

THE   HENRY  WARD  RANGER  FUND  PURCHASES 

No.  113  entitled  "Fifteenth  Century  French  Madonna  and  Child," 
by  Harry  W.  Watrous  (1857-1940),  was  assigned  by  the  Council 
of  the  National  Academy  of  Design  to  the  Coker  College  for  Women, 
Hartsville,  S.  C,  on  August  4, 1943. 

THE    NATIONAL   COLLECTION    OF   FINE    ARTS   REFERENCE    LIBRARY 

A  total  of  651  publications  (329  volumes  and  322  pamphlets)  were 
accessioned  during  the  year.  This  number  includes  171  volumes  and 
52  pamphlets  added  by  purchase,  and  60  volumes  of  bound  periodicals. 
The  Parke-Bernet  priced  catalogs  accounted  for  31  volumes  and  45 
pamphlets  among  the  purchases.  The  other  accessions  were  publica- 
tions received  in  exchange  or  as  gifts. 

OTHER  ACTIVITIES 

The  following  paintings  have  been  cleaned  or  restored  since  July  1, 
1943: 

"Portrait  of  Andrew  Jackson,"  by  Thomas  Sully.  Property  of  the  United 
States  Capitol. 

"Portrait  of  Commodore  Oliver  H.  Perry,"  by  John  Wesley  Jarvis  (or  after). 
Property  of  the  division  of  history.  United  States  National  Museum. 

"City  of  St.  Louis,"  by  George  Catlin.  Property  of  the  division  of  ethnology, 
United  States  National  Museum. 

"Ha-won-je-tah,  the  One  Horn.  Sioux  (Dah-Co-Ta),"  by  George  Catlin.  Prop- 
erty of  the  division  of  ethnology.  United  States  National  Museum, 

"View  on  Upper  Missouri — Back  View  of  the  Mandan  Village,"  by  George 
Catlin.    Property  of  the  division  of  ethnology.  United  States  National  Museum. 

"Buffalo  Hunt  under  the  Wolf-skin  Mask,"  by  George  Catlin.  Property  of 
the  division  of  ethnology.  United  States  National  Museum. 

"Portrait  of  Robert  Morris,"  by  Gilbert  Stuart  (or  after),  offered  to  the  Na- 
tional Collection  of  Fine  Arts  by  the  Medical  Society  of  the  District  of  Columbia. 

SPECIAL  EXHIBITIONS 

The  following  exhibitions  were  held : 

October  6  through  31^  19Ji3. — Exhibition  of  13  oil  and  2  varnish 
paintings,  4  water  colors,  1  gouache,  4  pencil  drawings  and  2  etchings, 
by  Ceferino  Palencia,  of  Mexico,  was  sponsored  by  the  Mexican  Am- 
bassador and  the  Pan  American  Union.  A  catalog  was  published  by 
the  Pan  American  Union. 


REPORT   OF   THE    SECRETARY  43 

Decemher  3, 19J^,  through  January  ^,  19U. — Exhibition  of  74  water 
colors  of  Mexico,  by  Walter  B.  Swan,  Omaha,  Nebr.,  was  sponsored 
by  the  Mexican  Ambassador  and  the  Pan  American  Union.  A  catalog 
was  published  by  the  Pan  American  Union. 

December  H,  19^3,  through  January  16,  19Ji4' — Exhibition  of  82 
miniatures  by  52  artists,  by  the  Pennsylvania  Society  of  Miniature 
Painters.  Reprint  of  catalog  was  published  by  the  National  Collec- 
tion of  Fine  Arts. 

January  6  through  30, 19J^. — Exhibition  of  21  water  colors  and  20 
block  prints,  by  Ealph  H.  Avery,  C.  Sp.  (P.),  United  States  Navy. 

Fehruary  Jf.  through  27,  1944. — Joint  exhibition  of  paintings  by 
John  Mix  Stanley  (1814-72),  his  daughter-in-law,  Jane  C.  Stanley 
(1863-1940),  and  her  daughter,  Alice  Stanley  Acheson,  consisting  of 
30  oil  paintings,  3  chromolithographs,  and  7  small  lithographs  by 
John  Mix  Stanley,  a  photograph  of  John  Mix  Stanley,  and  a  book 
entitled  "John  Mix  Stanley  and  his  Indian  Paintings,"  by  W.  Vernon 
Kinietz ;  40  water  colors  by  Jane  C.  Stanley,  and  28  oils  by  Alice  Stan- 
ley Acheson.    A  catalog  was  privately  published. 

April  29  through  May  2,  1944- — Biennial  Art  Exhibition  of  20 
water  colors,  41  oils,  4  etchings,  2  pastels  and  4  pieces  of  sculpture,  by 
the  National  League  of  American  Pen  Women.  A  catalog  was  pri- 
vately published. 

May  2  through  28, 1944. — Exhibilion  of  "Portraits  of  Leading  Amer- 
ican Negro  Citizens,"  8  by  Mrs.  Laura  Wheeler  Waring,  of  Phila- 
delphia, Pa.,  and  15  by  Mrs.  Betsy  Graves  Reyneau,  of  Washington, 
D.C. 

e/tme  2  through  28, 1944- — Exhibition  of  78  mural  paintings  from  the 
caves  of  India,  and  16  paintings  of  modern  India,  by  Sarkis  Katcha- 
dourian,  of  New  York  City.  A  catalog  was  published  by  the  State 
Department. 

PUBLICATIONS 

ToLMAN,  R.  P.  Report  on  the  National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts  for  the  year 
ended  June  30,  1943.  Appendix  3,  Report  of  the  Secretary  of  the  Smith- 
sonian Institution  for  the  year  ended  June  30,  1943,  pp.  35-40. 

Wenley,  a.  G.  Report  on  the  Freer  Gallery  of  Art  for  the  year  ended  June  30, 
1943.  Appendix  4,  Report  of  the  Secretary  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution 
for  the  year  ended  June  30,  1943,  pp.  41-46. 

Respectfully  submitted. 

R.  P.  ToLMAN,  Acting  Director. 
The  Secretakt, 

Smithsonian  Institution. 


APPENDIX  4 

KEPORT  ON  THE  FREER  GALLERY  OF  ART 

Sir:  I  have  the  honor  to  submit  the  twenty-fourth  annual  report 
on  the  Freer  Gallery  of  Art  for  the  year  ended  June  30,  1944 : 

THE  COLIiECnONS 

Additions  to  the  collections  by  purchase  are  as  follows: 

BBONZE 


43.9.  Chinese,  12th  century  B.  C.  Shang  dynasty.  Ceremonial  vessel  of  the  type 
ku.  Light  green  patina  with  patches  of  silvery  gray  inside  and  out ; 
incrustations  of  cuprite  and  native  copper  inside  and  out.  Surface 
design  incised  and  filled  with  a  reddish  pigment.  A  two-character 
inscription  inside  the  foot.    0.293  x  0.167  over  all. 

44.1.  Chinese,  12th  century  B.  C.  Shang  dynasty.  A  ceremonial  vessel  of  the 
type  tsun.  Light  green  patina ;  incrustations  of  cuprite  and  azurite 
inside.  Traces  of  red  and  black  pigments  in  the  design.  A  three-char- 
acter inscription  with  ya  hsing  inside  on  the  bottom.  0.297  x  0.231  over 
all.     (Illustrated.) 

44.3.  Chinese,  Han  dynasty  (206  B.  C.-A.  D.  221).    Mirror.     Surface:  a  black 

patina  with  overlay  of  green  aerugo  on  the  face  and  on  the  rim  of  the 
back.  Decoration  in  low  relief  with  four  characters  around  the  boss. 
Diameter:  0.142. 

44.4.  Chinese,   T'ang  dynasty    (A.   D.   618-907).     Mirror.     Surface:   a  bright 

silvery  patina  with  patches  of  green  aerugo.  Decoration  of  birds,  ani- 
mals, insects,  and  flowers  in  relief.    Diameter :  0.192. 

44.5.  Chinese,  T'ang  dynasty    (A.   D.  618-907).     Mirror.     Surface:   a  silvery 

patina  with  occasional  patches  of  green  aerugo.  Decoration  of  grapes, 
birds,  and  animals,  in  bold  relief.    Diameter :  0.212. 

44.6.  Chinese,  early  Han,  3d  century  B.  C.    Mirror.    Surface :  a  tarnished  silvery 

patina  with  patches  of  green  aerugo.  Decoration :  fine  Incised  back- 
ground with  designs  in  flat  relief  superimposed.     Diameter :  0.100. 

44.7.  Chinese,  Sui  dynasty  (A.  D.  581-618).    Mirror.    Surface:  a  bright  silvery 

patina  with  remains  of  green  lacquer  spilled  over  the  edge ;  boss  incrusted 
with  green  aerugo.  Decoration  in  relief  with  additions  of  red  and 
green  pigment.     Inscription  of  27  characters.     Diameter:  0.184. 

44.8.  Chinese,  T'ang  dynasty  (A.  D.  618-907).     Mirror.     Surface:  a  tarnished 

silvery  patina  covered  with  patches  of  green  aerugo.  Decoration : 
lacquer  inlaid  with  silver  and  gold.    0.159  x  0.159. 

44.9.  Chinese,  3d-2d  century  B.  C.    Mirror.    Surface  :  a  black  patina  with  patches 

of  green  aerugo.  Decoration  :  background  incised,  with  a  smooth  circular 
band  and  a  seven-pointed  star  superimposed  in  countersunk  relief.  Di- 
ameter: 0.180. 

44.10.  Chinese,  3d-2d  century  B.  C.    Mirror.    Surface :  a  black  patina  with  patches 
of  green  aerugo.    Decoration  in  low  linear  relief.    Diameter:  0.142. 

44 


1 


Secretary's  Report.  1944.— Appendix  4 


Plate  1 


<»«*  .  I 


44.14 

Recent  Additions  to  the  Coulection  of  the  Freer  Gallery  of  Art 


Secretary's  Report.  1944. — Appendix  4 


PLATE  2 


44.17 


44.20 


»Vr 


^1^ 


Recent  Additions  to  the  Collection  of  the  Freer  Gallery  of  art. 


REPORT   OF   THE    SECRETARY  45 

CEBAMICB 

44.11.  Chinese,  Sung  dynasty.     Ko  ware.     Dish  with  sloping  sides  and  six-foil 

rim.  Body  of  hard,  dark  gray  clay  showing  brown  on  the  foot-rim,  cov- 
ered with  an  opaque,  buff-gray  glaze  with  a  medium  crackle  and  some 
small  iron  spots.     0.031  x  0.132. 

44.12.  Chinese,  Sung  dynasty.     Yileh  ware.    Round,  covered  box  with  a  design 

of  three  flowers  carved  in  low  relief  on  the  top.     Body  of  hard,  fine- 
grained medium-gray  clay,  covered  with  a  transparent,  greenish-gray 
glaze  which  shows  green  in  thicker  areas.    0.052  x  0.137. 
44.13- Chinese,  Ch'ing  dynasty,  Ch'ien  Lung  period.     Pair  of  bowls,  each  with 

44.14.  a  stem  attached  into  a  free-moving  reticulated  base.  The  body  of 
each  is  of  white  porcelain,  covered  with  a  pure  white  glaze  upon  which 
the  decoration  is  painted  in  overglaze  enamels.  The  base  of  each  is 
glazed  in  celadon.  On  the  foot  of  each  stem  a  six-character  mark  of 
the  Ch'ien  Lung  period  in  underglaze  blue.  44.18,  0.131  x  0.1&4  over  all ; 
44.14,  0.135  X  0.163  over  all.     (44.14  illustrated.) 

44.15.  Chinese,  Sung  dynasty.     Ting  ware.     Small  plate,  with  a  slight  concavity 

and  a  narrow  rim,  bound  in  brass.  The  body  is  of  white  porcelanous 
clay,  covered  with  a  lustrous,  cream-white  glaze.  The  decoration  of 
ducks,  lotuses,  and  water  plants  in  slight  relief  under  glaze.  0.017  x  0.140 
(diameter). 

JADE 

44.18.  Chinese,  ISth  century.     Ch'ien  Lung  period  (1736-95).     A  tripod  vessel  of 
a-b-c.       the  ting  type  with  a  cover  surmounted  by  a  lion  sejant;  annular  handles 

depending  from  dragon  heads  in  relief ;  all  carved  from  a  single  piece  of 
white  nephrite.     Wood  stand.    0.250  x  0.283  over  all. 

LACQUER 

44.19.  Japanese,  late  17th  century.     Writing  box  (suzuri-Mko)  in  polished  black 

lacquer  (rO-iro)  decorated  in  gold  and  pewter.  Bronze  water  box  (misu- 
ire)  and  an  ink  stone ;  two  trays.     0.051  x  0.226  x  0.221. 

44.20.  Japanese,  14th  century.     Late  Kamakura.     Small  cabinet   (kodansu)   in 

polished  black  lacquer  (ro-iro)  now  turning  brown.  Decorations  of 
chrysanthemums,  grasses,  butterflies,  and  vines  executed  in  gold  and 
mother-of-pearl.  Six  drawers  and  two  doors ;  lock,  hinges,  etc.,  in  dark, 
chiseled  bronze.     0.280x0.334x0.213.     (Illustrated). 

44.21.  Japanese,  16th  century.     Painter's  box  ie-lako)  in  two  parts  with  cover 

and  tray  in  upper  part.  Polished  black  lacquer  (ro-iro)  inlaid  with 
closely  set  small  chrysanthemums  of  mother-of-pearl,  whose  surfaces  are 
engraved  with  the  lines  of  the  petals.     0.203  x  0.172  x  0.358. 

44.23.  Japanese,  late  17th  century.  Letter-box  (fu-hako)  with  gold-flecked  ground 
(nashi-ji)  upon  which  the  decoration  is  executed  in  varying  tones  of 
gold  and  silver.     Silver  fittings.     0.075  x  0.250  x  0.096. 

44.26.  Japanese,  dated  in  correspondence  with  A,  D.  1844.  By  Yamamoto  Shun- 
sho.  Medicine  chest  (ynkuro).  Polished  black  lacquer  {ro-iro)  con- 
taining six  drawers ;  silver  corner  mountings.  Decorations  executed  in 
black  lacquer  in  relief,  and  in  gold  and  red.  Inscription  of  11  characters 
including  date,  signature,  and  kakihan.    One  seal.    0.338  x  0.328  x  0.193. 

44.22.  Japanese,  17th-19th  century.     Three  writing  boxes  (snzuri-bako). 
44.24. 

44.25. 


46  ANNUAL  REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

44.27- Japanese,  17th-18th  century.    Eighteen  medicine  cases  (inro)  of  varying 
44.44       types  and  designs. 
incL 

MANUSCEEPT 

44.17.  Armenian,  13th  century.  The  Gospel  according  to  the  four  Evangelists. 
Original  binding  of  tooled  brown  leather,  the  top  cover  adorned  with  a 
cruciform  design  executed  in  silver  nailheads;  at  its  center  a  square 
crystal  containing  a  Greek  cross  cut  into  it  from  underneath ;  other  small 
silver  appliques  (some  missing).  The  text  is  written  on  582  parchment 
leaves  in  double  columns,  in  bolorgir  or  "round  hand,"  in  black,  gold,  and 
occasional  blue,  red,  and  green.  Initials,  paragraphs,  title  pages,  arcades, 
and  four  full-page  miniatures  with  figures  of  the  Evangelists — executed 
in  colors  and  gold.  Dated  colophons.  0.244  x  0.179  over  all. 
0.240  X  0.169  average  page.     (Page  28  illustrated.) 

PAINTING 

43.10.  Chinese,  dated  in  correspondence  with  A.  D.  1541.  Ming  dynasty.  By 
Wen  Pi  (Cheng-ming),  1470-1559.  Chrysanthemums  and  pine  tree.  Ink 
painting  on  a  paper  scroll.  Dated  and  signed  by  the  artist;  two  colo- 
phons, one  by  the  artist ;  20  seals.    0.755  x  0.315. 

44.16.  Chinese,  dated  in  correspondence  with  A.  D.  1684.  Ch'ing  dynasty.  By 
Tao-chi  (fl.  circa  A.  D.  1662-1706) .  Landscape.  Ink  and  slight  color  on  a 
paper  scroll.  Inscription,  signature,  and  four  seals  on  the  painting ;  in- 
scription and  three  seals  on  the  mount.     0.264  x  3.132. 

44.45.  Japanese,  dated  in  correspondence  with  A.  D.  1773.  Attributed  to  Okyo. 
Pilgrims  going  to  Hase-dera  in  the  springtime.  Color  and  ink  on  a 
silk  kakemono.    Inscription,  signature,  two  seals.    0.447  x  0.812. 

STONE   SCULFTDBE 

44.2.  Chinese,  8th  century.     T'ang  dynasty.     Head  belonging  to  the  dancing 
figure  in  the  processional  relief  24.2  (reattached).     0.115  x  0.068  x  0.068. 

The  work  of  the  curatorial  staff  has  been  devoted  to  the  study  of 
new  acquisitions  and  of  other  objects  submitted  for  purchase,  from 
the  fields  of  Chinese,  Japanese,  Arabic,  Persian,  and  Indian  fine  arts. 
Such  work  involves  comparative  study,  reading  of  inscriptions  and 
seals,  written  reports,  and  so  on.  In  addition  to  the  work  within  the 
collection,  reports,  either  oral  or  written,  were  made  upon  658  objects 
and  122  photographs  of  objects  submitted  for  examination  by  their 
owners,  and  44  inscriptions  were  translated.  A  large  part  of  the  time 
of  staff  members  has  been  given  to  work  directly  contributing  to  the 
war  effort,  summarized  as  follows : 

WAR  WORK 

Members  of  the  staff  devoted  many  hours  both  inside  and  outside 
regular  hours  to  work  for  several  Government  agencies.  Five 
hundred  forty-two  typed  pages -of  Japanese  translations  were  made 
for  the  Office  of  Strategic  Services;  and  a  revised  translation  of  a 


REPORT   OF   THE    SECRETARY  47 

Guide  to  Signs  and  Symbols  used  on  Chinese  military  maps  were  made 
and  a  compilation  of  a  glossary  of  Chinese  geographical  and  topo- 
graphical terms  was  edited  and  revised  for  the  Army  Map  Service. 
The  Chinese  character  for  "Victory"  was  made  for  an  artist  to  be 
used  in  connection  with  a  publication  on  the  United  Nations.  Photo- 
graphs made  by  the  Freer  Gallery  field  staff  in  China  were  reproduced 
for  the  Military  Intelligence  Division  of  the  War  Department  (27 
prints).  For  another  agency,  several  Japanese  documents  were  ex- 
amined. 

Other  services  have  been  given  to  various  persons.  For  example, 
63  photographs  of  Chinese  paintings  were  presented  to  Dr.  Shih- 
chieh  Wang,  Secretary  General  of  the  People's  Council  and  Central 
Planning  Board  of  China  and  a  member  of  the  Chinese  Goodwill 
Mission;  557  photographs  were  given  to  members  of  the  armed  ser- 
vices who  visited  the  oflfices;  24  military  students  of  the  School  of 
Foreign  Service,  Georgetown  University,  were  shown  through  the 
Chinese  exhibition  galleries;  and  in  Santa  Fe,  N.  Mex.,  a  lecture  on 
"Flower  Painting  in  the  Near  and  the  Far  East"  was  given  by  a  staff 
member  using  Freer  Gallery  material,  for  the  benefit  of  the  Indian 
Service  Club. 

CHANGES  IN  EXHIBITION  AND  REPAIRS  TO  THE  COLLECTIOlSr 

Six  hundred  eighty-eight  changes  in  exhibition  have  been  made,  as 
follows : 

American  paintings: 

Oils,  79 ;  water  colors,  35 ;  pastels,  22. 
American  prints  (Whistler)  : 

Etchings,  32 ;  lithographs,  21. 
Biblical  manuscripts,  6. 
Coptic  book  covers,  4. 
Chinese  arts: 

Bronzes,  47 ;  bronze  and  jade,  4. 

Ceramics,  40. 

Jade,  152. 

Marble,  2. 

Paintings,  117. 

Silver,  36. 

Sculpture,  bronze,  32. 

Sculpture,  stone,  30. 
Korean  pottery,  27. 
Syrian  glass,  2. 

Repairs  to  the  collection  were  as  follows : 

One  Chinese  bronze  repaired ;  1  Persian  painting  remounted ;  5  Japanese  paint- 
ings remounted ;  31  Chinese  paintings  bound  in  portfolio  form. 

Sculptured  head  44.2  cemented  ux)on  its  original  place  on  the  figure  of  the 
dancer  of  the  Chinese  Buddhist  relief  24.2. 


48  ANNUAL   REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

ATTENDANCE 

The  Gallery  has  been  open  to  the  public  every  day  from  9  until 
4 :  30  o'clock  with  the  exception  of  Mondays  and  Christmas  Day. 

The  total  attendance  of  visitors  coming  in  at  the  main  entrance 
was  62,408.  Fifty-four  other  visitors  on  Mondays  bring  the  grand 
total  to  62,462.  The  total  attendance  on  weekdays  was  35,610;  Sun- 
days, 26,798.  The  average  weekday  attendance  was  137 ;  the  average 
Sunday  attendance,  515.  The  highest  monthly  attendance  was  in 
August,  with  6,789  visitors,  the  lowest  in  December  with  3,394  visitors. 

There  were  1,279  visitors  to  the  main  office  during  the  year;  the  pur- 
poses of  their  visits  were  as  follows : 

For  general  information 180 

To  see  members  of  the  staff 505 

To  read  in  the  library 213 

To  malje  tracings  and  sketches  from  library  books 5 

To  see  building  and  installations 37 

To  make  photographs  and  sketches 15 

To  see  exhibition  galleries  on  Monday G 

To  examine  or  purchase  photographs  and  slides 378 

To  submit  objects  for  examination 96 

To  see  objects  in  storage 209 

Washington  Manuscripts 56 

Far  Eastern  paintings  and  textiles 36 

Near  Eastern  paintings  and  manuscripts 26 

Tibetan   paintings 1 

Indian   paintings 1 

American   paintings 8 

Oriental  pottery,  jade,  bronze,  lacquer  and  bamboo 72 

Gold  treasure 3 

All  sculpture 5 

Syrian  glass,  etc 1 

DOCENT  SERVICE,  LECTURES,  ETC. 

By  request,  2  groups  met  in  the  study  rooms  and  13  groups  in  the 
exhibition  galleries  for  instruction  by  staff  members.  Total  num- 
ber of  persons,  321. 

January  21,  1944 :  The  Director  attended  a  meeting  in  New  York 
of  the  Committee  of  the  American  Council  of  Learned  Societies  on 
Protection  of  Cultural  Treasures  in  War  Areas. 

February  10, 1944 :  A  lecture  by  ISIiss  Guest,  on  "Flower  Painting  in 
Persia  and  China,"  before  the  American  Association  of  University 
Women. 

Two  lectures  by  members  of  the  Civil  Service  Commission  were 
given  to  supervisors  in  the  auditorium.     Total  attendance,  224. 


REPORT   OF   THE    SECRETARY  49 

PERSONNEL 

Weldon  N.  Eawley  resigned  from  the  Civil  Service  position  of 
superintendent  of  building  (CAF-8)  August  15,  1943.  He  was  ap- 
pointed by  the  Freer  Gallery  as  superintendent  of  building,  court 
and  grounds,  August  16, 1943. 

Rita  W.  Edwards  resigned  from  the  Civil  Service  position  of  senior 
tlerk-stenographer  (CAF-5)  October  8,  1943.  She  was  appointed 
by  the  Freer  Gallery  as  administrative  secretary  to  the  Director, 
October  9,  1943. 

Ruth  W.  Helsley  appointed  senior  clerk-stenographer  (CAF-5) 
October  9,  1943. 

E.  Harriet  Link,  clerk-stenographer  (CAF-4)  transferred  from  the 
Library  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution  October  9,  1943. 

Grace  C.  Griffith  appointed  librarian  for  a  period  of  1  year  October 
25,  1943. 

Elizabeth  Hill  Maltby,  former  librarian,  trained  Miss  Griffith  for 
the  position  of  librarian  October  25-December  13, 1943. 

Thomas  R.  FuUalove,  painter,  who  was  retired  on  account  of  dis- 
ability February  15, 1937,  died  on  November  22, 1943. 

Bertie  Turner,  attendant  at  the  Gallery  since  November  17,  1920, 
retired  on  November  30, 1943. 

Ruth  W.  Helsley,  senior  clerk-stenographer,  resigned  on  December 
4, 1943.  She  first  came  to  the  Gallery  on  November  22, 1920,  resigned 
on  February  28,  1922,  and  was  reinstated  on  May  5,  1930. 

Alice  Copeland  appointed  attendant  (CPC-2)  December  9,  1943. 

E.  Harriet  Link  promoted  to  senior  clerk-stenographer  (CAF-5) 
December  9, 1943. 

Grace  C.  Griffith,  librarian,  was  married  to  Charles  Maxwell  Bar- 
nett.  United  States  Army  Air  Forces,  on  April  15,  1944. 

Burns  A.  Stubbs  resigned  from  the  Civil  Service  position  of  chief 
scientific  aid  (SP-8)  April  23, 1944.  He  was  appointed  by  the  Freer 
Gallery  as  assistant  to  the  Director  on  April  24,  1944. 

Glen  P.  Shephard  was  appointed  museum  aid  (SP-4)  from  guard 
(CPC-4)  April  24,  1944. 

Grace  T.  Whitney  worked  intermittently  at  the  Gallery  in  the 
Near  East  section  between  December  2,  1943  and  June  21,  1944. 

Other  changes  in  personnel  are  as  follows : 

Ap2)oint7nents. — ^Alfred  Hewitt,  a  guard  on  the  day  watch  since 
August  1,  1936,  promoted  to  sergeant  (CPC-5)  July  1,  1943.  Glen 
P.  Shephard,  guard  (CPC-4),  from  military  furlough,  July  1,  1943. 
Charles  W.  Frost,  guard  (CPC-4),  by  transfer  from  Airport  Detach- 
ment No.  5,  Gravelly  Point,  Va.,  August  27,  1943.  Ethel  Anderson, 
charwoman  (CPC-2),  by  transfer  from  the  United  States  National 


50  ANNUAL  REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

Museum,  December  9,  1943.  George  Jonathan,  guard  (CPC-4),  ap- 
pointed December  15,  1943.  Pearl  Fisher,  charwoman  (CPC-2), 
appointed  December  23, 1943.  Milton  Williams,  laborer  (CPC-2) ,  ap- 
pointed May  1,  1944.  Victoria  L.  Dickerson,  charwoman  (CPC-2), 
appointed  May  4,  1944.  George  S.  Young,  cabinetmaker,  appointed 
by  the  month  for  special  help  in  the  shop,  May  8,  1944. 

Separations  from  the  service. — George  S.  Young  finished  temporary 
employment  as  cabinetmaker,  November  4,  1943.  Julia  A.  Robinson, 
charwoman  (CPC-2),  transferred  to  the  United  States  National 
Museum,  December  8,  1943.  Pearl  Fisher,  charwoman  (CPC-2),  re- 
signed March  22,  1944.  Walter  McCree,  laborer  (CPC-2),  on  in- 
definite furlough  for  naval  duty,  April  4, 1944. 

Respectfully  submitted. 

A.  G.  Wenley,  Director. 

The  Secretary, 

Smithsonian  Institution. 


APPENDIX  5 
REPORT  ON  THE  BUREAU  OF  AMERICAN  ETHNOLOGY 

Sir:  I  have  the  honor  to  submit  the  following  report  on  the  field 
researches,  office  work,  and  other  operations  of  the  Bureau  of  Amer- 
ican Ethnology  during  the  fiscal  year  ended  June  30,  1944,  conducted 
in  accordance  with  the  act  of  Congress  of  June  26,  1943,  which  pro- 
vides "*  *  *  for  continuing  ethnological  researches  among  the 
American  Indians  and  the  natives  of  Hawaii  and  the  excavation  and 
preservation  of  archeologic  remains.     *     *     *" 

During  the  fiscal  year  emphasis  on  activities  concerned  with  Latin 
America  has  continued. 

Dr.  W.  D.  Strong,  Director  of  the  Ethnogeographic  Board,  planned 
to  return  to  his  duties  at  Columbia  University  soon  after  the  close  of 
the  fiscal  year,  and  the  work  of  the  Board  will  thereafter  be  conducted 
entirely  by  members  of  the  Bureau  staff. 

As  the  war  continues  and  the  need  for  specialized  information  grows 
less  it  is  expected  that  the  Bureau  may  gradually  assume  more  of  its 
normal  duties. 

SYSTEMATIC   RESEARCHES 

On  January  28,  1944,  Dr.  M.  W.  Stirling,  Chief  of  the  Bureau,  left 
Washington  on  the  Sixth  National  Geographic  Society-Smithsonian 
Institution  expedition  to  Mexico.  The  month  of  February  was  spent 
in  the  states  of  Michoacan  and  Jalisco,  where  a  photographic  record 
was  made  of  lacquer  working  in  Uruapan  and  vicinity,  and  of  pottery 
making  in  Tlaquepaque.  Ethnological  pictures  were  made  depicting 
the  activities  and  customs  of  the  Tarascan  Indians  of  Lake  Patzcuaro. 

From  the  beginning  of  March  until  the  middle  of  May,  an  archeo- 
logical  reconnaissance  was  conducted  in  southern  Veracruz,  Tabasco, 
and  Campeche,  with  the  principal  objective  of  finding  the  extent  of 
the  early  La  Venta  culture  in  this  area.  Several  new  sites  were  located 
as  a  result  of  this  survey,  and  photographic  records  were  made  of  a 
number  of  private  archeological  collections. 

Dr.  Stirling  returned  to  Washington  on  May  22,  1944. 

During  the  year  a  report  by  Dr.  Stirling,  "Stone  Monuments  of 
Southern  Mexico,"  was  issued  as  Bulletin  138  of  the  Bureau. 

During  the  year  just  passed.  Dr.  John  R,  Swanton,  ethnologist, 
completed  the  reading  of  proof  for  Bulletin  137,  "The  Indians  of  the 
Southeastern  United  States." 

51 


52  ANNUAL  REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

A  study  of  the  much  discussed  Norse  expeditions  to  America  was 
undertaken  and  a  manuscript  completed  embodying  the  results. 

During  the  course  of  the  year  Dr.  Swanton  furnished  to  the  Navy 
Department  more  than  1,000  Indian  tribal  names  and  names  of  prom- 
inent Indians,  to  be  used  for  naming  war  vessels.  Approximately  200 
of  these  have  been  used. 

On  June  30,  1944,  Dr.  Swanton  retired  from  the  Bureau  after 
almost  44  years  of  service. 

Dr.  John  P.  Harrington,  ethnologist,  continuing  his  American  In- 
dian linguistic  studies,  discovered  evidence  suggesting  that  Quechua 
and  Aymara,  the  languages  of  the  two  most  highly  civilized  groups 
of  aboriginal  South  America,  are  related  to  the  Hokan  stock  of  western 
North  America.  This  is  the  first  time  that  a  linguistic  relationship 
has  been  indicated  between  North  and  South  America.  In  addition 
to  this  Dr.  Harrington  has  reduced  the  number  of  linguistic  stocks  in 
South  America  by  establishing  the  relationship  of  many  groups  previ- 
ously considered  to  be  separate. 

Because  of  his  unique  knowledge  of  languages.  Dr.  Harrington  has 
been  called  upon  daily  by  the  Office  of  Censorship  to  translate  letters 
written  in  little-known  languages  from  all  over  the  world. 

During  the  year  several  short  papers  on  linguistic  subjects  have  been 
published  in  scientific  journals. 

On  July  5,  1943,  Dr.  Frank  H.  H.  Roberts,  Jr.,  senior  archeologist, 
went  to  Abilene,  Tex.,  where  he  spent  5  days  investigating  a  prehistoric 
Indian  burial  which  had  been  exposed  21  feet  below  the  surface  in  a 
bank  of  the  Clear  Fork  of  the  Brazos  River  by  floodwaters  and  which 
was  in  danger  of  being  washed  away  by  a  new  rise.  Studies  of  the 
deposits  at  the  site  showed  that  the  burial  had  been  made  during  the 
closing  days  of  the  Pleistocene  or  the  beginning  of  the  Early  Recent 
geologic  period  about  10,000  years  ago.  The  skeleton  was  turned  over 
to  the  division  of  physical  anthropology  of  the  United  States  National 
Museum,  where  it  has  received  careful  study  and  has  added  to  the 
knowledge  of  the  physical  type  of  the  early  Texas  Indians. 

Returning  to  Washington,  Dr.  Roberts  spent  the  remainder  of  the 
summer  and  the  months  of  early  autumn  preparing  contributions 
to,  obtaining  pictures  for,  editing  the  manuscript,  and  reading  proof 
of  a  manual,  "Survival  on  Land  and  Sea,"  which  was  prepared  for 
the  Publications  Branch  of  the  Office  of  Naval  Intelligence,  United 
States  Navy,  by  the  Ethnogeographic  Board  and  the  staff  of  the 
Smithsonian  Institution.  He  later  worked  on  a  revision  of  this  man- 
ual for  a  second  edition  and  also  served  as  a  consultant  for  a  similar 
manual  being  prepared  for  the  Army  Air  Forces.  During  this  period 
he  also  furnished  information  to  several  other  branches  of  the  armed 
services  and  «ome  of  the  war  agencies. 


REPORT   OF   THE    SECRETARY  53 

Dr.  Roberts  also  worked  on  his  final  report  on  the  excavations  at 
the  Lindenmeier  Folsom  Man  site  in  northern  Colorado,  a  project 
completed  shortly  before  the  outbreak  of  the  war,  and  also  wrote  a 
number  of  articles  for  publication  in  scientific  journals.  On  March. 16, 
1944,  Dr.  Roberts  was  appointed  a  member  of  the  Smithsonian  Insti- 
tution's Committee  on  Personnel  Utilization  and  from  that  date  until 
the  close  of  the  fiscal  year  devoted  considerable  time  to  the  activities 
of  that  committee. 

During  such  periods  as  the  Chief  was  absent  from  Washington, 
Dr.  Roberts  served  as  Acting  Chief  of  the  Bureau. 

On  September  1,  1943,  Dr.  Julian  H.  Steward,  anthropologist,  was 
appointed  Director  of  the  Institute  of  Social  Anthropology,  an  autono- 
mous unit  of  the  Bureau,  reporting  directly  to  the  Secretary.  His 
work  as  editor  of  the  Handbook  of  South  American  Indians  also  con- 
tinued concurrently.  A  brief  statement  on  these  two  projects  will  be 
found  later  on  in  this  report. 

At  the  beginning  of  the  fiscal  year  Dr.  Alfred  Metraux,  ethnologist, 
was  teaching  in  Mexico  City,  through  an  arrangement  with  the  Na- 
tional University  of  Mexico.  He  returned  to  duty  on  August  1,  1943, 
and  assisted  Dr.  Julian  H.  Steward  in  the  preparation  of  the  Hand- 
book of  South  American  Indians.  Dr.  Metraux  was  appointed  Assist- 
ant Director  of  the  Institute  of  Social  Anthropology  on  September  18, 
1943.  He  completed  four  papers  for  the  Handbook,  and  also  gathered 
bibliographical  material  for  several  other  contributions  and  assembled 
notes  for  the  articles  of  the  Handbook's  fifth  volume. 

During  the  fiscal  year  Dr.  Henry  B.  Collins,  Jr.,  ethnologist,  con- 
tinued his  work  as  Assistant  Director  of  the  Ethnogeographic  Board. 
As  in  the  previous  year,  the  activities  of  the  Board  for  which  he  was 
responsible  concerned  research  in  connection  with  regional  and  other 
information  requested  by  the  Army,  Navy,  and  other  war  agencies. 
He  represented  the  Smithsonian  Institution  and  the  Ethnogeographic 
Board  as  a  technical  adviser  to  the  Emergency  Rescue  Equipment  Sec- 
tion of  the  Navy  and  wrote  the  Arctic  section  for  the  booklet  "Survival 
on  Land  and  Sea."  Some  750,000  copies  of  this  official  Navy  survival 
manual  have  been  distributed  to  the  fleet  and  shore  stations. 

Dr.  Collins  contributed  the  sections  on  geography,  history,  and 
anthropology  for  an  article  on  the  Aleutian  Islands,  which  will  be 
published  as  one  of  the  series  of  War  Background  Studies  of  the  Smith- 
sonian Institution. 

During  such  time  as  was  available,  Dr.  Collins  continued  his  re- 
searches on  the  Eskimo  and  the  southeastern  Indians. 

Dr.  William  N.  Fenton,  ethnologist,  continued  to  serve  as  research 
associate  of  the  Ethnogeographic  Board.    With  the  assistance  of 


54  ANNUAL  REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

Miss  Mae  W.  Tucker,  he  has  maintained  for  the  Ethnogeographic 
Board  the  world  file  of  area  and  language  specialists,  which  has 
grown  to  include  more  than  10,000  entries  for  all  continents  and  island 
areas.  This  file  has  been  extensively  used  by  the  military  and  other 
war  agencies  in  their  search  for  specialized  personnel.  From  this 
file  a  series  of  five  studies  were  prepared,  together  with  maps  and  in- 
dexes, showing  domestic  sources  of  photographs  on  strategic  areas 
of  interest  particularly  to  the  Navy  Department.  At  the  request 
of  the  Army  Specialized  Training  Division,  the  Ethnogeographic 
Board  commenced  a  survey  of  area  and  language  teaching  in  the  Army 
Specialized  Training  Program  and  the  Civil  Affairs  Training  Schools 
in  25  American  universities  and  colleges.  Dr.  Fenton  participated 
in  the  survey,  visiting  13  institutions  between  December  1943  and 
March  1944,  and  since  that  time  has  been  occupied  in  writing  up  ob- 
servations and  preparing  reports  for  the  proper  offices. 

In  addition  to  this  work.  Dr.  Fenton  continued  his  studies  on  the 
League  of  the  Iroquois,  translating  a  number  of  texts  collected  by 
J.  N.  B.  Hewitt  and  A.  A.  Goldenweiser.  Dr.  Fenton's  publications  for 
the  year  were:  "The  Last  Passenger  Pigeon  Hunts  of  the  Corn- 
planter  Senecas"  {with  M.  H.  Deardorff),  and  "The  Requickening 
Address  of  the  Iroquois  Condolence  Council"  {of  J.  N.  B.  Hewitt) ,  in 
the  Journal  of  the  Washington  Academy  of  Sciences ;  and  an  obituary, 
"Simeon  Gibson:  Iroquois  Informant,  1889-1943,"  m  the  American 
Anthropologist;  also  several  book  reviews  and  notes  in  scientific  and 
literary  journals. 

Since  joining  the  staff  in  December  1943,  Dr.  Homer  G.  Barnett,  an- 
thropologist, has  served  as  executive  secretary  of  a  committee  formed 
under  the  sponsorship  of  the  Ethnogeographic  Board  for  the  purpose 
of  assembling  data  upon  the  existing  state  of  our  scientific  knowl- 
edge of  the  Pacific  Island  area.  The  committee  includes  representa- 
tives of  the  geological,  geographic,  linguistic,  political  science,  and 
anthropological  disciplines.  As  executive  secretary  Dr.  Barnett 
has  served  chiefly  as  organizer  and  coordinator  of  the  committee's  ac- 
tions. Since  some  of  the  committee  members  are  located  outside  of 
Washington,  considerable  correspondence  has  been  necessary  as  well 
as  meetings  both  in  Washington  and  New  York. 

When  not  engaged  in  the  above  activities.  Dr.  Barnett  has  worked 
on  the  organization  of  field  notes  on  various  Salishan  and  Northwest 
Coast  tribes,  having  in  project  a  series  of  publications  stressing  cul- 
tural change  among  the  Yurok,  the  Tsimshian,  the  Yakima,  and  the 
Makah.  He  has  just  completed  one  manuscript  dealing  with  the 
Indian  Shaker  cult  of  the  northwestern  United  States. 


REPORT   OF   THE    SECRETARY  55 

INSTITUTE  OF  SOCIAL  ANTHROPOLOGY 

As  stated  above,  Dr.  Julian  H.  Steward,  anthropologist,  on  Septem- 
ber 1,  1943,  became  Director  of  the  Institute  of  Social  Anthropology, 
an  autonomous  unit  of  the  Bureau  reporting  directly  to  the  Secretary. 
As  Dr.  Steward  was  instructed  in  the  official  order  establishing  the 
Institute  to  report  to  the  Secretary  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution, 
there  are  presented  here  brief  abstracts  from  Dr.  Steward's  reports 
to  Dr.  Wetmore,  Acting  Secretary. 

The  Institute  of  Social  Anthropology  was  first  conceived  in  July 
1942  and  a  project  for  its  work  was  placed  before  the  Interdepartmen- 
tal Committee  for  Cooperation  with  the  American  Republics  in  Au- 
gust of  that  year.  Its  stated  purpose  was  to  carry  out  cooperative 
training  in  anthropological  teaching  and  research  with  the  other 
American  republics.  For  the  fiscal  year  1944,  $60,000  was  made  avail- 
able for  the  work  of  the  Institute  by  transfer  of  funds  from  the  State 
Department  appropriation. 

In  September  1943  the  Director  visited  Mexico  and  established  the 
terms  of  an  agreement  for  the  work  of  the  Institute  with  the  authori- 
ties of  the  Escuela  Nacional  de  Antropologia  and  the  Instituto 
Nacional  de  Antropologia  e  Historia,  submitting  this  to  the  Depart- 
ment of  State  in  late  September.  After  some  months  of  delay  encoun- 
tered in  completing  the  agreement,  Dr.  George  M.  Foster,  engaged  by 
the  Institute  as  anthropologist  in  charge  of  the  work  in  Mexico,  pro- 
ceeded to  that  country  in  May  and  started  work  in  cooperation  with 
the  organizations  mentioned  above.  Dr.  Donald  D.  Brand  also  repre- 
sented the  Institute  in  Mexico  as  cultural  geographer. 

No  formal  agreement  has  yet  been  entered  into  for  similar  work 
in  Peru.  Nevertheless,  Dr.  John  Gillin,  appointed  by  the  Institute  in 
January  1944  as  anthropologist,  commenced  work  in  that  country  on 
an  informal  basis.  The  remaining  6  months  of  the  fiscal  year  were 
devoted  to  reconnaissance  and  teaching  at  Cuzco  and  Trujillo. 

A  memorandum  agreement  for  cooperative  work  in  Colombia  was 
submitted  early  in  1944,  but  at  the  close  of  the  fiscal  year  it  had  not 
yet  been  reported  out. 

A  new  series  in  social  anthropology  entitled  "Publications  of  the 
Institute  of  Social  Anthropology"  was  started  with  two  papers,  which 
went  to  the  printer  just  before  the  close  of  the  fiscal  year.  No.  1  was 
on  "Houses  and  House  Use  of  the  Sierra  Tarascans,"  by  Ralph  L. 
Beals,  Pedro  Carrasco,  and  Thomas  McCorkle;  No.  2  was  entitled 
"Cheran,  a  Sierra  Tarascan  Village,"  by  Ralph  L.  Beals. 


619830— 4S 


56  ANNUAL   REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

HANDBOOK  OF  SOUTH  AMERICAN  INDIANS 

The  editing  of  the  Handbook  of  South  American  Indians,  begun 
some  years  ago,  was  continued  during  the  year  by  Dr.  Julian  H. 
Steward  after  September  1,  1943,  under  his  appointment  as  Director 
of  the  Institute  of  Social  Anthropology.  Funds  for  the  preparation 
of  the  manuscript  are  transferred  to  the  Smithsonian  Institution  from 
the  State  Department  appropriation  for  "Cooperation  with  the  Ameri- 
can Republics,"  and  the  Bureau  will  pay  the  cost  of  publication  in  its 
Bulletin  series. 

Volume  1,  "The  Marginal  Tribes,"  and  volume  2,  "The  Andean  Civil- 
izations," were  completed  during  the  year  and  sent  to  the  printer.  The 
manuscripts  of  volumes  3  and  4  were  nearly  completed. 

The  Handbook  is  a  truly  cooperative  project,  as  one-half  of  the 
100  contributors  are  scientists  of  the  other  American  republics. 

SPECAL   RESEARCHES 

Miss  Frances  Densmore,  a  collaborator  of  the  Bureau,  continued 
her  work  on  the  study  of  Indian  music  by  writing  a  manuscript  enti- 
tled "Omaha  Music,"  with  transcriptions  of  64  songs.  This  manu- 
script was  based  upon  research  in  Nebraska  in  1941  and  included  re- 
recordings  of  several  songs  that  were  recorded  for  Miss  Alice  C. 
Fletcher  by  the  same  singers.  The  date  of  the  previous  recordings 
was  said  to  have  been  1887  to  1890  and  the  songs  are  included  in  Miss 
Fletcher's  "Study  of  Omaha  Indian  Music,"  published  by  the  Peabody 
Museum  of  Harvard  University,  and  in  "The  Omaha  Tribe,"  by  Miss 
Fletcher  and  Francis  La  Flesche,  in  the  Twenty-seventh  Annual  Re- 
port of  the  Bureau.  Many  songs  in  Miss  Fletcher's  work  were  recog- 
nized by  men  who  had  not  the  tribal  right  to  sing  them.  The  present 
manuscript  includes  old  songs  of  Omaha  military  and  social  societies, 
songs  connected  with  the  First  World  War,  and  songs  of  legends  and 
the  hand  game. 

Miss  Densmore  compiled  and  presented  to  the  Bureau  a  chronology 
of  her  study  and  presentation  of  Indian  music  from  1893  to  June  1944. 
This  chronology  was  based  on  diaries,  scrapbooks,  and  Reports  of  the 
Bureau.  During  a  portion  of  the  year  she  was  engaged  in  completing 
the  handbook  of  the  Smithsonian-Densmore  collection  of  sound  record- 
ings of  American  Indian  music  for  the  National  Archives. 

EDITORIAL  WORK  AND  PUBLICATIONS 

The  editorial  work  of  the  Bureau  continued  during  the  year  under 
the  immediate  direction  of  the  editor,  M.  Helen  Palmer.  There  were 
issued  one  Annual  Report  and  six  Bulletins,  as  follows : 


REPORT   OF   THE    SECRETARY  57 

Sixtieth  Annual  Report  of  the  Bureau  of  American  Ethnology,  1942-1943.    9  pp. 
Bulletin  133.  Anthropological  papers,  numbers  19-26.    ix+615  pp.,  34  pis., 
62  figs. : 

No.  19.  A  search  for  songs  among  the  Chitimacha  Indians  in  Louisiana,  by 

Frances  Densmore. 
No.  20.  Archeological  survey  on  the  northern  Northwest  Coast,  by  Philip 

Drucker;  with  appendix,  Early  vertebrate  fauna  of  the  British 

Columbia  Coast,  by  Edna  M.  Fisher. 
No.  21.  Some  notes  on  a  few  sites  in  Beaufort  County,  South  Carolina,  by 

Regina  Flannery. 
No.  22.  An  analysis  and  interpretation  of  the  ceramic  remains  from  two 

sites  near  Beaufort,  South  Carolina,  by  James  B.  Griffin. 
No.  23.  The  eastern  Cheroliees,  by  William  Harlen  Gilbert,  Jr. 
No.  24.  Aconite  poison  whaling  in  Asia  and  America :  An  Aleutian  transfer 

to  the  New  World,  by  Robert  F.  Heizer. 
No.  25.  The  Carrier  Indians  of  the  Bulkley  River  :  Their  social  and  religious 

life,  by  Diamond  Jenness. 
No.  26.  The  quipu  and  Peruvian  civilization,  by  John  R.  Swanton. 

Bulletin  136.  Anthropological  papers,  numbers  27-32.  viii+375  pp.,  32  pis., 
5  figs.: 

No.  27.  Music  of  the  Indians  of  British  Columbia,  by  Frances  Densmore. 

No.  28.  Choctaw  music,  by  Frances  Densmore. 

No.  29.  Some  ethnological  data  concerning  one  hundred  Yucatan  plants,  by 

Morris  Steggerda. 
No.  30.  A    description    of    thirty    towns    in    Yucatan,    Mexico,    by    Morris 

Steggerda. 
No.  31.  Some  western  Shoshoni  myths,  by  Julian  H.  Steward. 
No.  32.  New  material  from  Acoma,  by  Leslie  A.  White. 

Bulletin  138.  Stone  monuments  of  southern  Mexico,  by  Matthew  W.  Stirling. 
vii+84  pp.,  62  pis.,  14  figs. 

Bulletin  139.  An  introduction  to  the  ceramics  of  Tres  Zapotes,  Veracruz,  Mexico, 
by  C.  W.  Weiant.     xiv+144  pp.,  78  pis.,  54  figs.,  10  maps. 

Bulletin  140.  Ceramic  sequences  at  Tres  Zapotes,  Veracruz,  Mexico,  by  Philip 
Drucker.    ix+155  pp.,  65  pis.,  46  figs. 

Bulletin  141.  Ceramic  stratigraphy  at  Cerro  de  las  Mesas,  Veracruz,  Mexico, 
by  Philip  Drucker.    viii+95  pp.,  58  pis.,  210  figs. 

The  following  publications  were  in  press  at  the  close  of  the  fiscal 
year: 

Bulletin  137.  The  Indians  of  the  Southeastern  United  States,  by  John  R. 
Swanton. 

Bulletin  142.  The  contemporary  culture  of  the  Cdhita  Indians,  by  Ralph  L. 
Beals. 

Bulletin  143.  Handbook  of  South  American  Indians.  Julian  H.  Steward, 
Editor.    Volume  1.  The  Marginal  Tribes.    Volume  2.  The  Andean  Civilizations. 

List  of  Publications  of  the  Bureau  of  American  Ethnology,  with  index  to 
authors  and  titles.    Revised  to  June  30,  1944. 

Publications  distributed  totaled  14,903. 

In  addition  to  the  regular  work,  the  editorial  staff  of  the  Bureau 
edited  the  first  two  publications  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution's 
Institute  of  Social  Anthropology,  now  in  press. 


58  ANNUAL   REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

LIBRARY 

Accessions  during  the  fiscal  year  totaled  190.  There  has  been  a 
sharp  decrease  in  accessions  owing  to  war  conditions. 

The  routine  work  of  accessioning  and  cataloging  new  material  has 
been  kept  up  to  date.  About  half  of  the  cards  withdrawn  from  the 
catalog  for  reclassification  have  been  returned  to  the  catalog,  with  the 
new  numbers  added  and  subject  headings  corrected. 

The  library  has  been  used  considerably  for  the  work  of  the  Ethno- 
geographic  Board  and  other  war  agencies. 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

During  the  year  E.  G.  Cassedy,  illustrator,  continued  the  prepara- 
tion of  illustrations,  maps,  and  drawings  for  the  publications  of  the 
Bureau  and  for  those  of  other  branches  of  the  Institution. 

MISCELLANEOUS 

During  the  course  of  the  year  information  was  furnished  by  mem- 
bers of  the  Bureau  staff  in  reply  to  numerous  inquiries  concerning  the 
North  American  Indians,  both  past  and  present,  and  the  Mexican 
peoples  of  the  prehistoric  and  early  historic  periods.  Various  speci- 
mens sent  to  the  Bureau  were  identified  and  data  on  them  furnished 
for  their  owners. 

Personnel. — Dr.  Julian  H.  Steward,  anthropologist,  was  appointed 
Director  of  the  Institute  of  Social  Anthropology,  Smithsonian 
Institution,  on  September  1,  1943,  by  transfer  from  the  Bureau,  and 
Dr.  Homer  G.  Barnett  was  appointed  as  anthropologist  on  December 
30,  1943,  on  the  Bureau  roll,  to  fill  this  vacancy.  The  work  on  the 
Handbook  of  South  American  Indians  was  continued  under  the 
Interdepartmental  Committee  for  Cooperation  with  the  American  Re- 
publics after  September  1,  1943.  Anthony  W.  Wilding,  clerk-stenog- 
rapher, was  appointed  Property  OflScer  of  the  United  States  National 
Museum  on  December  20,  1943,  by  transfer  from  the  Bureau,  and 
Mrs.  Catherine  M.  Phillips  was  appointed  to  fill  this  vacancy  on  De- 
cember 22,  1943,  by  transfer  from  the  editorial  division,  Smithsonian 
Institution.  Dr.  John  R.  Swanton,  ethnologist,  retired  on  June  30, 
1944. 

Respectfully  submitted. 

M.  W.  Stirling,  Chief. 

The  Secretary, 

Smithsonian  Institution. 


APPENDIX  6 
REPORT  ON  THE  INTERNATIONAL  EXCHANGE  SERVICE 

SiE :  I  have  the  honor  to  submit  the  following  report  on  the  activities 
of  the  International  Exchange  Service  for  the  fiscal  year  ended  June 
30,  1944. 

From  the  appropriation  "General  Expenses,  Smithsonian  Insti- 
tution" there  was  allocated  for  the  expenses  of  the  Service,  $26,137. 

No  money  was  allotted  to  the  Institution  this  year  by  the  Depart- 
ment of  State  for  use  in  mailing  packages  to  Argentina  and  Brazil, 
so  that  the  cost  of  such  mailings  had  to  be  met  from  the  regular 
Exchange  allotment.  These  are  the  only  two  American  countries  with 
which  there  are  no  reciprocal  arrangements  for  the  exchange  of  pub- 
lications under  governmental  frank. 

The  number  of  packages  received  during  the  year  for  distribution 
at  home  and  abroad  was  407,764,  a  decrease  from  last  year  of  105,696. 
These  packages  weighed  a  total  of  243,180  pounds,  a  decrease  of  5,468 
pounds.     This  material  is  classified  as  follows : 


Packages 

Weight 

Sent 
abroad 

Eeceived 

from 

abroad 

Sent 
abroad 

Received 

from 

abroad 

United  States  parliamentary  documents  sent  abroad    

303, 103 

Pounds 
127, 401 

Pounda 

Publications  received  in  return  for  parliamentary  documents... 

757 

1,544 

United  States  departmental  documents  sent  abroad 

62,968 

43,617 

Publications  received  in  return  for  departmental  documents 

679 

1,530 

46,700 

62, 768 

Miscellaneous  scientific  and  literary  publications  received  from 
abroad  for  distribution  in  the  United  States                 .-    .  -. 

3,557 

6,320 

Total 

402,  771 

4,993 

233, 786 

9,394 

Grand  total  .                   . 

407, 764 

243, 180 

Packages  are  forwarded  abroad  partly  by  freight  to  exchange 
bureaus  for  distribution,  and  partly  by  mail  directly  to  their  destina- 
tions. The  number  of  boxes  shipped  abroad  was  649,  an  increase  over 
last  year  of  6  boxes.  Of  these,  385  were  for  depositories  of  full  sets  of 
United  States  governmental  documents.  The  number  of  packages 
sent  by  mail  was  89,688. 

59 


60  ANNUAL   REPORT    SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

War  conditions  have  made  it  necessary  for  the  Institution  to  suspend 
shipments  to  many  foreign  countries.  The  countries  to  which 
shipments  were  being  made  at  the  close  of  the  year  were  as  follows : 

Eastern  Hemisphere: 

Great  Britain  and  Northern  Ireland. 

Portugal. 

Union  of  Soviet  Socialist  Republics. 

Union  of  South  Africa. 

India 

Australia. 

New  Zealand. 
Western  Hemisphere:  All  countries. 

In  the  report  for  1941  it  was  stated  that  the  British  Museum,  Depart- 
ment of  Printed  Books,  had  requested  the  Institution  to  discontinue 
the  sending  of  the  full  set  of  United  States  governmental  documents 
for  the  duration  of  the  war  because  of  the  possibility  of  destruction 
of  the  material  through  bombings  of  London.  About  the  middle  of 
the  current  year  the  British  Museum  asked  that  the  forwarding  of 
the  Government  sets  be  resumed  as  numerous  requests  had  been  re- 
ceived for  information  contained  in  many  of  the  documents.  Accord- 
ingly, all  accumulations  of  oflScial  documents  for  the  British  Museum 
were  sent  and  regular  transmissions  have  since  been  made. 

FOREIGN  DEPOSITORIES  OF  GOVERNMEI^  TAL  DOCUMENTS 

The  number  of  sets  of  United  States  official  publications  received 
for  transmission  abroad  through  the  International  Exchange  Service 
is  93  (55  full  and  38  partial  sets).  On  account  of  war  conditions  it  is 
possible  at  this  time  to  forward  only  58  of  these  sets.  The  remaining 
35  are  being  withheld  for  the  duration. 

During  the  year  Iran  and  Iraq  were  added  to  the  list  of  those  coun- 
tries receiving  partial  sets.  The  depository  in  Iran  is  the  Ministry 
of  Education  at  Tehran,  and  in  Iraq,  Public  Library  at  Baghdad. 

The  partial-set  depository  in  Afghanistan  has  been  changed  to  the 
Library  of  the  Afghan  Academy,  Kabul.  The  depository  of  the 
partial  set  sent  to  Bengal  has  been  changed  to  Library,  Bengal  Legis- 
lature, Calcutta. 

A  complete  list  of  the  depositories  follows.  Under  present  condi- 
tions, consignments  are  forwarded  only  to  those  countries  listed  on 
tions,  consigmnents  are  forwarded  only  to  those  countries  listed  above. 

DEPOSITOEIES    OF  FULL   SETS 

Aeokntina  :    Direcci6n    de   Investigaciones,   Archivo,   Biblioteca   y   Legislaci6n 
Efetranjera,  Ministerio  de  Relaciones  Exteriores  y  Culto,  Buenos  Aires. 


REPORT   OF   THE    SECRETARY  61 

Australia  :  Commonwealth  Parliament  and  National  Library,  Canberra. 

New  South  Wales  :  Public  Library  of  New  South  Wales,  Sydney. 

Queensland:  Parliamentary  Library,  Brisbane. 

South  Australia  :  Public  Library  of  South  Australia,  Adelaide. 

Tasmania  :  Parliamentary  Library,  Hobart. 

Victoria  :  Public  Library  of  Victoria,  Melbourne. 

Western  Australia;  Public  Library  of  Western  Australia,  Perth. 
Bexgium:  Bibloth^que  Royale,  Bruxelles. 
Brazil  :  Instituto  Nacional  do  LLvro,  Rio  de  Janeiro. 
Canada  :  Library  of  Parliament,  Ottawa. 

Manitoba  :  Provincial  Library,  Winnipeg. 

Ontario  :  Legislative  Library,  Toronto. 

Quebec:  Library  of  the  Legislature  of  the  Province  of  Quebec. 
Chile:  Biblioteca  Nacional,  Santiago. 

China:  Bureau  of  International  Exchange,  Ministry  of  Education,  Chungking. 
Colombia  :  Biblioteca  Nacional,  Bogotd. 
CosTA  Rica:  Oflcina  de  Dep6sito  y  Canje  Internacional  de  Publicaciones,  San 

Jos6. 
Cuba  :  Ministerio  de  Estado,  Canje  Internacional,  Habana. 
Czechoslovak^^.  :  Bibliotheque  de  I'Assembl^e  Nationale,  Prague. 
Denmark:  Kongelige  Danske  Videnskabernes  Selskab,  Copenhagen. 
Egypt:  Bureau  des  Publications,  Ministere  des  Finances,  Cairo. 
Estonia:  Riigiraamatukogu  (State  Library),  Tallinn. 
Finland:  Parliamentary  Library,  Helsinki. 
France:  Bibliotheque  Nationale,  Paris. 

Germany  :  Reichstauschstelle  im  Reichsminsterium  fur  Wissenschaf t,  Erziehung 
und  Volksbildung,  Berlin,  N.  W.  7. 

PRUSSIA :  Preussische  Staatsbibliothek,  Berlin,  N.  W.  7. 
Gbeat  Britain  : 

England:  British  Museum,  London. 

London  :  London  School  of  Economics  and  Political  Science.     (Depository 
of  the  London  County  Council.) 
Hungary  :  Library,  Hungarian  House  of  Delegates,  Budapest. 
India  :  Imperial  Library,  Calcutta. 
Ireland  :  National  Library  of  Ireland,  Dublin. 
Italy  :  Ministero  deU'Educazione  Nazionale,  Rome. 
Japan  :  Imperial  Library  of  Japan,  Tokyo. 
LATVIA:  Bibliotheque  d'Etat,  Riga. 

LEU.GUE  OF  NATIONS :  Library  of  the  League  of  Nations,  Geneva,  Switzerland. 
Mexico  :  DirecciSn  General  de  Informacion,  Secretaria  de  Gobernaci6n,  Mexico, 

D.  F. 
Netherlands  :  Royal  Library,  The  Hague. 
New  Zealand  :  General  Assembly  Library,  Wellington. 
Northern  Ireland:  H.  M.  Stationery  Office,  Belfast. 
Norway:  Universitets-Bibliothek,    Olso.     (Depository   of    the    Government   of 

Norway. ) 
Peru  :   Secci6n  de  Propaganda  y  Publicaciones,  Ministerio  de  Relaciones  Ex- 

teriores,  Lima. 
Polaito:  Bibliothfeque  Nationale,  Warsaw. 
Portugal:  Biblioteca  Nacional,  Lisbon. 
Rumania:  Academia  Romans,  Bucharest. 


62  ANNUAL  REPORT  SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

Spain:  Cambio  Internacional  de  Publicaciones,  Avenida  de  Calvo  Sotelo  20, 

Madrid. 
Sweden  :  Kungliga  Biblioteket,  Stockholm. 
SwiTZEajLAND :  Bibliothfeque  Centrale  F6d6rale,  Berne. 
TtXRKEY:  Department    of    Printing    and    Engraving,    Ministry    of    Education, 

Istanbul. 
Union  of  South  Africa  :  State  Library,  Pretoria,  Transvaal. 
Union  of  Soviet  Socialist  Republics:  All-Union  Lenin  Library,  Moscow  115. 
Ukeaine  :  Ukrainian  Society  for  Cultural  Relations  with  Foreign  Countries, 
Kiev. 
Uruguay  :  Oficina  de  Canje  Internacional  de  Publicaciones,  Montevideo. 
Venezuela  :  Biblioteca  Nacional,  Caracas. 
Yugoslavia:  Ministere  de  r:fiducation,  Belgrade. 

DEPOSITOEIES  OF  PARTIAL  SETS 

Afghanistan  :  Library  of  the  Afghan  Academy,  Kabul. 

Bolivia:  Biblioteca  del  Ministerio  de  Relaciones  Exteriores  y  Culto,  La  Paz. 

Brazil  : 

MiNAs  Gebaes  :  Directoria  Geral  e  Estatistica  em  Minas,  Bello  Horizonte. 
Beitish  Guiana  :  Government  Secretary's  Office,  Georgetown,  Demerara. 
Canada : 

Albebta:  Provincial  Library,  Edmonton. 

British  Columbia:  Provincial  Library,  Victoria. 

New  Brunswick:  Legislative  Library,  Fredericton. 

Nova  Scotia  :  Provincial  Secretary  of  Nova  Scotia,  Halifax. 

Prince  Edward  Ist^and  :  Legislative  and  Public  Library,  Charlottetown. 

Saskatchewan  :  Legislative  Library,  Regina. 
Ceylon  :  Chief  Secretary's  Office,  Record  Department  of  the  Library,  Colombo. 
China  :  National  Library  of  Peiping. 
Dominican  Republic  :  Biblioteca  de  la  Unlversidad  de  Santo  Domingo,  Ciudad 

Trujillo. 
Ecuador:  Biblioteca  Nacional,  Quito. 
Guatemala:  Biblioteca  Nacional,  Guatemala. 
Haiti  :  Biblioth^que  Nationale,  Port-au-Prince. 
Honduras : 

Biblioteca  y  Archivo  Nacionales,  Tegucigalpa. 

Ministerio  de  Relaciones  Exteriores,  Tegucigalpa. 
Iceland:  National  Library,  Reykjavik. 
India  : 

Bengal:  Library,  Bengal  Legislature,  Assembly  House,  Calcutta. 

Bihar  and  Orissa  :  Revenue  Department,  Patna. 

Bombay:  Undersecretary  to  the  Government  of  Bombay,  General  Depart- 
ment, Bombay. 

Burma:  Secretary  to  the  Government  of  Burma,  Education  Department, 
Rangoon. 

Punjab:  Chief  Secretary  to  the  Government  of  the  Punjab,  Lahore. 

United  Provinces  of  Agra  and  Oudh  :  University  of  Allahabad,  Allahabad. 
Iran  :  Imperial  Ministry  of  Education,  Tehran. 
Iraq  :  Public  Library,  Baghdad. 
Jamaica:  Colonial  Secretary,  Kingston. 
Liberia:  Department  of  State,  Monrovia. 


REPORT   OF   THE    SECRETARY  63 

Malta:  Minister  for  the  Treasury,  Valleta. 

Newfoundland  :  Department  of  Home  Affairs,  St.  John's. 

NiCAKAGUA :  Ministerio  de  Relaciones  Exteriores,  Managua, 

Panama  :  Ministerio  de  Relaciones  Exteriores,  Panama. 

Paraguay:  Ministerio  de  Relaciones  Exteriores,  Seccion  Biblioteca,  Asuncion. 

Salvador : 

Biblioteca  Nacional,  San  Salvador. 

Ministerio  de  Relaciones  Exteriores,  San  Salvador. 
Thailand  :  Department  of  Foreign  Affairs,  Bangkok. 
Vatican  City  :  Biblioteca  Apostolica  Vaticana,  Vatican  City,  Italy. 

INTEEPARLIAMENTARY  EXCHANGE  OF  THE  OFFICIAL  JOURNAL 

There  are  now  being  sent  abroad  only  S8  copies  each  of  the  Con- 
gressional Eecord  and  Federal  Eegister,  the  number  having  been 
reduced  on  account  of  the  war  from  71,  as  fully  reported  on  last  year. 
The  Library  of  Congress  has  arranged  to  have  an  extra  copy  of  the 
Register  furnished  for  transmission  to  Dr.  Fermin  Peraza  for  use  in 
connection  with  his  work  as  director  of  several  pan-American  organ- 
izations at  Habana,  Cuba. 

A  list  of  the  countries  and  depositories  to  which  these  journals  are 
being  forwarded  follows : 

DEPOSITOKIES  op  CONQBESSIONAL  BECOBD  and  FEDEEAL  BEGISTEfi 

Aegentina  : 

Biblioteca  del  Congreso  Nacional,  Buenos  Aires. 

Camara  de  Diputados,  Oficina  de  Informacion  Parlamentaria,  Buenos  Aires. 

Boletin  Oficial  de  la  Reptiblica  Argentina,  Ministerio  de  Justica  e  Instruccion 
Ptiblica,  Buenos  Aires. 
Austbalia  : 

Commonwealth  Parliament  and  National  Library,  Canberra. 

New  South  Wales  :  Library  of  Parliament  of  New  South  Wales,  Sydney. 

Queensland:  Chief  Secretary's  Office,  Brisbane. 

Westeen  Australla  :  Library  of  Parliament  of  Western  Australia,  Perth. 
Brazil: 

Biblioteca  do  Congresso  Nacional,  Rio  de  Janeiro. 

Amazonas  :  Archivo,  Biblioteca  e  Imprensa  Publica,  Manaos. 

Bahia  :  Governador  do  Estado  da  Bahia,  Sao  Salvador. 

EspiEiTO  Santo  :  Presidencia  do  Estado  do  Espirito  Santo,  Victoria. 

Rio  Gbande  do  Sul  :  "A  Federacjao,"  Porto  Alegre. 

Sebgepe:  Biblioteca  Publica  do  Estado  de  Sergipe,  Aracajti. 
British  Honduras  :  Colonial  Secretary,  Belize. 
Canada : 

Library  of  Parliament,  Ottawa. 

Clerk  of  the  Senate,  Houses  of  Parliament,  Ottawa. 
Cuba:  Biblioteca  del  Capitolio,  Habana. 

Great  Bbitain  :  Printed  Library  of  the  Foreign  Office,  London. 
Guatemala  :  Biblioteca  de  la  Asamblea  Legislativa,  Guatemala. 
Haiti:  Biblioth^que  Nationale,  Port-au-Prince. 
Honduras  :  Biblioteca  del  Congreso  Nacional,  Tegucigalpa. 


64  ANNUAL   REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

India:  Legislative  Department,  Simla.  ^ 

Irish  Fbee  State  :  Dail  Eireann,  Dublin. 
Mexico  : 

Direcci6n  General  de  Informaci6n,  Secretaria  de  Gobernacion,  Mexico,  D.  F. 

Biblioteca  Benjamin  Franklin,  Mexico,  D.  F. 

Aguascalientes  :  Gobernador  del  Estado  de  Aguascalientes,  Aguasealientes. 

Campeche:  Gobernador  del  Estado  de  Campeche,  Campeche. 

Chiapas  :  Gobernador  del  Estado  de  Chiapas,  Tuxtla  Gutierrez. 

Chihuahua  :  Gobernador  del  Estado  de  Chihuahua,  Chihuahua. 

CoAHUiLA:  Peri6dico  Oficial  del  Estado  de  Coahuila,  Palacio  de  Gobierno, 
Saltillo. 

CouMA :  Gobernador  del  Estado  de  Colima,  Colima. 

DuKANGo:  Gobernador  Constitucional  del  Estado  de  Durango,  Durango. 

Guanajuato:  Secretaria  General  de  Gobierno  del  Estado,  Guanajuato. 

GuEEREEO :  Gobernador  del  Estado  de  Guerrero,  Chilpancingo. 

Jalisco:  Biblioteca  del  Estado,  Guadalajara. 

LowEK  Caufoenia  :  Gobernador  del  Distrito  Norte,  Mexicali. 

Mfixico:  Gaceta  del  Gobierno,  Toluca. 

MichoacAn:    Secretaria   General  de  Gobierno  del  Estado  de  Michoacdn, 
Morelia. 

MoEELos:  Palacio  de  Gobierno,  Cuernavaca. 

Nayarit:  Gobernador  de  Nayarit,  Tepic. 

NuEvo  Le6n  :  Biblioteca  del  Estado,  Monterrey. 

Oaxaca  :  Peri6dico  Oficial,  Palacio  de  Gobierno,  Oaxaca. 

Puebla:  Secretaria  General  de  Gobierno,  Puebla. 

QuEKfiTABO :  Secretaria  General  de  Gobierno,  Secci6n  de  Archive,  Quer6taro. 

San  Luis  PoTosf :  Congreso  del  Estado,  San  Luis  Potosi. 

SiNALOA :  Gobernador  del  Estado  de  Sinaloa,  Culiacan. 

SoNOBA  :  Gobernador  del  Estado  de  Sonora,  Hermosillo. 

Tabasco  :  Secretaria  General  de  Gobierno,  Secci6n  3a,  Ramo  de  Prensa,  Villa- 
hermosa. 

Tamaulipas  :  Secretaria  General  de  Gobierno,  Victoria. 

Tlaxcala  :  Secretaria  de  Gobierno  del  Estado,  Tlaxcala. 

Vebaceuz  :  Gobernador  del  Estado  de  Veracruz,  Departmento  de  Goberna- 
cion y  Justicia,  Jalapa. 

YucatAn  :  Gobernador  del  Estado  de  Yucatdn,  M^rida. 
NEW'  Zealand:  General  Assembly  Library,  Wellington. 
Peru:  C^mara  de  Diputados,  Lima. 
Union  of  South  Ateica: 

Library  of  Parliament,  Cape  Tovpn,  Cape  of  Good  Hope. 

State  Library,  Pretoria,  Transvaal. 
Ubuguay  :  Diario  Oficial,  Calle  Florida  1178,  Montevideo. 
Venezuela  :  Biblioteca  del  Congreso,  Caracas. 

FOREIGN  EXCHANGE  AGENCIES 

There  is  given  below  a  list  of  bureaus  or  agencies  to  which  consign- 
ments are  forwarded  in  boxes  by  freight  when  the  Service  is  in  full 
operation.  To  all  countries  not  appearing  in  the  list,  packages  are 
sent  to  their  destinations  through  the  mails.  As  stated  previously, 
shipments  are  forwarded  during  wartime  only  to  those  countries  listed 
on  page  60. 


REPORT   OF   THE    SECRETARY  65 

UST  OF  AGENCIES 

Algeria,  via  France, 

Angola,  via  Portugal. 

Azores,  via  Portugal. 

Belgium  :   Service  Beige  des  ^^changes  Internationaux,  Bibliothfique  Royale  de 

Belgique,  Bruxelles. 
Canary  Islands,  via  Spain. 

China  :  Bureau  of  International  Exchange,  Ministry  of  Education,  Chungking. 
Czechoslovakia  :  Service  des  Echanges  Internationaux,  BibliothSque  de  I'As- 

sembl^e  Nationale,  Prague  1-79. 
Denmark:  Service   Danois    des    ^changes    Internationaux,    Kongelige   Danske 

Videnskabernes  Selskab,  Copenhagen  V. 
Egypt  :  Government  Press,  Publications  OflSce,  Bulaq,  Cairo. 
Finland:  Delegation  of  the  Scientific  Societies  of  Finland,  Kasarngatan  24, 

Helsinki. 
Fr^vnce:  Service  Frangais  des  ifichanges  Internationaux,  110  Rue  de  Grenelle, 

Parig. 
Germany  :  Amerika-Institut,  Universitatstrasse  8,  Berlin,  N.  W.  7. 
Great  Britain  and  Ireland  :  Wheldon  &  Wesley,  721  North  Circular  Road,  Willes- 

den,  London,  N.  W.  2. 
Hungary  :  Hungarian  Libraries  Board,  Ferenciektere  5,  Budapest,  IV. 
India  :  Superintendent  of  Government  Printing  and  Stationery,  Bombay. 
Italy  :  Ufflcio  degli  Scambi  Internazionali,  Ministero  dell'Educazione  Nazionale, 

Rome. 
Japan  :  International  Exchange  Service,  Imperial  Library  of  Japan,  Uyeno  Park, 

Tokyo. 
Latvia:  Service  des  :^changes  Internationaux,  Bibliothfeque  d'lfitat  de  Lettonie, 

Riga. 
Luxembourg,  via  Belgium. 
Madagascar,  via  France. 
Madeira,  via  Portugal. 
Mozambique,  via  Portugal. 
Netbeklands  :  International  Exchange  Bureau  of  the  Netherlands,  Royal  Library, 

The  Hague. 
New  South  Waubjs  :  Public  Library  of  New  South  Wales,  Sydney. 
New  Zealand  :  General  Assembly  Library,  Wellington. 
Norway  :  Service  Norv^gien  des  ^changes  Internationaux,  Biblioth&que  de  I'Uni- 

versit6  Royale,  Oslo. 
Palestine  :  Jewish  National  and  University  Library,  Jerusalem. 
Poland:  Service  Polonais  des  ^changes  Internationaux,  Biblioth^que  Nationale, 

Warsaw. 
Portugal:  SecgSo  de  Trocas  Internacionaes,  Biblioteca  Nacional,  Lisbon. 
Queensland:  Bureau  of  Exchanges  of  International  Publications,  Chief  Secre- 
tary's Office,  Brisbane. 
Rumania:  Minist^re  de  la  Propagande  Nationale,  Service  des  ^changes  Inter- 
nationaux, Bucharest. 
South  Australia:  South  Australian  Government  Exchanges  Bureau,  Govern 

ment  Printing  and  Satlonery  Office,  Adelaide. 
Spain:  Junta  de  Intercambio  y  Adquisicion  de  Libros  y  Revistas  para  Biblote- 

cas  Publicas,   Ministerio  de  Educaci6n  Nacional,  Avenida  Calvo  Sotelo,  20, 

Madrid. 
Sweden  :  Kungliga  Biblioteket,  Stockholm. 


66  ANNUAL  REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

Switzerland  :  Service  Suisse  des  Echanges  Internationaux,  Bibliothfeque  C5entrale 
F6d6rale,  Berne. 

Tasmania:  Secretary  to  the  Premier,  Hobart. 

TUEKEY :  Ministry  of  Education,  Department  of  Printing  and  Engraving,  Istanbul. 

Union  of  South  Afbica  :  Government  Printing  and  Stationery  Office,  Cape  Town, 
Cape  of  Good  Hope. 

Union  of  Soviet  Sociaust  Republics:  International  Book  Exchange  Depart- 
ment, Society  for  Cultural  Relations  with  Foreign  Countries,  Moscow,  56. 

ViCTOKiA :  Public  Library  of  Victoria,  Melbourne. 

Western  Austkalia  :  Public  Library  of  Western  Australia,  Perth. 

Yugoslavia:  Section  des  Echanges  Internationaux,  Ministere  des  Affaires 
:6trangeres,  Belgrade. 

M.  A.  Tolson,  who  was  appointed  under  the  Smithsonian  in  March 
1881,  resigned  December  31,  1943,  after  having  been  connected  with 
the  Institution  over  62  years.  Mr.  Tolson  was  retired  from  the  gov- 
ernment roll  in  1934,  but  has  since  been  employed  by  the  Smithsonian 
Institution.  He  continued  to  perform  his  regular  duties  until  his 
resignation. 

Clayton  L.  Policy  was,  at  his  own  request,  retired  July  1,  1943. 
Mr.  Policy  was  a  veteran  of  the  volunteer  forces  of  the  United  States, 
having  served  in  the  Spanish-American  war  and  the  Philippine 
Insurrection. 

Paul  M.  Carey,  who  enlisted  in  the  Army  in  August  1942  and  who 
was  discharged  therefrom  on  account  of  disability,  was,  owing  to  that 
condition,  retired  from  the  Exchanges  February  24, 1944. 

Respectfully  submitted. 

F.  E.  Gass,  Acting  Chief  Clerk. 

The  SECRirrARY, 

Smithsonian  Institution. 


APPENDIX  7 
REPOKT  ON  THE  NATIONAL  ZOOLOGICAL  PARK 

Sir  :  I  have  the  honor  to  submit  the  following  report  on  the  opera- 
tions of  the  National  Zoological  Park  for  the  fiscal  year  ended  June 
30, 1944. 

The  regular  appropriation  made  by  Congress  was  $277,130,  of  which 
$34,732  was  expended  for  overtime  under  the  special  legislation  in 
effect  for  this  purpose. 

GROUNDS,  BUILDINGS,  AND  ENCLOSURES 

The  primary  function  of  the  Zoo  is  to  maintain  and  exhibit  its  col- 
lection of  animals.  To  accomplish  this  under  wartime  conditions,  it 
has  been  necessary  to  limit  other  activities  strictly  to  maintenance 
work.  No  extensive  improvements  have  been  made  during  the  year, 
and  because  of  the  difficulty  in  obtaining  critical  materials,  even  the 
maintenance  work  has  frequently  been  of  a  temporary  nature.  The 
gates  of  the  Zoo  have  been  open  from  daylight  to  dark,  and  many 
visitors  come  to  the  Park  after  their  working  hours.  In  general,  the 
Park  and  the  collection  are  in  good  condition  and  continue  to  be  used 
and  appreciated  by  large  numbers  of  visitors. 

PERSONNEL 

There  has  been  a  fairly  consistent  shortage  of  manpower  in  the  Zoo 
of  about  20  percent.  This  has  necessitated  the  employment  of  tem- 
porary labor  when  it  could  be  obtained,  which  has  thrown  a  heavy 
burden  onto  supervisors  to  whom  such  untrained  personnel  was 
assigned.  The  additional  supervisory  burden  has  been  well  carried 
out,  with  the  result  that  the  care  of  the  Park  and  of  the  animals 
has  not  been  seriously  neglected. 

On  December  31,  Head  Keeper  W.  H.  Blackburne  retired.  For  17 
years  past  the  retirement  age  he  had  been  retained  by  Executive 
order,  and  on  December  31  completed  service  of  53  years.  He  came  to 
the  Zoo  in  1891  as  Keeper,  and  was  made  Head  Keeper  the  following 
year.  In  1913,  accompanied  by  Mrs.  Blackburne,  he  went  to  Egypt  to 
bring  back  a  collection  from  the  zoo  at  Gizah.  Jumbina,  the  National 
Zoo's  large  African  elephant,  was  one  of  the  specimens  he  brought 
back;  also  the  pair  of  cheetahs  that  lived  in  the  Zoo  for  nearly  15 

67 


68  ANNUAL   REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

years.  On  his  retirement  the  Smithsonian  Institution  appointed  Mr. 
Blackburne  consultant  to  the  Director  for  life.  In  his  more  than  half 
a  century  of  continuous  service,  Mr.  Blackburne  saw  the  Zoo  grow 
from  the  original  lot  of  124  specimens  that  he  brought  to  the  Park  from 
the  Smithsonian  grounds  in  a  wagon  borrowed  from  the  Humane 
Society  to  its  present  size. 

WARTIME  PROBLEMS 

All  zoos  have  faced  wartime  difficulties  in  obtaining  food  and  sup- 
plies. The  National  Zoo,  however,  has  received  valuable  assistance 
from  the  managers  of  some  of  the  large  Safeway,  A.  and  P.,  Giant, 
and  other  stores,  who  have  put  aside  for  the  Zoo  trimmings  from  vege- 
tables. These  are  picked  up  by  truck  each  day  and  provide  the  Zoo 
with  greens  and  certain  types  of  vegetables.  Through  the  United 
States  Marshal's  Office  there  have  been  obtained  considerable  quan- 
tities of  food  condemned  for  one  reason  or  another  as  not  fit  for  human 
consumption,  including  several  tons  of  peanuts,  quantities  of  soy  beans, 
and  other  products,  which  have  been  of  material  aid. 

ATTENDANCE 

The  attendance  for  the  year  was : 

July 172, 100   February 53,  200 

August 204,500    March 97,450 

September 228,500    April 207,982 

October 142,750    May 269,500 

November 143,400    June 169,000 

December 42,850  

January 72,300  Total    1,803,532 

Although  no  actual  tabulation  was  made,  it  was  apparent  that  mili- 
tary and  naval  personnel  constituted  a  very  substantial  proportion  of 
the  total  number  of  visitors. 

There  has  been  a  good  attendance  from  various  schools  and  groups 
who  have  come  by  whatever  means  of  transportation  were  available. 
It  is  interesting  to  note  that  the  number  of  visitors  is  more  even 
throughout  the  week  than  hitherto,  although  naturally  the  attendance 
reaches  its  peak  on  Saturday  afternoons,  Sundays,  and  holidays.  The 
number  of  family  picnic  parties  has  greatly  increased. 

Medical  groups  have  come  to  the  Zoo  for  the  purpose  of  studying 
certain  types  of  animals,  and  the  Zoo  office  receives  many  requests  from 
the  War  and  Navy  Departments  and  other  agencies  of  the  Govern- 
ment for  information  on  biological  problems.  The  Zoo  continues  to  be 
a  regular  study  ground  for  art  and  biology  classes,  as  well  as  a  focal 
point  for  inquiries  about  animals  by  mail,  by  telephone,  and  in  person. 


REPORT   OF   THE    SECRETARY  69 

ACQUISITION  OF  SPECIMENS 

The  animal  market  has  naturally  been  restricted  by  the  small  num- 
ber of  shipments  being  made  from  abroad,  but  a  moderate  number  of 
desirable  specimens  have  been  obtained  by  purchase  or  exchange. 
Among  these  are  a  trio  of  Dama  wallabies,  the  two  females  of  which 
have  produced  young  since  their  arrival  from  the  San  Diego  Zoological 
Society ;  a  Diana  monkey,  also  from  the  San  Diego  Zoological  Society ; 
a  pair  of  cotton-headed  marmosets,  a  pair  of  scarlet  cocks -of -the-rock, 
and  a  young  male  jaguar. 

GIFTS 

Through  the  Army  a  number  of  interesting  and  valuable  specimens 
have  been  obtained.  Among  these  are  a  pair  of  those  rare  birds,  the 
kagus,  presented  by  the  Free  French  Government  of  New  Caledonia 
through  Lt.  Gen.  A.  M.  Patch  and  brought  to  Washington  by  Lt.  John 
11.  Fulling  while  on  leave.  On  a  subsequent  voyage,  Lieutenant  Full- 
ing obtained  for  the  Zoo  a  pair  of  flying  phalangers  and  a  fine  carpet 
python. 

The  Army  of  the  U.  S.  S.  R.  presented  to  the  Persian  Gulf  Command, 
United  States  Army,  through  Maj.  Gen.  Donald  H.  Connolly,  a  young 
Russian  bear  from  the  southern  Caucasus.  This  bear,  "Mischa,"  was 
brought  from  Persia  to  Washington  under  the  care  of  Lt.  A.  J.  Miller. 

From  the  Medical  Section,  India  China  Wing,  Air  Transport  Com- 
mand, through  Col.  Don  Flickinger,  came  a  collection  of  Indian  rep- 
tiles, including  cobras,  kraits,  Russell's  vipers  and  a  monitor  lizard. 
These  were  brought  to  Washington  by  Corp.  Wesley  H.  Dickinson. 

Another  interesting  addition  was  a  baby  howling  monkey. 

A  complete  list  of  donors  and  their  gifts  follows : 

DONORS  AND  THEIB  GIFTS 

W.  Alderson,  Washington,  D.  C,  2  Pekin  ducks. 

Ord  Alexander,  Washington,  D.  C,  red-bellied  turtle. 

Army  of  the  U.  S.  S.  R.,  through  Commanding  General,  Persian  Gulf  Command, 

Maj.  Gen.  Donald  H.  Connolly,  U.  S.  Army,  Old  World  brown  bear. 
W.  H.  Aughinbaxigh,  Arlington,  Va.,  3  Reeves'  pheasants. 
Mrs.  C.  A.  Baker,  Washington,  D.  C,  alligator. 
Jack  Baldwin,  Washington,  D.  C,  alligator. 
George  BaUou,  Bethesda,  Md.,  raccoon,  short-tailed  shrew,  sparrow  hawk,  30 

white  mice,  crow,  fence  lizard. 
Mrs.  Nell  Barger,  Washington,  D.  C,  horned  lizard. 
Dr.  Paul  Bartsch,  Washington,  D.  C,  chain  or  king  snake. 
Mrs.  G.  N.  Bates,  Alexandria,  Va.,  raccoon. 
J.  H.  Benn,  Silver  Spring,  Md.,  worm  snake. 
Mr.  Berg,  Fredericksburg,  Va.,  red  fox. 
Mrs.  John  P.  Bressler,  Bethesda,  Md.,  nine-banded  armadillo. 


70  ANNUAL   REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

James  G.  Brunzos,  Washington,  D.  C,  2  Pekin  ducks. 

S.  M.  Call,  Mocksville,  N.  C,  through  North  Carolina  State  Museum,  Raleigh,  N.  C, 

albino  opossum, 
Donald  A.  Campbell,  Chapel  Hill,  N.  C,  vervet  monkey. 
T.  L.  Canby,  Silver  Spring,  Md.,  barn  owl. 
Dr.  H.  J.  Carter,  Washington,  D.  C,  great  blue  heron. 

Miss  Margaret  Carter  and  Miss  Doris  M.  Rice,  Washington,  D.  C,  screech  owl. 
Miss  Frances  Chatfleld,  Washington,  D.  C,  alligator. 
Peter  Chittick,  McLean,  Va.,  spotted  turtle,  3  milk  snakes. 
Robert  Clagett,  Landover,  Md.,  Pekin  duck. 
Dr.  Marie  B.  Clark,  Cardozo  High  School,  Washington,  D.  C,  garter  snake, 

hog-nosed  snake. 
Tom  Collingwood,  Washington,  D.  C,  tarantula. 
Mrs.  Edward  Costello,  Washington,  D.  C,  red  fox. 
K.  L.  Curtis,  Washington,  D.  C,  raccoon. 
Gordon  Daiger,  Washington,  D.  C,  2  Cumberland  terrapins. 
James  Daphney,  Washington,  D.  C,  2  alligators. 
Claudine  DeHaven,  Glasgow,  Va.,  corn  snake,  black  snake. 
Glenn  Dixon,  Washington,  D.  C,  red-tailed  hawk. 
Joanne  V.  Dyke,  Washington,  D.  C,  anolis. 
J.  E.  Ennis,  Washington,  D.  C,  barn  owl. 
Colonel  Evans  (address  unrecorded),  red-tailed  hawk. 
William  L.  Foster,  Rockville,  Md.,  barn  owl. 
F.  F.  Fox,  Hyattsville,  Md.,  2  box  turtles. 
John  Francis,  Jr.,  Washington,  D.  C,  opossum. 
Mrs.  Jean  B.  Fraser,  Takoma  Park,  D.  C,  5  American  toads. 
Free  French  Government  of  New  Caledonia,  through  Lt.  Gen.  A.  M.  Patch,  U.  S. 

Army,  2  kagus. 
Mrs.  Freeman,  Washington,  D.  C,  ring-necked  pheasant. 
Lt.  John  H.  Fulling,  U.  S.  Army,  carpet  python,  2  flying  phalangers. 
Stephen  Gatti,  Washington,  D.  C,  sparrow  hawk. 
Gordon  Gaver,  Thurmont,  Md.,  indigo  snake. 
William  C.  Gawler,  Bethesda,  Md.,  3  Pekin  ducks. 
Roger  Granum,  Washington,  D.  C,  white  rabbit. 
Mrs.  William  S.  Green,  through  C.  Purcell  McCue,  Appledore  Orchard,  Greenwood, 

Va.,  2  sika  deer. 
Mrs.  Charles  Greer,  Alexandria,  Va.,  3  Pekin  ducks. 
Granville  Gude,  Washington,  D.  C,  alligator. 
Willie  Haltzman,  Alexandria,  Va.,  2  Pekin  ducks. 
John  N.  Hamlet,  Fish  and  Wildlife  Service,  College  Park,  Md.,  4  meadow  mice,  2 

northern  ravens,  7  pine  lizards,  2  blue-tailed  skinks,  4  six-lined  race  runners, 

pilot  black  snake. 
Ernest  O.  Hammersla,  Washington,  D.  C,  howling  monkey. 
Mrs.  H.  Hanford,  Washington,  D.  C,  3  canaries. 
Maj.  D.  Elmo  Hardy,  U.  S.  A.,  1  Hoolock  gibbon. 
Richard  A.  Harman,  Alexandria,  Va.,  alligator. 
J.  W.  Harrison,  Mt.  Rainier,  Md.,  2  Pekin  ducks. 
Richard  T.  Heckman,  Washington,  D.  C,  2  white  mice. 

Dr.  Roy  Hertz,  National  Institute  of  Health,  Bethesda,  Md.,  18  American  toads. 
Mrs.  Hibben,  Vienna,  Va.,  pilot  snake. 

Thomas  M.  Hopkins,  Laurel,  Md.,  water  snake,  snapping  turtle. 
Thomas  M.  Hopkins  and  Cylde  T.  Miles,  Jr.,  Laurel,  Md.,  3  snapping  turtles, 

spotted  turtle,  2  box  turtles. 
C.  S.  Howell,  Remington,  Va.,  guinea  pigs. 


REPORT   OF   THE    SECRETARY  71 

Gordon  L.  Jessup,  Potomac  Heights,  D.  C,  black  snake. 

Miss  J,  M.  Jones,  Washington,  D.  C,  yellow-naped  parrot. 

Mrs.  W.  A.  Justice,  Edgewater,  Md.,  double  yellow-headed  parrot. 

Mrs.  Kanthal,  Washington,  D.  C,  white  squirrel. 

James  G.  Keller,  Washington,  D.  C,  alligator. 

Alfred  Kendall,  Washington,  D.  C,  cardinal. 

Mrs.  I.  A.  Kniazev,  Silver  Spring,  Md.,  Cuban  conure. 

Mrs.  Alta  Brill  Kremer,  Maurertown,  Va.,  2  Pekin  ducks. 

Mrs.  Martha  Lawty,  Washington,  D.  C,  Texas  horned  lizard. 

Ralph  D.  Lindsey,  Silver  Spring,  Md.,  snapping  turtle. 

Miss  Margaret  Love,  R.  R.,  Leon,  Kans.,  great  horned  owl. 

Mrs.  Lorraine  Lowe,  Washington,  D.  C,  gray  fox. 

Francine  Lee  Lyons,  Washington,  D.  C,  Pekin  duck. 

M.  K.  Macknet,  Takoma  Park,  Md.,  pilot  snake. 

Medical  Section,  India  China  Wing,  Air  Transport  Command,  through  Col.  Don 
Flickinger,  M.  C,  king  cobra,  Indian  cobra,  banded  krait,  common  krait, 
2  monitors,  2  tree  snakes,  Russell's  viper,  2  rat  snakes,  5  pythons. 

Mrs.  John  C.  Meikle,  Washington,  D.  C,  2  zebra  finches. 

George  J.  Merrick,  Washington,  D.  C.,  barn  owl. 

W.  H.  Meserole,  Washington,  D.  C,  black-crowned  night   heron. 

B.  Miller,  Washington,  D.  C,  horned  lizard. 

Billy  Monroe,  Washington,  D.  C,  opossum. 

Benjamin  Muller,  Washington,  D.  C,  pilot  black  snake. 

National  Capital  Parks,  Washington,  D.  C,  water  snake,  tadpoles,  Gambusia 
holbrooki. 

Harry  Neuman,  Washington,  D.  C,  2  alligators. 

Fred  Orsinger,  Fish  and  Wildlife  Service,  Washington,  D.  C,  4  hellbenders, 
10  diamond-back  terrapins,  mud  turtle,  4  mudpuppies. 

Joseph  Pignataro,  Washington,  D.  C,  6  ring-necked  snakes. 

Freeman  Pollock,  Washington,  D.  C,  timber  rattlesnake. 

Scott  Price,  Washington,  D.  C,  green  racer. 

Anna  M.  Rager,  Washington,  D.  C,  3  paradise  fish,  three-spot  gourami,  4  blood- 
fins,  100  Trinidad  guppies,  catfish,  300  snails. 

Miss  Anna  Rees,  Washington,  D.  C,  Pekin  duck,  mallard  duck. 

R.  H.  Riggs,  Chevy  Chase,  Md.,  2  Pekin  ducks. 

Lt.  Laurance  S.  Rockefeller,  Washington,  D.  C.,  European  goldfinch,  white 
zebra  finch. 

Mrs.  M.  L.  Rue,  Washington,  D.  C,  4  muscovy  ducks. 

Migual  A.  Ruiz,  Washington,  D.  C,  hog-nosed  snake. 

D.  R.  Sampson,  Brentwood,  Md.,  2  red-shouldered  hawks. 

Miss  Eugenia  Sasa,  Washington,  D.  C,  grass  paroquet. 

Miss  Katherine  Sater,  Washington,  D.  C,  black  snake. 

Daniel  Schroeder,  Washington,  D.  C,  2  blue  tanagers,  3  Pekin  robins,  2  diamond 
doves,  Cuban  bullfinch. 

Alfred  L.  Schwoser,  Washington,  D.  C,  red  fox. 

Sandra  Seymour,  Riverdale,  Md.,  great  horned  owl. 

Charles  P.  Shaeffer,  Jr.,  West  Haven,  Md.,  alligator. 

Pfc.  A.  W.  Sharer,  United  States  Army,  pilot  snake,  black  snake,  2  copperheads, 
2  blue  racers. 

Patsy  and  Linda  Shaw,  Washington,  D.  C,  alligator. 

Robert  B.  Sherfy,  Washington,  D.  C,  screech  owl. 

Robert  Shosteck,  Washington,  D.  C,  2  fence  lizards,  spotted  turtle. 

619830 — 45 6 


72  ANNUAL   REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

Mrs.  J.  R.  Skinner,  Washington,  D.  C,  grass  paroquet. 

David  W.  E.  Smith,  Washington,  D.  C,  De  Kay's  snake. 

Mrs.  W.  R.  Smith,  Cottage  City,  Md.,  3  ring-necked  doves. 

Melvin  Snyder,  Washington,  D.  C,  Cumberland  terrapin. 

Mrs.  Rebecca  Spitler  and  Dian  Suunbrun,  Bethesda,  Md.,  4  Pekin  ducks. 

K.  H.  Spivey,  Washington,  D.  C,  Pekin  duck. 

Mrs.  L.  D.  Staver,  Washington,  D.  C.,  barred  owl. 

Mrs.  George  Strawbridge,  Washington,  D.  C,  alligator. 

Ralph  Swiggard,  Washington,  D.  C,  worm  snake. 

Mrs.  Taylor  (address  unrecorded),  5  opossums. 

Edward  M.  Traylor,  Washington,  D.  C,  titi  monkey. 

James  H.  Turner,  Dunn  Loring,  Va.,  coatimundi. 

Dr.  H.  R.  van  Houten,  Bethesda,  Md.,  garter  snake, 

Ralph  C.  Wainoskey,  United  States  Army,  rhesus  monkey. 

Frank  J.  Walker,  Arlington,  Va.,  2  flying  squirrels. 

R.  E.  Walker,   United   States  Navy,  Hydrographic  OflBce,   Washington,    D.   C, 

painted   turtle,  diamond-back  terrapin,  praying  mantis. 
T.  Wampler,  Washington,  D.  C,  2  crows. 
Ward  Farrns,  Amelia  Court  House,  Va.,  red  fox. 
Theodore  Weiner,  Washington,  D.  C,  pine  lizard. 
Mrs.  H.  J.  Wells,  Washington,  D.  C,  diamond-back  terrapin. 
Richard  Wells,  Washington,  D.  C,  desert  tortoise. 
J.  A.  Wheeler,  Washington,  D.  C.,  sparrow  hawk. 
J.  H.  White,  Washington,  D.  C.,  gray  squirrel. 

Margie,  Mary  Lu,  and  June  Aileen  Wilkin,  Washington,  D.  C,  cottontail  rabbit. 
C.  W.  Williamson,  Washington,  D.  C,  cottonmouth  moccasin, 
Ray  E.  Wooldridge,  Washington,  D.  C,  alligator. 
J.  C.  Wright,  Washington,  D.  C.,  wood  frog. 
(Donor  unknown),  2  bobwhites. 

NATURAL   REPRODUCTION 

Four  sets  of  twins  of  the  common  marmoset  were  born  during  the 
year. 

A  cub  was  born  dead  to  a  pair  of  Polar  and  Alaska  brown  bear 
hybrids  which  were  born  in  the  National  Zoological  Park  in  1936. 

Births  and  hatchings  during  the  year  included : 

MAMMALS 

Scientific  name  Common  name                                    Number 

Acrocodia  indica Apiatic   tapir 1 

Ammotragus    lervia Aoudad 5 

Bihos  gaurus Gaur 1 

Bison  Wson Bison 1 

Bos   indicus Zebu 1 

Bos   taurus British   Park  cattle 1 

Callithrix  jacchus Common  marmoset 8 

Camelus   bactrianus Bactrian  camel 1 

Cercopithecus  aethiops  sabaeus Green  guenon 1 

Cervus   canadensis Elk 1 

Choeropsis   liheriensis Pigmy  hippopotamus 1 


REPORT   OF   THE    SECRETARY  73 


[Fallow   deer 2 

Dama  dama ^^^.^^  ^^1^^^  ^^^^ g 

Dasyprocta  croconota  prymnolopha Agouti 1 

DoUchotis  patagona Patagonian   cavy 2 

Felis    concolor Puma 4 

Eemitragus  jemlahicus Tahr 1 

MicroUis    pennsylvanicus Meadow   mouse 4 

Myocastor  coypu Coypu 5 

Nasua  narica Coatimundi 5 

Neotmna  floridana  attwateri Round-tailed  wood  rat 3 

Oncifelis   geoffroyi Geoffroy's  cat 2 

Ovis  aries Woolless  or  Barbados  sheep 1 

Procyon  lotor Black  raccoon 1 

ThalarctosXUrsus Hybrid  bear 1 


Anas  platyrJiynchos Mallard   duck 70 

Branta   canadensis Canada    goose 50 

Branta  canadensis  occidentalis White-cheeked   goose 20 

Cairina  moschata Muscovy    duck 8 

Fulica  americana American  coot 10 

Larus   novaehollandiae Silver  gull 2 

Nycticorax  nycticorax  naevius Black-crowned  night  heron 18 

Turtur  risorius Ring-necked    dove 2 

EEFITLES 

Agkistrodon    mokeson Copperhead    snake 8 

Oerrhonotus  coemleus  principis Alligator   lizard 1 

Natrix  septemvittata Queen  or  moon  snake 15 

Natrix  sipedon Banded  water  snake 51 

Natrix  taxispilota Brown  water  snake 39 

Thamnophis  sivtalis Midwest  garter  snake 12 

LOSSES 

Losses  include  the  African  rhinoceros,  which  died  after  13  years  in 
the  Zoo ;  a  slow  loris,  after  5  years  and  10  months ;  a  mandrill,  after 
18  years  and  7  months;  and  the  maned  wolf,  after  10  years  and  6 
months. 

A  scarlet  ibis  died  after  19  years  11  months;  a  roseate  spoonbill, 
after  9  years. 

A  large  reticulated  python,  deposited  for  exhibition  by  Clif  Wilson, 
died  during  the  winter.  A  cast  has  been  made  of  this  snake  for 
permanent  exhibition  in  the  United  States  National  Museum.  When 
the  dead  snake  was  sent  to  the  Museum,  it  measured  24  feet  8  inches. 
Since  8  or  10  inches  of  the  tail  was  missing,  this  specimen  was  well 
over  25  feet  in  length,  and  the  dead  body  weighed  305  pounds, 
making  it  one  of  the  largest  snakes  ever  exhibited. 


74  ANNUAL  REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

Statement  of  accessions 


How  acquired 

Mam- 
mals 

Birds 

Rep- 
tiles 

Am- 
phib- 
ians 

Fishes 

Arach- 
nids 

In- 
verte- 
brates 

Total 

Presented 

67 
73 

6 
15 
23 

1 

85 
180 
41 
23 

g 

122 
126 

34 
4 

25 

28 

14 

1 

1 

Born  or  hatched 

Received  in  exchange 

Purchased 

318 
379 

14 
35 

95 

On  deposit 

Collected  in  the  Park 

77 
57 

1 

Total 

185 

338 

311 

77 

14 

1 

1 

927 

Summary 
Animals  on  hand  July  1,  1943 2  435 

Accessions  during  the  year "      ~  '  q^ 


Total  animals  in  collection  during  year 3  302 

Removals  from  collection  by  death,  exchange,  and  return  of  animals  on 
deposit 


736 


In  collection  June  30,  1944 

Status  of  collection 


2,626 


Class 


Mammals.. 

Birds 

Reptiles 

Amphibians 
Fishes 


Species 
and  sub- 
species 


210 
312 
114 
20 
37 


Individ- 
uals 


677 
909 
447 
120 
368 


Class 


Arachnids.. 
Insects 

Total 


Species 
and  sub- 
species 


b96 


Individ- 
uals 


5 
100 


2,626 


A  list  of  the  animals  in  the  collection  follows : 

ANIMALS  IN  THE  NATIONAL  ZOOLOGICAL  PARK  JUNE  30,  1944 

MAMMALS 

marsupialia 

^Soientiflo  name  common  name                                    Number 

Didelphiidae : 

Didelphis  virgvniana Opossum 4 

Phalangeridae : 

Petaurus  Ireviceps Lesser  flying  phalanger 2 

Petatirus  norfolccnsis Australian  flying  phalanger 2 

Trichosurus  vulpecula Vulpine  or  brush-tailed  opossum  1 

Maeropodidae : 

Dendrolagus  inustus New  Guinea  tree  kangaroo 2 

Dendrolayus  inustus  finschi Finsche's  tree  kangaroo 3 

Macrop'us   major Great  gray  kangaroo ~ 1 

Thylogale  eugenii Dama  wallaby ~__  5 

Phascolomyidae : 

Vomlatus  ursinus Flinders  Island  wombat 1 


REPORT   OF   THE    SECRETARY  75 

INSECTIVOBA 

Scientiflo  name  Common  name  Number 

Soricidae : 

Blarina  brevicauda Short-tailed  shrew 1 

OABNIVOEA 

Felidae : 

Adnonyx  jubatus Cheetah   1 

Felis  chaus Jungle  cat 1 

Felis   concolor Puma   5 

Felis  concolor  patagonica Patagonian  puma 1 

Felis  concolor  X  Felis  concolor  pata-    North  American  X  South  American 

gonica puma 4 

Felis  leo Lion 6 

f  Jaguar 5 

Felis  onm 1  BI^^j^  ^^^^^ 2 

Felis  pardalis Ocelot 3 

f  Indian  leopard__=r 3 

^elis  pardus 1  ^^^^.j^  ^^^.^^  j^^p^^^.^ 2 

Felis  tigris Bengal  tiger 2 

Felis  tigris  longipilis Siberian  tigei' 1 

Felis  tigris  sumatrae Sumatran  tiger 4 

Lyrix  rtifus Bay  lynx 2 

Lynx  rufus  baileyi Bailey's  lynx 1 

Lynx  uinta Bobcat 1 

Neofelis  nebulosa Clouded  leopard 1 

Oncifelis  geoffroyi Geoffroy's  cat 4 

Profelis  temmincMi Golden  cat 3 

Viverridae : 

Arctictis  binturong Binturong 2 

Civettictis  civetta African  civet 1 

Myonax  sanguineus Dwarf  civet 1 

Paradoxurus  hermapJiroditus Small-toothed  palm  civet 1 

Hyaenidae : 

Crocuta  crocuta  germinans East  African  spotted  hyena 1 

Canidae : 

Canis  latrans Coyote 2 

Canis  latrans  X  familiaris Coyote  and  dog  hybrid 1 

Canis  lupus  nubilus Plains  wolf 2 

Canis  rufus Texas  red  wolf 5 

Cuon  javaniaus  sumatrensis Sumatran  wild  dog 1 

Dusicyon  culpaeus South  American  fox 2 

Dusicyon  (Cerdocyon)  thous South  American  fox 1 

Nyctereutes  procyonoides Raccoon  dog 2 

Vrocyon  cinereoargenteus Gray  fox 9 

Vulpes  fulva Red  fox 11 

Procyonidae : 

Nasua  narica Coatimundi 10 

Nasua  nelsoni Nelson's  coatimundi 1 

Potos  flavus Kinkajou 7 

(Raccoon 5 

Black  raccoon 1 

Albino  raccoon 1 


76  ANNUAL   REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

CAENivoBA — continued 

Scientifto  name  Common  name  Number 

Bassariscidae : 

Bassariscus  astutus Ring-tail  or  cacomistle 3 

Mustelidae : 

Arctonyx  collaris Hog  badger 1 

Orisonella  huronaw Grison 1 

Lutra  canadensis  vaga Florida  otter 1 

Lutra  (Micraonyx)  cinerea Small-clawed  otter 1 

Martes   {Lamprogale)   flavigula  lien- 

ricii Asiatic  marten 1 

Meles  meles  leptorhynchus Chinese  badger 1 

Mellivora  capensis Ratel 1 

Mephitis  mephitis  nigra Skunk 4 

Mustela  campestris Plains  least  weasel  or  ermine 1 

Mustela  eversmanni Ferret 2 

Tayra  Mrbara  iarbara White   tayra 2 

Tayra  barhara  senilis Gray-headed   tayra 1 

Ursidae : 

Etiarctos  americanus Black  bear 5 

Euarctos  thibetanus Himalayan  bear 2 

Helarctos  malayamis Malay  or  sun  bear • 1 

Melursus  ursinus Sloth  bear 1 

Thalarctos  maritimus Polar  bear 3 

Thalarctos  maritimus  X   Ursus  mid- 

dendorfp, Hybrid  bear 4 

Tremarctos  ornatus Spectacled  bear 1 

Ursus  arctos European  brown  bear 1 

Ursus  arctos  meridianalis Euroi)ean  brown  bear 1 

Ursus  gyas Alaska  Peninsula  bear 3 

Ursus  middendorffi Kodiak  bear 3 

Ursus  sitkensis Sitka  brown  bear 3 

PINNIPEDIA 

Otariidae : 

Zalophus  calif omianus Sea  lion 2 

Pliocidae : 

Phoca  vitulina  richardii Pacific  harbor  seal 3 

PBIMATES 

Lemuridae : 

Lemur  mongoz Mongoose  lemur 2 

Callitrichidae : 

Callithrix  Jacchus White-tufted  mai'moset 8 

Callithrix  penicillata Black-tufted  marmoset 5 

Tamarin  (Oedvpomidas)  geoffroyi Geofifroy's   tamarin 1 

Tamarin  midas Yellow-handed  tamarin 4 

Tamarin  (Oedipomidas)  oedipus Cotton-top  tamarin 3 

Tamarin  (Leontocebus)  rosalia Lion-headed  or  golden  marmoset 1 

Saimiridae : 

Saimiri  sciurea Titi  or  squirrel  monkey 2 


REPORT   OF   THE    SECRETARY  77 

PRIMATES — continued 

Scientific  name  Common  name  Number 

Cebidae : 

Alouatta  pallUita  mexicanus Howling  monkey 1 

Aotus  trivirgatus Douroucouli  or  owl  monkey 6 

Ateles  vellerosus Spider  monkey 9 

Cebus  apella Gray  capuchin 2 

Cehus  capucinus White-throated  capuchin 2 

Ceius  fatuellus Weeping  capuchin 5 

Lagothriw  lagotricha Woolly  monkey 1 

Cercopithecidae : 

Cercopithecus  aethiops  pygei'ythrus Vervet  guenon 1 

Cercopithecus  aethiops  sabaetis Green  guenon 6 

Cercopithecus  diana Diana   monkey 1 

Cercopithecus  diana  roloway Roloway  monkey 1 

Cercopithecus  neglectus De  Brazza's  guenon 1 

Cercopithecus  nictitans  petaurista Lesser  white-nosed  guenon 1 

Cercopithecus  sp West  African  guenon 1 

Oymnopyga  maurus Moor  macaque 1 

Macaca  fuscata Japanese  macaque 2 

Macaca  irus  mordax Javan  macaque 6 

Macaca  mulatta Rhesus   macaque 6 

Macaca  mulatta  lasiotis Chinese  macaque 1 

Macaca  nemestrina Pig-tailed  macaque 2 

Macaca  sinica Toque  or  bonnet  macaque 1 

Macaca  speciosa Red-faced  macaque 1 

Mandrillus  sphinx Mandrill 2 

Papio  comatus Chacma 1 

Papio  cynocephalus Golden   baboon 1 

Hylobatidae : 

Hylohates  agilis Sumatran   gibbon 1 

Eylobates  hoolock Hoolock  gibbon 1 

Hylohates  lar  pileatus Black-capped  gibbon 1 

Symphalangus  syndactylus Siamang  gibbon 1 

Pongidae : 

Pan  troglodytes Chimpanzee 2 

Pan  troglodytes  verus West  African   chimpanzee 3 

Pongo  aielii Sumatran   orangutan 1 

Pongo  pygmaeus Bornean  orangutan 2 

BODENHA 

Sciuridae : 

Citellus  toumsendii Soft-haired   ground   squirrel 1 

CiteUus    tridecemlineatus 13-lined  ground  squirrel 2 

Cynomys  ludovicianus Plains  prairie  dog 55 

Glaucomys  volans Flying  squirrel 6 

Woodchuck  or  ground  hog 7 

Eastern  gray  squirrel  (albino) 1 

Lesser   white  squirrel 3 

Eastern   chipmimk 1 


Marmota  monax 

Sdurus  caroUnenMS 

Sciurus  finlaysoni 

Tamias  striatus 

Heteromyidae : 

Dipodomys  merriami Merriam's  kangaroo  rat 1 

Dipodomys  ordii Ord's  kangaroo  rat 3 


78  ANNUAL   REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

EODENTiA — continued 

Scientific  name  Common  name  Number 

Cricetidae : 

Mesocricetus  auratus , Golden  hamster 15 

Microtus  pennsylvanicus Meadow  mouse 11 

Neotoma  floridana  attwateri Round-tailed  wood  rat 8 

Onychomys  leiicogaster Grasshopper  mouse 1 

Peromyscus  crinitua  auripectus Golden-breasted  mouse 1 

Peromyscus  leucopus White-footed  or  deer  mouse 2 

Peromyscus  truei True's  white-footed  mouse 1 

Sigmodon  hispidus Cotton  rat 2 

Muridae : 

Mus  musculus White  and  other  domestic  mice 8 

Rattus  alexandrinus Roof  rat  and  black  rat 1 

Rattus  norvegicus White  and  pied-colored  rats 2 

Hystricidae : 

Acanthion  brachyurum Malay   porcupine 3 

Atherurus  africwnus West  African   brush-tailed   porcu- 
pine   2 

Hystrix  galeata African  porcupine 1 

Thecurus  crassispinis  sumatrae Thick-spined  porcupine 1 

Myocastoridae : 

Myocastor  coypu Coypu 16 

Cuniculidae : 

Cuniculus  paca  inrgatus Central  American  paca i 

Dasyproctidae : 

Dasyprocta Speckled   agouti 4 

Dasyprocta  croconota  prynmolopha Agooiti 2 

Caviidae : 

^     .         „    „                                         f  Guinea  pig 10 

Gavia  porcellus )  ... 

I  Angora  gumea  pig 1 

Dolichotis  patagona Patagonian  cavy 5 

Hydrochoeridae : 

Hydrochoerus  hydrocJioerus Capybara 1 

LAQOMOEPHA 

Leporidae : 

Oryctolagus  cuniculus Domestic  rabbit 13 

ABTIODACTYIA 

Bovidae : 

Ammotragus  lervia Aoudad 12 

Anoa  depressicornis Anoa 1 

Anoa  guarelsi Mountain  anoa 1 

Bibos  gaurus Gaur 3 

_.        ,.                                                    f  American   bison 15 

Bison  btson {  .... 

[  Albino  bison 1 

Bos  indicus Zebu 6 

Bos  taurus Texas  longhorn  steer 1 

Bos  taurus West  Highland  or  Kyloe  cattle 2 

Bos  taurus British  Park  cattle 4 

Bubalua  bubalis Indian  buffalo 1 

Cephalophus  maxwellii Maxwell's   duiker 1 


i 


REPORT   OF   THE    SECRETARY  79 

AETioDAcTYLA — Continued 

Scientific  name  Common  name                                     Number 
Bovidae — Continued. 

Cephalophus  niger Black  duiker 1 

Cephalophus  nigrifrons Black-fronted  duiker 2 

Connochaetes  gnou White-tailed  gnu 1 

Hemitragus  jemlahicus Tahr 8 

Oreotragus  oreotragus Klipspringer 1 

Oryx  beisa  annectens Ibean  beisa  oryx 2 

Ovis  aries Woolless  or  Barbados  sheep 3 

Ovis  europaeus Mouflon 2 

Poephagus  grunniens Yak ^ 

Pseudois  nayaur Bharal  or  blue  sheep 3 

Synceros  caffer African  buffalo 2 

Taurotragus  oryx Eland 3 

Cervidae : 

Axis  axis Axis  deer 4 

Cervus  canadensis American  elk 5 

Cervus  elaphus Red  deer 6 

f  Fallow  deer 14 

[  White  fallow  deer 1^ 

Muntiacus  muntjak Rib-faced  or  barking  deer 1 

Odocoileus  virginianus Virginia  deer 2 

Sika  nippon Japanese  deer 4 

Giraffidae : 

Oiraffa  camelopardalis Nubian  giraffe 4 

Oiraffa  reticulata Reticulated  giraffe 1 

Camelidae : 

Camelus  tactrianus Bactrian  camel 4 

Camelus  dromedariiis Single-humped  camel 1 

Ltoima   glama Llama 3 

Lama  glama  guanicoe Guanaco 2 

Lama  pacos Alpaca 2 

Vicvgna  vicugna Vicuna 2 

Tayassuidae : 

Pecari   angulatus Collared  peccary 2 

Tayassu    pecari White-lipped  peccary 1 

Suidae : 

Babirussa   hahyrussa ^ Babirussa 2 

Phacochoerus  aethiopicus  aeliani East  African  wart  hog 3 

Bus  scrofa European  wild  boar 1 

Hippopotamidae : 

Choeropsis   liheriensis Pigmy  hippopotamus 5 

Hippopotamus  amphiiius Hippopotamus 2 

PEBISSODACTTLA 

Equidae : 

Equus  burchelUi  antiquorum Chapman's  zebra 4 

Equus    grevyi Grevy's  zebra 1 

Equus  grevyi  x  asinus Zebra-ass  hybrid 1 

Equus  grevyi  x  caballus Zebra-horse  hybrid 1 

Equus  kiang Asiatic  wild  ass  or  kiang 2 

Equus    przewalskii Mongolian  wild  horse 3 

Equus  zebra Mountain  zebra 1 


80  ANNUAL   REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

PEEissoDACTYLA — Continued 

Scientific  name  Common  name                                   Number 
Tapiridae : 

Acrocodia  indica Asiatic  tapir 2 

Tapirus  terrestris South  American  tapir 3 

Rhinocerotidae : 

Rhinoceros  unicornis Great     Indian     one -horned     rhi- 
noceros       1 

PEOBOSCIDEA 

Elephantidae : 

Elaphas  maximus  sumatranus Sumatran  elephant 1 

Loxodonta  africana  oxyotis African  elephant 1 

HYEACOIDEA 

Procavia  capensis Hyrax 2 

EDENTATA  - 

Choloepodidae : 

Choloepus  didactylus Two-toed    sloth 2 

Dasypodidae : 

Chaetophractus  villosus Hairy  armadillo 1 

Euphractus   sexcinctus Six-banded  armadillo 1 

BIRDS 

OASTTABIIFORMES 

Casuariidae : 

Casuarius  hennetti  papuanus Papuan   cassowary 1 

Casuarius  casuarius  aruensis Aru  cassowary 1 

Casuarius  uniappendiculatus  occipi- 
talis   Island  cassowary 1 

Casuarius  uniappendiculatus  uniap- 
pendiculatus   One-wattled   cassowary 1 

Dromiceiidae : 

Dromiceius  novaehollandiae Common   emu 2 

SPHENISCTFOBMES 

Spheniscidae : 

Aptenodytes  forsteri Emperor  i)enguin 3 

Spheniscus  demersus Jackass  penguin 4 

Spheniscus  humboldti Humboldt  penguin 2 

TINAMrFOBMES 

Tinamidae : 
Eudromia  elegans Crested  tinamou  or  martineta 2 

PELECANIFOKMES 

Pelecanidae : 

Pelecanus  californicus California  brown  pelican 4 

Pelecanus  conspicillatus Australian   i)elican 2 

Pelecanus  erythrorhynchus White  i)elican 4 

Pelecanus  occidentalis Brown   pelican 3 

Pelecanus  onocrotalus European  pelican 2 


REPORT   OF   THE    SECRETARY  81 

PELECANiFOBMES — Continued 

Scientific  name  Common  name  Numier 

Sulidae : 

Moris  iassana Gannet 1 

Phalacrocoracidae : 

Phalacrocorax  auritus  albociliatus Farallon  cormorant 1 

Anhingidae : 

Anliinga  anhinga AnJiinga 3 

Fregatidae : 

Fregata  ariel Lesser  frigate  bird 1 

CICONUFOEMES 

Ardeidae : 

Ardea  herodias Great  blue  lieron 2 

Ardea  occidentaUs Great  white  heron 1 

Egretta  tliula— Snowy  egret 5 

Florida  caeralea Little  blue  heron 14 

Hydranassa  tricolor  ruficollis Louisiana    heron 14 

Notophoyx  novaehollandiae White-faced  heron 1 

Nycticorax  nycticorax  naevius Black-crowned  night  heron 30 

Cochleariidae  : 

Cochlearius  cohlearius Boatbill  heron 2 

Ciconiidae : 

Dissoura  episcopus Woolly-necked    stork 1 

Ibis  cinereus Malay  stork 2 

Leptoptilus  crumeniferus Marabou 1 

Leptoptilus  dubius Indian  adjutant 1 

Leptoptilus  javanicus Lesser  adjutant 2 

Mycteria  americana Wood  ibis 1 

Threskiornithidae :  • 

Guara  alba White  ibis 8 

Gtiara  alba  x  Q.  rubra Hybrid  white  and  scarlet  ibis 1 

Guara  rubra Scarlet  ibis 1 

TliresTciornis  aethiopica Sacred  ibis 1 

Threskiomis  melanocephala Black-headed  ibis 4 

Threskiornis  spinicollis Straw-necked  ibis 2 

Phoenicopteridae : 

Phoenicopterus  chilensis Chilean  flamingo 2 

Phoenicopterus  rubra Cuban  flamingo 3 

ANSBHirFOEMES 

Anhimidae : 

Chauna  cristata Crested  screamer 7 

Anatidae : 

Aix  sponsa Wood  duck 7 

Alopochen  aegyptiacus Egyptian  goose 1 

Anas  brasiliensis Brazilian  teal 2 

Anas  domestica Peking  duck 12 

Anas  platyrhynchos Mallard  duck 50 

Anas  rubripes Black   duck 6 

Anser  albifrons  — American  white-fronted  goose 3 

Anser  cinereus  domestica Toulouse  goose 3 

Anseranas  semipalmata Australian  pied  goose 2 


82  ANNUAL   REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

ANSEBiFOEMES — Continued 

Scientific  name  Common  name                                    Numher 

Anatidae — Continued. 

Branta  canadensis Canada  goose 25 

Branta  canadensis  hutchinsii Hutchin's  goose 4 

Branta  canadensis  minima Cackling  goose 8 

Branta  canadensis  occidentalis White-cheeked  goose 25 

Cairina  moschata Muscovy  duck 11 

Casarca  variegata Paradise  duck 1 

Cereopsis  novaehollandiae Cape  Barren  goose 2 

Chen  atlantica Snow  goose 3 

Chen  caerulescens Blue  goose 2 

Chenopis  atrata Black  swan 4 

Chloephaga  leucoptera Magellan  goose 2 

Cygnopsis  cygnoides Domestic  goose 2 

Cygnus  columbianus Whistling  swan 2 

Cygnus  melancoriphus Black-necked  swan 1 

Cygnus  olor Mute  swan 5 

Daflla  acuta Pintail 8 

Dafila  spinicauda Chilean  pintail 1 

Dendrocygna  arborea Black-billed  tree  duck 3 

Dendrocygna  autumnalis Black-bellied  tree  duck 2 

Dendrocygna  viduata White-faced  tree  duck 4 

Dendronessa  galericulata Mandarin  duck 4 

Mareca  americana Baldpate 1 

Marila  afflnis Lesser  scaup 1 

Marila  collaris Ring-necked  duck 1 

Neochen  jubata Orinoco  goose 2 

Nettion  carolinense Green-winged  teal 1 

Nettion  formosum Baikal  teal 5 

Nyroca  sp Hybrid  duck 1 

Nyroca  valisineria Canvasback  duck 1 

Philacte  canagica Emperor  goose 3 

Querquedula  discors Blue-winged  teal 8 

Cathartidae : 

Cathartes   aura Turkey    vulture 2 

Coragyps   atratus Black   vulture 1 

Oymnogyps  californianus California    condor 1 

OypoMerax    angolensis Tish-eating  vulture 1 

Oyps  ruppellii Ruppell's    vulture 1 

Sarcoramphus  papa King   vulture 1 

Torgos    tracheliotus African  eared  vulture 1 

Accipitridae: 

Accipiter  cooperi Cooper's   hawk 1 

Buteo  borealis Red-tailed   hawk 8 

Buteo  Uneatus  elegans Southern  red-shouldered  hawk 1 

Buteo  Uneatus  Uneatus Red-shouldered  hawk 2 

Buteo  melanoleucus South  American  buzzard  eagle 2 

Buteo  platypterus Broad-winged   hawk 1 

Buteo  poecilochrous Red-backed   buzzard 1 


REPORT   OF   THE    SECRETARY  83 

ANSEBiFORMES — continucd 
Scientific  name  Common  name  Number 

Accipitridae — Continued. 

Haliaeetus  leucocephalus —    Bald  eagle 6 

Haliastur  Indus Brahminy    kite 5 

Harpia  harpya Harpy   eagle 2 

HypomorpJmus  urubitinga Brazilian  eagle 1 

Milvago    chimango Chlmango 3 

Milvus  migrans  parasitus African  yellow-billed  kite 2 

Pandion  haliaetus  carolinensis Osprey  or  fish  hawk 1 

Paraiuteo  unicinctus One-banded  hawk 1 

Falcon  idae : 

Cerchneis  sparverius Sparrow  hawk 5 

Daptrius  americanus Red-throated    caraqara 3 

Falco  peregrinus  anatum Duck  hawk 1 

Polyborus  planous South  American  caracara 1 

GALI-IFOKMES 

Cracidae : 

Crax  fasciolata Crested   curassow 2 

Crax  rubra Panama  curassow 1 

Crax  sclateri Sclater's   curassow 1 

Mitu  mitu Razor-billed   curassow 2 

Phasianidae 

Argusianus   argus Argus  pheasant 2 

Catreus  ^palichii Cheer   pheasant 3 

ChrysolopJius   amherstiae Lady   Amherst's  pheasant 1 

Chrysolophus  pictus Golden  pheasant 5 

Colinus  cristatus Crested   quail 2 

Colinus   virginianus Bobwhite 1 

Gallus   galVus Red  jungle  fowl 4 

Oallus  lafayetti Ceylonese  jungle  fowl 1 

Oallus  sp Bantam  chicken 1 

Oallus  sp Fighting  fowl 1 

Gallus  sp Long-tailed   fowl 1 

Oennaeus  albocristatus White-crested  kaleege 3 

Oennaeus  nycthemerus Silver  pheasant 6 

Hierophasis  swinlioii Swinhoe's   pheasant 2 

Lophophorus  impeyanus Himalayan  Impeyan  pheasant 1 

Lophortyx  californica  vallicola Valley   quail 2 

Pavo  cristatus Peafowl 4 

f    Ring-necked  pheasant 6 

Phasianus  torquatus 1    ^j^j^^  ring-necked  pheasant 3 

Phasianus  torquatus  (var.) Melanistic     mutant     ring -necked 

pheasant 3 

Phasianus  versicolor Green  Japanese  pheasant 1 

Polyplectron  napoleonis Palawan  peacock  pheasant 1 

Syrmaticus  reevesi Reeves'  pheasant 2 

Numididae : 

Acryllium  vulturinum Vulturine  guinea  fowl 1 

Numida  sp Guinea  fowl 2 


84  ANNUAL   REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

GEUIFOBMES 

Scientific  name  Common  name  Number 

Rhinochetidae : 

Rhinochetos  Jubatus Kagu 1 

Gruidae : 

Anthropoides  paradisea Stanley  or  Paradise  crane 3 

Anthropoides  virgo Demoiselle  crane 5 

Balearica  pavonina West  African  crowned  crane 3 

Balearica  regulorum  gihbericeps East  African  crowned  crane 1 

Orus  canadensis  canadensis Little  brown  crane 1 

Grus  leucauchen White-naped  crane 1 

Grus  leucogeranns Siberian  crane 2 

Rallidae : 

Amaurornis  phoenicurus White-breasted  rail 2 

Fulica  americana American  coot 6 

Gallinula  chloropus  cachinnans Florida  gallinule 2 

Gallinula  chloropus  orientalis Sumatran  gaUinule 2 

Limnocorax  flavirostra African  black  rail 3 

Porphyria  poliocephalus Gray-headed   porphyrio 2 

Cariamidae : 

Cariama  cristata Cariama  or  seriama 2 

ohabadkhformes 

Haematopodidae : 

Haematopus  ostralegus European  oyster  catcher 2 

Charadriidae : 

Belanopterus  chilensis Chilean  lapwing 2 

Laridae : 

Larus  argentatus Herring  gull 1 

Larus  delawarensis Ring-billed  gull 1 

Larus  dominicanus Kelp  gull 2 

Larus  glaucescens Glaucous-winged  gull 1 

Larus  novaehollandiae Silver  gull 15 

Glariolidae : 

Glareola  pratvncola CoUared  pratincole 1 

COLUMBIFOEMES 

Columrbidae : 

Columia  guinea Triangular-spotted  pigeon 1 

Coluniba  livia Domestic  pigeon 3 

Columha  maculosa Spot-winged  pigeon 1 

Ducula  aenea Green  imperial  pigeon 1 

GalUgolumia  luzonica Bleeding-heart  dove 4 

Ooura  cristata Sclater's  crowned  pigeon 1 

Goura  victoria Victoria  crowned  pigeon 1 

Leptotila    cassini Cassin's   dove 1 

Muscadivores   pauliria Celebian  imperial  pigeon 1 

Streptopelia  chinensis Asiatic  collared  dove 1 

Streptopelia   chinensis   ceylonensis Lace-necked  or  ash  dove 3 

StreptopeUa    tranquebarica Blue-headed  ring  dove 2 

Turtur  risorius Ring-necked   dove 12 

Zenaida   auriculata South  American  mourning  dove 5 

Zenaidura   niacroura Mourning  dove 1 


REPORT   OF   THE    SECRETARY  85 

PSITTACirOBMES 

Scientiflo  name  Common  name  Numier 

Psittacidae : 

Agapornis  pullaria Red-faced   lovebird 3 

Amazona  auropalliata Yellow-naped  parrot 4 

Amazona   ochrocephala Yellow-headed    parrot 1 

Amazona   oratrix Double  yellow-headed  parrot 2 

Anodorhynchus   Jiyacinthinus Hyacinthine   macaw 1 

Ara  ararauna Yellow  and  blue  macaw 2 

Ara   macao Red,  blue,  and  yellow  macaw 2 

Ara  militaria Mexican  green  macaw 1 

Aratinga   euops Cuban  conure 2 

CalyptorJiynchus   magnificus Banksian   cockatoo 1 

Coracopsis  nigra Lesser  vasa  parrot 1 

Cyanopsittacus   spixi Spix's  macaw 1 

Ducorpsis    sanguineus Bare-eyed  cockatoo 1 

Eclectus  pectoralis Eclectus   parrot 1 

EolopJius  roseicapillus Roseate  cockatoo 3 

Kakatoe  alba White   cockatoo 2 

Kakatoe  galerita Large  sulphur-crested  cockatoo 2 

Kakatoe  leadbeateri Leadbeater's  cockatoo 2 

Kakatoe  moluccensis Great  red-crested  cockatoo 1 

Kakatoe    sulpJmreat Lesser  sulphur-crested  cockatoo 5 

Lorius  domicella Rajah    lory 2 

Lorius  garrulus Red    lory 1 

Melopsittacus  undulatus Grass   paroquet 12 

Myopsitta   monachus Quaker  paroquet 1 

Nandayus  nanday Nanday    paroquet 1 

Nestor  notaMUs Kea 1 

Nymphicus    hollanidvcus Cockatiel 1 

Pionites    xanthomeria Amazonian    caique 2 

Psittacula    eupatria Red-shouldered    paroquet 3 

Psittacula    krameri Kramer's   paroquet 2 

Psittacula   lon^icauda Long-tailed   paroquet 2 

Tanygnatlius  muelleri Mueller's  parrot 1 

CUOUUffiOaMES 

Cuculidae : 

Eudynamis   scolopaceus Koel 1 

Musophagidae : 

Turacus   livingstoni Livingston's  turacou 1 

STBIGIFOBMES 

Tytonidae : 

Tyto   alba  pratincola Barn  owl 3 

Strigidae : 

Bubo   virginianus Great  horned  owl 7 

Ketupa    ketupu Malay  fish  owl 1 

Nyctea   nyctea Snowy    owl 1 

Otus  asio Screech   owl 3 

Strix  varia  varia Bax'red  owl 4 


86  ANNUAL  REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

CAFBIMtTLGIFOBMES 

Scientific  name                                                       Common  name                                    Number 
Podargidae : 
Podargus  strigoides Tawny  frogmouth 1 

COLIIFOBMES 

Coliidae : 

CoUus   siriatus Streaked  mouse  bird  or  coly 2 

COEACairOEMES 

Alcedinidae : 

Dacelo    gigas Kookaburra 2 

Halcyon   sanctus Sacred  kingfisher 1 

Momotidae : 

Momotus  lessoni Motmot 1 

PICIFOBMES 

Ramphastidae : 

Aulacorhynchus  sulcatus  sulcatus Groove-billed  toucanet 1 

Pteroglossus   aracari Black-necked  aracari 2 

Ramphastos  carinatus Sulphur-breasted  toucan 7 

Ramphastos   culminatus White-breasted  toucan 1 

Ramphastos  piscivorus Toco   toucan 1 

PASSEBIFOBMES 

Cotingidae : 

Melanotis    caerulescens Mexican   catbird 2 

Rupicola  peruviana  sanguinolenta Scarlet  cock-of-the-rock 2 

Corvidae : 

Callocitta   formosa Mexican  jay 1 

Cissa  chinensis Chinese  cissa 2 

Cissilopha   yucatanica Yucatan  blue  jay 4 

Corvus  alhus White-breasted   crow 2 

Corvus  irachyrhynchos American   crow 7 

Corvus  corax  principalis Northern   raven 3 

Corvus    comix Hooded   crow 2 

Corvus  cryptoleucus White-necked   raven 1 

Corvus  insolens Indian   crow 3 

Cyanocorax  chrysops Urraca  jay 1 

Cyanocorax  mystacalis Moustached  jay 1 

Cyanopica  cyana Azure-winged   pie 1 

Oymnorhina  hypoleuca White-backed  piping  crow 2 

Urocissa  caerulea Formosan  red-billed  pie 2 

Vrocissa  occipitalis Red-billed  blue  magpie 1 

Paradiseidae : 

Ailuroedus   orassirostris Australian   catbird 1 

Epimachus  fastuosus Sickle-billed  bird  of  paradise 1 

Ptilonorhynchus  violaceus Satin  bowerbird 1 

Seleucides   niger 12-wired  bird  of  paradise 1 

Pycnonotidae : 

Pycnonotus  analis Yellow-vented  bulbul 1 

Irenidae : 

Irena  puella Fairy   blue   bird 1 


REPORT   OF   THE    SECRETARY  87 

PASSEatiFOEMES — Continued 

Scientific  name  Common  name  Number 

Mimidae : 

Melanotis  caerulescens Blue  mockingbird 1 

Toxostoma  rufum Brown  thrasher 1 

Turdidae: 

Oarrulax  pectoralis  picUcolUs Chinese  collared  laughing  thrush__  1 

Oarrulax  perspicillatus Spectacled  laughing  thrush 1 

Leiothrix  luteus Pekin  robin 2 

Turdus  grayi Bonaparte's  thrush 1 

Turdus  ruflventris Argentine  robin 3 

Sturnidae : 

Cosmopsarus  regius Splendid  starling 1 

Creatophora  cinerea Wattled  starling 1 

Oaleopsar  salvadorii Crested  starling 1 

Cfraculipica  melanoptera White  starling 1 

Ploceidae : 

Diatropura  procne Giant  whydah 4 

Lonchura  leucogastroides Bengalee 5 

Munia  maja White-headed  munia 2 

Munia  mala-cca Black-throated  munia 1 

Munia  oryzivora Java  sparrow 7 

Munia  punctulatus Rice  bird  or  nutmeg  finch 2 

Ploceus  taya Baya  weaver 3 

Ploceus  intermedius Black-cheeked  weaver 5 

Ploceus  ruhiginosus Chestnut-breasted  weaver 1 

Poephila  acuticauda Long-tailed  finch 1 

Poephila  gouldiae Gouldian  finch 2 

Quelea  sanguinirostris  intermedia Southern  masked  weaver  finch 2 

Steganura  paradisea Paradise  whydah 5 

Taeniopygia  castanotis /  ^^^^^   ^^^^ ^ 

I  White  zebra  finch 1 

Coerebidae : 

Cyanerpes  cyanea Blue  honeycreeper 6 

Icteridae : 

Agelaius  assimilis Cuban  red-winged  blackbird 2 

Cassiculus  melanicterus Mexican  cacique 1 

Oymnomystax  mexicanus Giant  oriole 1 

Icterus  iullocki Bullock's  troupial 2 

Icterus  icterus Troupial 1 

Molothrus  tonariensis Shiny   cowbird 1 

Notiopsar  curaens Chilean   blackbird 2 

Trupialis  defilippi Military  starling 8 

Thraupidae : 

Piranga  iidentata Orange  tanager . 1 

Ramphocelus  dimidiatus Crimson   tanager 1 

Ramphocelus  flammigerus Yellow  tanager 4 

Ramphocelus  icteronotus Yellow-rumped  tanager 2 

Thraupis  episcopus Blue  tanager 2 

Fringillidae : 

Amandava  amandava Strawberry  finch 10 

Carduelis  carduelis European  gold  finch 1 

619830—45 7 


88  ANNUAL   REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

PASSEKiFOEMES — Continued 

Scientific  name  Common  name  Number 

Fringillidae — Continued. 

Carpodacus  mexicanus . Mexican  house  finch 4 

Coryphospingus   cnoullatus Red-crested  finch 2 

Cyanoconipsa    argentina Argentine  blue  grosbeak 2 

Diuca   diuca Diuca   finch 2 

Erythrura  psittacea New  Caledonian  parrot  finch 1 

Lophospingus  pusillus ,Blac!k-crested   finch 3 

Melopyrrha  nigra Cuban    bullfinch 1 

Paroaria  cucullata Brazilian  cardinal 3 

Passerina   oyanea Indigo   bunting 2 

Passerina  leclancherii Leclancher's   bunting 6 

Passerina  versicolor Blue  bunting 2 

Phrygilus  fruticeti Mourning  finch 8 

Phrygilus  gayi 1 Gay's  gray-headed  finch 4 

Serirms   canaritis Canary 4 

Sicalis   flaveola Mysto    finch 1 

Sicalis   luteola Saffron    finch 3 

Sicalis  minor Lesser  yellow  finch 4 

Spinus  uropygialis Chilean    siskin 3 

Sporophila  aurita Hick's  seed-eater 2 

Sporophila  gutturalis Yellow-bellied  seed-eater 2 

Tiaris   olivacea Mexican  grassquit 1 

Volatinia  jacarini Blue-black   grassquit 1 

Zonotrichia   capensis Chingolo 2 

REPTTLES 
LOEICATA 

Crocodylidae : 

Alligator  mississipiensis Alligator 22 

Alligator  sinensis Chinese   alligator 3 

Caiman   latirostris Broad-snouted  caiman 1 

Caiman  sclerops Spectacled   caiman 3 

Crocodylus   acutus American  crocodile 4 

Crocodylus   cataphractus Narrow-nosed  crocodile 1 

Crocodylus  niloticus African   crocodile 2 

Crocodylus    palustris "Toad"  crocodile 2 

Crocodylus  porosus Salt-water  crocodile 1 

Crocodylus   rhombifer Cuban  crocodile 1 

Osteolaemus  tetraspis Broad-nosed   crocodile 2 

SAtlEIA 

Gekkonidae : 

Oekko  gecko Gecko 2 

Iguanidae : 

Anolis  caroUnensis False    "chameleon" 20 

Basiliscus   sp Banded  basilisk 4 

Ctenosaura  acanthura Spiny-tailed    iguana 2 

Phrynosoma   cornutum Hoi-taed    lizard 17 

S'celoporus   undulatus Pine  or  fence  lizard 8 


REPORT   OF   THE    SECRETARY  89 

SAUKiA — continued 

Scientific  name  Common  name                                   Numhcr 

Anguidae : 

Ophisaurus  apus European  glass  snake 1 

Ophisaurus  ventraUs Glass  snake  or  legless  lizard 6 

Gerrhonotus  coeruleus  principis Alligator  lizard 2 

Helodennatidae : 

Heloderma  horridum Mexican  beaded  lizard 2 

Heloderma  suspectum Gila  monster 7 

Teiidae  : 

Cnemidophorus  sexUneatus Six-lined  race  runner__ 5 

Crocodilurus  lacertinus Crocodile  lizard 1 

Tupinamhis  nigropunctatus Black  tegu 1 

Scincidae : 

Egemia  cunninghami Cunningham's  skink 2 

Eumeces  fasciatua Blue-tailed  skink 3 

Tiliqua  scincoides Blue-tongued  lizard 2 

Varanidae: 

Varanus  komodoensis Komodo  dragon 1 

Varanus  monitor Indian  monitor 2 

Varanus  niloticus Nile  monitor 3 

Varanus  salvator Sumatran  monitor 5 

OFHIDIA 

Boidae : 

Boa  cooJcii Cook's  tree  boa 1 

Charina  bottae Rubber  boa 1 

Constrictor  constrictor Boa  constrictor 3 

Constrictor  imperator Central  America  boa 2 

Epicrates  cenchris Rainbow  boa 6 

Epicrates  crassus Salamanta 1 

Epicrates  striatus Haitian  boa 1 

Eunectes  murinus Anaconda  1 

Lichanura  roseofusca California  rosy  boa 1 

Python  molurus Indian  rock  python 9 

Python  regius— Ball  python 3 

Python  reticulatus Regal  python 3 

Python  variegatus Carpet  python 1 

Tropidophis  melanurus Cuban  boa 1 

Colubridae : 

Carphophis  amoena Worm  snake— 1 

Coluber  constrictor Black  snake 1 

Cyclagras  gigas Cobra  de  Paraguay 1 

Diadophis  punctatus Ring-necked  snake 1 

Drymarchon  corais  couperi Indigo\  snake 2 

Elaphe  guttata Corn  snake 3 

Elaphe  obsoleta Pilot  snake 6 

Elaphe  quadrivittata Yellow  chicken  snake 1 

Heterodon  contortrisD Hog-nosed  snake 4 

Lampropeltis  getulus  fioridana Florida  king  snake 1 

Lampropeltis  getulus  getulus Chain  or  king  snake 1 

matrix  piscator Water  snake 15 


90  ANNUAL   REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

OPHIDIA — continued 

Scientific  name  Common  name                                   Numier 

Colubridae — Continued. 

Natrix  septemvittata Queen  or  moon  snake 3 

Natrix  sp Water  snake 1 

Pituophis  catenifer Western  bull  snake 2 

Pituophis  catenifer  annectans San  Diego  gopher  snake 2 

Pituophis  melanoleucus Bull  snake 1 

Ptyas  mucosus Rat  snake 1 

Rhinocheilus  lecontei Long-nosed  snake 1 

Storeria  dekayi De  Kay's  snake 1 

Thamnophis  ordinoides Western  garter  snake 26 

Thamnophis  sirtalis Garter  snake 4 

Elapidae : 

Naja  naja Indian   cobra 1 

Oxybelis  fulgidus Green  tree  snake 1 

Crotalidae : 

Agkistrodon  mokeson : Copperhead  snake 4 

Agkistrodon  piscivorus Water  moccasin 1 

Crotalus  adamanteus Florida  diamond-backed  rattlesnake  1 

Vipera  russellii Russell's   viper 1 

TESTUDINATA 

Chelydidae : 

Batrachemys  nasuta South  American  side-necked  turtle.  1 

Chelodina  longicollis . Australian  snake-necked  turtle 1 

Hydraspis    sp South    American    snake-necked 

turtle 3 

Hydromedusa  tectifera Snake-necked   turtle 16 

Platemys    platycephala Flat-headed  turtle 1 

Platysternldae : 

Platysternum  megacepfialum Large-headed  Chinese  turtle 1 

Pelomedusidae : 

Pelomedusa  galeata Common  African  water  tortoise 2 

Podocnemis  expansa South  American  river  tortoise 1 

Kinosternidae : 

Kinosternon  sp Central  American  musk  turtle 1 

Kinosternon   subrubrum Musk   turtle 4 

Chelydridae : 

Chelydra  serpentina Snapping   turtle 8 

Macrochelys  temminckii Alligator  snapping  turtle 1 

Testudinidae : 

Chrysemys  marginata Western  painted  turtle 5 

Chrysemys  picta Painted  turtle 3 

Clemmys  guttata Spotted  turtle 6 

Clemmys  insculpta Wood  turtle 7 

Clemmys  muhlenhergii Muhlenberg's  tortoise 1 

Cyclemys  amboinensis Kura  kura  box  turtle 4 

Emys   blandingii Blanding's  turtle 1 

Oeoclemys   subtrijuga Siamese  field  turtle 1 

Graptemys    barbouri Barbour's    turtle 7 

Oraptemys    pseudogeographica False  map  turtle 1 


REPORT   OF  THE    SECRETARY  91 

TESTtJDiNATA — continued 

Scientific  name  Common  name                                   Number 

Testudinidae — continued. 

Kinixys   erosa West  African  back-hinged  tortoise.  1 

Malaclemys  centrata Diamond-back  turtle 24 

Pseudemys   concinna Cooter 3 

Pseudemys  elegans Cumberland  terrapin 2 

Pseudemys   ornata Central  American  water  turtle —  1 

Pseudemys  rugosa Cuban   terrapin 1 

Terrapene  Carolina Box  turtle 50 

Terrapene  major Florida  box  turtle 4 

Terrapene  sp Mexican  box  turtle 2 

Testudo  chilensis Chilean   land   tortoise 1 

Testudo  denticulata South  American  land  tortoise 2 

Testud'o  elegans Star  tortoise 2 

Testudo  ephippium Duncan  Island  tortoise 1 

Testudo  hoodensis Hood  Island  tortoise 3 

Testudo  tornieri Soft-shelled  land  tortoise 2 

Testudo  vicina Albemarle  Island  tortoise 3 

Trionychidae : 

Amyda  ferox Soft-shelled  turtle 6 

Amyda  triunguis West  African  soft-shelled  turtle 1 

AMPHIBIA 

CATJDATA 

Salamandridae : 

Triturus  pyrrhogaster Red  salamander 3 

Triturus  torosus Giant  newt 16 

Triturus  viridescens Common  newt 4 

Amphiumidae : 

Amphiuma  means Blind  eel  or  Congo  snake 1 

Cryptobranchidae : 

Cryptohranchus  alleganiensis Hellbender 4 

Necturidae : 

Necturus  maculosus Mudpuppy 1 

SALIENTIA 

Dendrobatidae: 

Dendrotates  auratus Arrow-poison  frog 3 

Bufonidae : 

Bufo  americanus Common  toad 25 

Bufo  empusus Sapo  de  concha 8 

Bufo  marinus Marine  toad 6 

Bufo  peltocephalus Cuban  giant  toad 3 

Ceratophrydae : 

Geratophrys  ornata Horned  frog 5 

Hylidae : 

Acris  gryllus Cricket  frog 20 

Hyla  crucifer '. Tree  frog 3 

Pipidae : 

Pipa  americana Surinam  toad 3 


92  ANNUAL   REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

SALiENTiA — continued 

Scientific  name  Common  name                                    Number 
Ranidae : 

Rana  catesbeiana Bullfrog 3 

Rana  clamitans Green  frog 3 

Ra7ia  occipitalis West  African  bullfrog 1 

Rana  pipiens Leopard  frog 5 

Ratia  sylvatica Wood  frog 3 

FISHES 

Acanthophthalmus  kuhli Banded  loach 1 

Aequidens  portalegrensis Blue  acara 1 

Aphysemion  australe Lyre-tailed  fish 2 

Astronotus  ocellatus 1 

Barhus  everetti Clown  barb 8 

Barbus  oUgolepis 3 

Barbus  sumatranus ■. 2 

Calamarichthys  malabarieus West  African  ganoid 6 

Cichlasoma  festivum Banded  acara 10 

Corydoras  melanistius Armored  catfish 1 

Corydoras  rabauti Rabaut  catfish 1 

Corydoras  sp Catfish 2 

Epalzeorhynchus  talopterus Black-fin  shark 1 

Oymnoeorymbus  ternetzi Black  tetra 4 

Hemigrammus  sp Tetra  Buenos  Aires 6 

Hyphessobrycon  innesi Neon  tetra  fish 3 

Kryptopterus   bicirrhus Glass  catfish 3 

Lebistes  reticulatus Guppy 100 

Lepidosiren  paradoxa South  American  lungfish 3 

Macropodus  sj) Paradise  fish 20 

MoUienisia  sphenops Sailfin  molly 10 

Nannostomus  marginatus 2 

Nannostomus  trilineatus 2 

Platypoecilus Red  moon 50 

Platypoecilus  maculatus Black  wag-tail  moon 30 

Platypoecilus  maculatus Goldplaties 12 

Plecostomus  sp Armored  catfish 1 

Pristella  riddlei 1 

Protopterus  annectens African  lungfish 2 

PterophylVum  scalare Angel  fish 2 

Puntius  partipentazona Red-finned  barb 8 

Rasbora  heteramorpha 2 

Serrasalmus  ternetzi Piranha  or  cannibal  fish 1 

Tanichthys  albonubes White  Cloud  Mountain  fish 30 

Tilapia  sp Mouth-breeding   fish 2 

Trichogaster  leeri ^    Three-spot  gourami 2 

r  Swordtail 15 

XiphophorvrS  helleri I  Bed  swordtail 6 

I  Tuxedo  swordtail 12 


REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  93 

ARACHNIDS 

Scientific  name                                                      Common  name                                   Number 
Eurypelma  sp Tarantula 2 

Latrodectus  tnactans Black  widow  spider 3 

INSECTS 
Blaiera  sp Giant  cockroach 100 

Respectfully  submitted. 

W.  M.  Mann,  Director. 
The  Secretary, 

Smitfisonian  Institution. 


APPENDIX  8 

REPORT  ON  THE  ASTROPHYSICAL  OBSERVATORY 

Sir :  I  have  the  honor  to  submit  the  following  report  on  the  activi- 
ties of  the  Astrophysical  Observatory,  including  the  Division  of  As- 
trophysical  Research  and  the  Division  of  Radiation  and  Organisms, 
for  the  fiscal  year  ended  June  30, 1944 : 

DIVISION  OF  ASTROPHYSICAL  RESEARCH 

No  male  assistants  could  be  retained  at  the  three  solar-constant  ob- 
serving stations,  Montezuma,  Chile,  Table  Mountain,  Calif.,  and  Ty- 
rone, N.  Mex.,  on  account  of  war  conditions.  In  this  situation  the 
wives  of  the  three  field  directors,  Greeley,  Warner,  and  Moore,  have 
stepped  into  the  breach  and  are  assisting  with  observing  and  comput- 
ing. It  has  therefore  been  possible  to  keep  the  three  stations  in  opera- 
tion in  this  exceptionally  interesting  period. 

As  pointed  out  in  last  year's  report,  the  predicted  march  of  solar 
variation  through  1945  indicates  a  large  depression  of  solar  radiation 
beginning  in  October  1944,  comparable  to  that  which  occurred  23 
years  earlier,  beginning  in  1921.  Figure  1  shows  that  the  observations 
made  at  Montezuma  observatory  up  to  the  middle  of  the  year  1943 
support  thus  far  the  trend  of  the  prediction  published  in  figure  14  of 
volume  6  of  the  Annals  of  the  Astrophysical  Observatory.  It  is  there- 
fore confidently  expected  that  the  depression  of  the  solar  constant 
will  begin  with  October  1944.  It  is  not  yet  possible  to  forecast  what 
exact  effects  this  depression  (similar  to  that  of  23  years  ago)  may 
produce  in  weather,  but  as  stated  in  an  article  a  generation  ago  by 
Abbot,^  unusual  weather  conditions  may  be  anticipated. 

Most  of  the  time  of  Mr.  Hoover,  Mrs.  Bond,  and  Miss  Simpson  at 
Washington,  and  part  of  that  of  Mr.  Aldrich  has  been  occupied  with 
the  reduction  and  determining  of  the  statistical  corrections  for  the 
solar-constant  work  of  the  three  observing  stations  since  1939.  Ad- 
ditional types  of  observing,  namely,  polarization  of  the  sky,  and  energy 
spectrum  observations  limited  to  the  ultraviolet  region,  have  accumula- 
ted in  these  recent  years.  Their  bearing  on  the  determination  of  the 
solar  variation  is  of  great  interest. 

Mr.  Aldrich  has  been  largely  occupied  with  special  secret  war 
problems,  and  part  of  Dr.  Abbot's  time  has  been  thus  spent  also. 

»  Proc.  Nat.  Acad.  Scl.,  vol.  9,  No.  6,  pp.  194-198,  June  1923. 
94 


REPORT   OF   THE    SECRETARY 


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96  ANNUAL  REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

A  major  part  of  Dr.  Abbot's  work  has  consisted  in  the  study  of 
solar-constant  variation  and  associated  solar  changes  in  connection 
with  the  weather.  A  paper  entitled  "Weather  Predetermined  by  Solar 
Variation"  has  resulted,  and  appeared  just  at  the  close  of  the  fiscal 
year.  In  the  course  of  these  studies  it  was  found  that  variations  of 
the  areas  of  clouds  of  calcium  vapor  (calcium  flocculi)  as  photographed 
at  the  Spanish  Observatory  of  Ebro  since  1910  were  associated  in  the 
same  way  as  solar-constant  changes  in  predetermining  the  weather. 
This  led  to  an  attempt  to  weaken  the  light  of  the  sun's  disk  by  excessive 
spectral  dispersion  so  far  as  to  make  visible  variations  of  the  bright 
lines  of  hydrogen  or  helium  in  the  chromosphere.  Doubtful  evidences 
of  such  chromospheric  lines  were  indeed  recorded,  but  though  the 
dispersion  of  the  third  order  of  a  grating  of  15,000  lines  to  the  inch,  a 
battery  of  prisms,  and  a  path  of  55  meters  of  travel  of  the  spectrum 
rays  were  employed,  the  photosplieric  spectrum  was  still  too  bright 
to  disclose  plainly  the  chromospheric  lines  or  their  variation. 

DIVISION  OF  RADIATION  AND  ORGANISMS 

As  in  the  preceding  year  the  work  of  this  Division  was  mainly 
concerned  with  secret  problems  relating  to  the  war.  However,  a 
paper  entitled  "The  Influence  of  Light  and  of  Carbon  Dioxide  on  the 
Kespiration  of  Etiolated  Barley  Seedlings"  was  prepared  and 
published  by  Drs.  Weintraub  and  Johnston. 
Respectfully  submitted. 

C.  G.  Abbot, 

Director. 
The  Secretary, 

Smithsonian  Institution. 


APPENDIX  9 
REPORT  ON  THE  LIBRARY 

Sir:  I  have  the  honor  to  submit  the  following  report  on  the  ac- 
tivities of  the  Smithsonian  library  for  the  fiscal  year  ended  June  30, 
1944: 

From  the  point  of  view  of  use,  the  year  has  been  an  outstanding 
one.  Never  before  in  the  history  of  the  world  have  books  played  so 
significant  a  part  in  the  successful  waging  of  war.  As  the  war  goes 
on,  the  potential  importance  of  all  recorded  items  of  human  knowl- 
edge through  integration  with  others  becomes  increasingly  evident, 
and  often  is  strikingly  demonstrated.  It  seems  a  far  cry  from  the 
bookstacks  of  a  scientific  library  to  the  battlefields  of  Africa  or  the 
South  Pacific,  but  this  is  a  scientific  war,  and  many  lives  have  been 
saved  by  the  exactly  right  bit  of  information  about  an  insect,  a  plant, 
an  animal,  the  shore  line  of  a  far-away  island,  or  other  natural 
features  of  strange  lands  found  in  little-known  journals  and  docu- 
ments on  library  shelves. 

In  the  Smithsonian  library  examples  of  the  conversion  to  wartime 
uses  of  the  published  results  of  peacetime  scientific  investigations  and 
explorations  might  be  multiplied  almost  indefinitely,  for  the  library 
has  been  increasingly  used  by  the  war  agencies  and  by  individuals  in 
the  armed  forces.  In  the  Museum  library  alone,  where  a  count  of 
reference  questions  coming  from  these  sources  was  kept,  there  were 
520  requests  for  information,  many  of  which  required  a  very  consider- 
able amount  of  research  to  answer.  The  library  of  the  Bureau  of 
American  Ethnology  was  frequently  called  upon,  and  the  resources 
of  the  Astrophysical  Observatory  library  were  often  in  demand,  es- 
pecially through  the  loan  of  scientific  journals  to  other  libraries.  The 
staff  of  the  Ethnogeographic  Board  constantly  searched  all  the  branch 
libraries  for  material  useful  to  its  various  projects  in  aid  of  the  war 
agencies. 

War  use  also  accounts  for  the  rise  in  the  number  of  interlibrary 
loans  from  687  in  1943  to  1,363  during  the  year  just  past. 

The  library's  large  collection  of  duplicates,  too,  has  been  drawn 
upon  by  other  departments  of  the  Government,  and  many  publications 
no  longer  needed  have  been  sent  to  fill  gaps  in  sets  in  the  older  de- 
partmental libraries  or  to  help  build  up  special  collections  in  the  more 
recently  established  war  agencies.., 

97 


98  ANNUAL   REPORT    SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

Through  the  Library  of  Congress,  the  Smithsonian  library  is  co- 
operating with  the  American  Library  Association  in  its  program  of 
collecting  material  for  aid  to  libraries  in  war  areas,  and  has  already 
contributed  20,806  parts  of  periodicals  from  its  stock  of  duplicates. 
The  ultimate  destination  of  some  of  the  longer  runs  of  journals  is 
known. 

The  library  has  continued  to  be  the  collection  center  for  books  for 
service  men  and  women,  and  by  the  kindness  of  members  and  friends 
of  the  Institution,  has  been  able  to  send  about  300  well-selected  con- 
temporary books,  mostly  novels,  to  the  United  Nations  Service 
Center,  and  to  the  Public  Library  for  distribution. 

Whether  in  war  or  peace,  the  continuing  purpose  of  the  Smithson- 
ian library  with  its  branches  is  primarily  to  serve  as  a  tool  in  the 
scientific  work  of  the  Institution.  The  guiding  principle  of  its 
growth  is  not  to  make  it  a  museum  of  fine  books,  but  an  active  working 
reference  collection.  Its  main  function  is  to  put  into  the  hands  of 
the  scientific  investigator  the  publication  containing  the  information 
he  needs,  as  nearly  as  possible  at  the  moment  he  needs  it.  All  the 
detailed  and  sometimes  complicated  processes  of  book  selection,  ac- 
quisition by  purchase  and  exchange,  classification,  cataloging  and  ar- 
rangement, as  well  as  the  functioning  of  its  reference  and  loan  services 
are  planned  and  carried  on  with  this  ultimate  objective  in  mind. 

Many  of  these  processes  are  measurable  statistically,  and  the  num- 
ber of  books  purchased,  received  by  exchange  and  gift,  cataloged, 
circulated,  and  so  on,  can  be  given,  like  the  production  figures  of  auto- 
mobile parts.  Such  figures  are  useful  indicators  of  material  added 
and  work  done,  but  beyond  this,  the  comparison  with  industrial  out- 
put breaks  down,  for  these  library  production  figures  cannot  be  finally 
reduced  to  a  countable  entity  like  a  finished  automobile.  On  the  con- 
trary, the  most  important  end-products  of  the  library's  functioning  are 
diffused  and  intangible.  They  become  an  integral  part  of  the  scien- 
tific accomplishment  of  the  Institution  itself,  for  they  go  into  all  its 
investigations  in  the  laboratory  and  the  field,  into  the  identification, 
description,  and  exhibition  of  artifacts  and  specimens,  into  the  books 
and  papers  published  to  advance  the  boundaries  of  scientific  knowl- 
edge. The  final  test  of  successful  library  accomplishment  is  use. 
The  mere  numbers  of  books  acquired  and  cataloged  mean  little  unless 
the  books  have  been  discriminatingly  selected  for  the  purposes  they 
must  serve,  and  well  and  fully  cataloged  so  that  the  information  they 
contain  can  be  easily  found. 

ACJCESSIONS 

Since  the  first  abrupt  drop  in  the  receipt  of  publications  from  abroad 
after  war  was  declared,  there  has  been  a  continuous  small  gradual 


REPORT   OF  THE    SECRETARY  99 

decline  in  the  numbers  received.  In  1942  there  were  425  packages 
delivered  through  the  International  Exchange  Service,  in  1943  there 
were  355,  and  during  the  year  just  past,  340.  From  England,  the 
South  American  countries.  New  Zealand,  Australia,  and  South  Africa 
the  receipt  of  publications  by  mail,  while  somewhat  fewer  than  before, 
was  steady  and  continuous.  From  other  allied  and  neutral  countries 
mail  arrived  less  regularly.  It  was  especially  gratifying  to  receive 
several  exchange  sendings  of  considerable  numbers  of  current  publica- 
tions from  the  Akademiia  Nauk  of  the  U.  S.  S.  R.  and  its  branches. 
Losses  of  material  actually  shipped  were  extremely  few. 

The  publication  of  domestic  scientific  serials  declined  very  little. 

The  reorganized  accessions  division  functioned  smoothly  in  handling 
both  exchanges  and  purchases.  The  total  number  of  volumes  pur- 
chased was  1,443,  and  subscriptions  for  240  different  periodicals  were 
entered. 

A  few  of  the  most  important  purchases  were : 

For  the  Bureau  of  American  Ethnology,  William  Coxe's  "Account 
of  the  Russian  Discoveries  between  Asia  and  America,"  1780;  "La 
Perouse's  Voyage  round  the  World  Performed  in  the  Years  1785, 1786, 
1787,  and  1788  by  the  Boussole  and  Astrolabe,"  2  volumes  and  atlas, 
1798;  and  the  accompanying  "Voyage  in  Search  of  La  Perouse  .  .  . 
during  the  Years  1791, 1792, 1793,"  by  J.  J.  Labillardiere,  1800. 

For  the  National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts,  J.  J.  Foster's  "Miniature 
Painters,  British  and  Foreign,  with  Some  Account  of  Those  Who 
Practiced  in  America  in  the  Eighteenth  Century,"  2  volumes,  1903; 
F.  Norfleet's  "Saint-Memin  in  Virginia,  Portraits  and  Biographies," 
illustrated  with  56  crayon  portraits  and  142  engravings  by  Saint 
Memin,  1942;  T.  H.  Ward's  "Romney,  a  Biographical  and  Critical 
Essay,  with  a  Catalogue  Raisonne  of  His  Works,"  2  volumes,  1904. 

For  the  National  Museum,  J.  B,  Jackson's  "An  Essay  on  the  Inven- 
tion of  Engraving  and  Printing  in  Chiaroscuro  as  Practiced  by  Albert 
Diirer,  Hugo  di  Carpi,  &c  .  .  ."  1754;  "Bibliografiia  Russkii  Pe- 
riodicheskoi  Pechati,"  1703-1900,  by  N.  M.  Lisovskii,  1915 ;  the  third 
edition  of  Marc  Rosenberg's  "Der  Goldschmiede  Merkzeichen,"  4  vol- 
umes, 1922-1928 ;  Prince  Nobusuke  Takatsukasa's  "The  Birds  of  Nip- 
pon," parts  1-7,  1932-1939 ;  "The  Aztec  and  Maya  Papermakers,"  by 
V.  W.  Von  Hagen,  1943. 

GIFTS 

No  large  gifts  of  special  collections  were  received,  but  members  and 
friends  of  the  Institution,  as  always,  were  generous  in  making  con- 
tributions of  important  books  and  papelrs.  Donors  were:  Dr.  C.  G. 
Abbot,  R.  S.  Adamson,  the  American  Association  for  the  Advance- 
ment of  Science,  the  American  Association  of  Museums,  the  American 


100  ANNUAL   REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

Council  of  Learned  Societies,  Glenn  D.  Angle,  Miss  A.  Margareta 
Archambault,  Miss  Mary  Dorsey  Ashton,  the  August  E.  Miller  Labor- 
atories, Silvan  F.  Baldin,  the  Balfour  Library,  Dr.  R.  S.  Bassler, 
Alexander  Bierig,  Miss  Edna  Billings,  Mrs.  Carl  W.  Bishop,  Bitumi- 
nous Coal  Research,  Inc.,  Col.  Lawrence  B.  Bixby,  H.  H.  Bloomer, 
Dr.  Gregoria  Bondar,  the  Book  Farm,  Hattiesburg,  Miss.,  Fernando 
Bourquin,  Dr.  Adam  B0ving,  Dr.  E.  Lucy  Braun,  Manuel  Quiros 
Calvo,  the  Canadian  National  Railway  System,  Senator  Jose  Manuel 
Casanova,  Dr.  Edward  A.  Chapin,  Austin  H.  Clark,  J.  M.  Cotelo  Nieva, 
Mariano  Cuevas,  William  F.  Davidson,  H.  G.  Deignan,  The  Honor- 
able Frederic  A.  Delano,  Dr.  Cecil  H.  Desch,  Dr.  Horace  R.  Descole, 
The  Detroit  News,  Dr.  Harold  Edward  Dickson,  H.  N.  Dixon,  Lauren 
R.  Donaldson,  Dr.  C.  J.  Drake,  the  Engine  Service  and  Mfg.  Co., 
William  Bacon  Evans,  Dr.  William  N.  Fenton,  Dr.  Clarence  E.  Ferree, 
George  E.  Folk,  Dr.  Herbert  Friedmann,  Per  K.  Frolich,  Dr.  Samuel 
Wood  Geiser,  Haydn  Thomas  Giles,  Ivon  M.  Glenne,  William  B. 
Goodwin,  Jayme  Fernandes  Guedes,  Dr.  David  R.  Iriarte,  Auguste 
and  Edesio  Irmao,  Bernard  Jaffe,  Jewish  War  Veterans  of  the  U.  S., 
O.  A.  Jones,  N.  G.  Kaye,  Leon  Kelso,  Edwin  Kirk,  Laurence  M. 
Klauber,  Capt.  A.  M.  Klum,  A.  J.  Kupzow,  Lankenau  Hospital  Re- 
search Institute,  Gabriel  Lasker,  Mrs.  M.  P.  LeRoy,  H.  L.  Ludowyk, 
Miss  Margaret  C.  McCulloch,  the  Manchester  University  Press, 
Ernesto  Marcus,  Eveline  duBois-Reymond  Marcus,  Dr.  Carlos  A. 
Marelli,  C.  E.  Marshall,  Dr.  William  R.  Maxon,  Dr.  Riley  D.  Moore, 
Pere  Leo-G.  Morin,  W.  C.  Muenscher,  Miss  Helen  Munroe,  Joaquim 
Nabuco,  the  National  Research  Council,  the  New  York  Trust  Co., 
F.  J.  North,  Dr.  T.  L.  Northup,  Thornton  Oakley,  Paul  H.  Oehser, 
Dr.  A.  J.  Olmsted,  Dr.  Victor  Oppenheim,  Dr.  Charles  Owens,  Parke, 
Davis  &  Company,  The  Pennsylvania  Railroad,  the  Pepperell  Manu- 
facturing Co.,  Jose  Perez  de  Barradas,  William  H.  Phelps,  the  Phila- 
delphia Child  Health  Society,  Dr.  H.  Pittier,  Adrien  Questel,  Charles 
D.  Radford,  Dr.  Frank  Raw,  Milton  Ray,  Sr.  Dr.  Don  Adrian 
Recinos,  C.  F.  Richter,  R.  Ringuelet,  Alpheus  J.  Roberts,  B.  Sahni, 
F.  Schmid,  Dr.  Waldo  Schmitt,  J.  F.  Schofield,  T.  J.  J.  See,  Thorvald 
Solberg,  J.  M.  Stanley,  H.  Stehle,  Carlos  Stellfeld,  John  R.  Theaman, 
Dr.  J.  F.  Torrealba,  Dr.  C.  H.  T.  Townsend,  the  Union  Diesel  Engine 
Co.,  the  U.  S.  Rocket  Society,  Inc.,  Mamisell  Van  Rensselaer,  Dr. 
Egbert  H.  Walker,  Mrs.  Fiske  Warren,  Dr.  Alexander  Wetmore,  Mrs. 
Eleanor  White,  W.  Whittard,  the  Willard  R.  Jillson  Library,  the 
William  Mitchell  Printing  Co.,  Sgt.  Henry  J.  Young. 

CATALOGING 

The  cataloging  of  current  material  was  well  kept  up.     Some  changes 
in  procedure  and  in  work  distribution  were  effective  in  shortening  the 


REPORT   OF   THE    SECRETARY 


101 


interval  between  the  receipt  of  new  publications  and  the  completion  of 
their  preparation  for  use  in  the  various  libraries. 

By  way  of  a  beginning  in  taking  accurate  stock  of  the  large  amount 
of  uncataloged  material  in  the  library,  three  small  collections  of 
books  on  miscellaneous  subjects,  received  some  years  ago  as  gifts,  and 
numbering  2,906  volumes  in  all,  were  roughly  classified  and  listed  on 
cards. 

PERSONNEL 

There  were  a  number  of  changes  on  the  staff.  Miss  Josephine  A. 
McDevitt  retired  on  November  30, 1943,  after  many  years  spent  in  the 
service  of  the  Institution,  chiefly  in  the  office  of  the  International  Cata- 
logue of  Scientific  Literature,  but  after  its  discontinuance,  in  the 
library.  Miss  Elizabeth  HaiTiet  Link,  the  librarian's  secretary,  was 
transferred  to  the  Freer  Gallery  of  Art  on  October  9,  1943,  and  Mrs. 
Margaret  K.  Young  was  appointed  to  succeed  her  on  November  16.  On 
September  1, 1943,  Mrs.  Margaret  L.  O'Keef  was  appointed  library  as- 
sistant in  the  cataloging  division.  Mrs.  Daisy  F.  Bishop  resigned  her 
position  as  library  assistant  on  January  25,  1944,  and  Mrs.  Marie  H. 
Boborykine  succeeded  to  her  duties  at  the  periodical  entry  desk  on 
March  14. 

Temporary  appointees  were  Miss  Ruth  Newcomb,  who  served  as 
library  assistant  in  the  Museum  from  August  24  to  September  6, 1943, 
and  Mrs.  Carmen  G.  Randall  who  succeeded  her  on  September  30. 

There  were  upward  reclassifications  of  the  positions  of  Miss  Miriam 
B.  Ketchum,  librarian  in  charge  of  the  Bureau  of  American  Ethnology 
library,  of  Mrs.  Mary  A.  Baer,  librarian  in  charge  of  the  Arts  and  In- 
dustries branch  of  the  Museum  library,  of  Miss  Marie  Ruth  Wenger, 
in  charge  of  cataloging  in  the  Museum,  and  of  Samuel  Jones, 
messenger. 

STATISTICS 
Accessions 


Total  hold- 
ings June 
30,  1944 


Astrophysical  Observatory  (including  Radiation  and  Organisms)  _ 

Bureau  of  American  Ethnology - - 

Freer  Gallery  of  Art - 

Langley  Aeronautical  Library -- 

National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts - 

National  Museum_ -.- - --- 

National  Zoological  Park.. 

Smithsonian  Deposit... 

Smithsonian  Office 


Total. 


11,508 

34,001 

16, 636 

3,610 

9,748 

230, 693 

4,087 

571,840 

31, 493 


1913,616 


1  Neither  incomplete  volumes  of  periodicals  nor  separates  and  reprints  from  periodicals  are  included  in 
these  figures. 


102  ANNUAL  REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

Exchanges 
New  exchanges  arranged 194 

44  of  these  were  assigned  to  the  Smithsonian  Deposit. 
"Wants"  received 4, 422 

656  of  these  were  obtained  to  fill  gaps  in  the  Smithsonian  Deposit  sets. 

Cataloging 

Volumes  and  pamphlets  cataloged 6, 673 

Cards  filed  in  catalogs  and  shelflists 41,929 

Periodicals 

Periodical  parts  entered 11,480 

3,181  of  these  were  sent  to  the  Smithsonian  Deposit. 

Circulation 

Loans  of  books  and  periodicals — 11, 360 

This  figure  does  not  include  the  very  considerable  intramural  (Cir- 
culation of  books  and  periodicals  assigned  to  sectional  libraries  for 
filing,  of  which  no  count  is  kept. 

Binding 
Volumes  sent  to  the  bindery 1,683 

Respectfully  submitted. 

Leila  F.  Clark,  Librarian. 
The  Secretary, 

^Smithsonian  Institution. 


APPENDIX  10 
KEPORT  ON  PUBLICATIONS 

Sir  :  I  have  the  honor  to  submit  the  following  report  on  the  pub- 
lications of  the  Smithsonian  Institution  and  the  Government  branches 
under  its  administrative  charge  during  the  year  ended  June  30,  1944. 

The  Institution  published  during  the  year  4  papers  in  the  Smith- 
sonian Miscellaneous  Collections;  7  papers  in  the  War  Background 
Studies  series ;  1  Annual  Report  of  the  Board  of  Regents  and  pam- 
phlet copies  of  20  articles  in  the  Report  appendix ;  1  Annual  Report 
of  the  Secretary ;  2  special  publications ;  reprints  of  2  papers  in  the 
Miscellaneous  Collections  and  1  special  publication,  and  additional 
copies  of  1  volume  of  tables. 

The  United  States  National  Museum  issued  1  Annual  Report;  14 
Proceedings  papers;  4  Bulletins;  1  separate  paper  in  the  Bulletin 
series  of  Contributions  from  the  United  States  National  Herbarium. 

The  Bureau  of  American  Ethnology  issued  1  Annual  Report  and 
6  Bulletins. 

The  Freer  Gallery  of  Art  issued  1  pamphlet. 

Of  the  publications  there  were  distributed  172,027  copies,  which 
included  54  volumes  and  separates  of  Smithsonian  Contributions  to 
Ejnowledge,  12,966  volumes  and  separates  of  Smithsonian  Miscel- 
laneous Collections,  21,416  volumes  and  separates  of  Smithsonian 
Annual  Reports,  75,749  War  Background  Studies  papers,  4,911  Smith- 
sonian special  publications,  23  reports  on  the  Harriman  Alaska  Expe- 
dition, 40,817  volumes  and  separates  of  National  Museum  publications, 
14,903  publications  of  the  Bureau  of  American  Ethnology,  9  catalogs 
of  the  National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts,  2  pamphlets  of  the  Freer 
Gallery  of  Art,  23  Annals  of  the  Astrophysical  Observatory,  and 
1,124  reports  of  the  American  Historical  Association. 

SMITHSONIAN  MISCELLANEOUS  COLLECTIONS 

Four  papers  in  this  series  were  issued,  as  follows : 

VOLUME   104 

No.  1.  The  feeding  apparatus  of  biting  and  disease-carrying  flies :  A  wartime 
contribution  to  medical  entomology,  by  R.  E.  Snodgrass.  51  pp.,  18  figs.  (Publ. 
3732.)     July  19, 1943. 

103 

619830 — 45 8 


104         ANNUAL   REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

No.  2.  Cross  sections  of  New  World  prehistory :  A  brief  report  on  the  work 
of  the  Institute  of  Andean  Research,  1941-1942,  by  William  Duncan  Strong.  46 
pp.,  33  pis.,  1  fig.     (Publ.  3739.)     December  21,  1943. 

No.  3.  A  27-day  period  in  Washington  precipitation,  by  C.  G.  Abbot.  4  pp.,  1 
fig.     (Publ.  3765.)     February  3,  1944. 

No.  4.  The  influence  of  light  and  of  /carbon  dioxide  on  the  respiration  of 
etiolated  barley  seedlings,  by  Robert  L.  Weintraub  and  Earl  S.  Johnston.  16  pp., 
2  pis.,  8  figs.     (Publ.  3769.)     June  28,  1944. 

The  following  Miscellaneous  Collections  papers  were  reprinted : 

VOLUME  86 

Smithsonian  Meteorological  Tables.  Fifth  Revised  Edition.  First  Reprint 
(additional  copies  printed  without  change),     lxxxvi+282  pp.     (Publ.  3116.) 

VOLUME  9  5 

No.  5.  MoUuscan  intermediate  hosts  of  the  Asiatic  blood  fluke.  Schistosoma 
japonicum,  and  species  confused  with  them,  by  Paul  Bartsch.  60  pp.,  8  pis. 
(With  description  of  2  new  species,  5  pp.,  2  figs.)      (Publ.  3384.) 

VOLUME  104 

No.  1.  The  feeding  apparatus  of  biting  and  disease-carrying  flies :  A  wartime 
contribution  to  medical  entomology,  by  R.  E.  Snodgrass.  51  pp.,  18  figs.  (Publ. 
3732.) 

WAR  BACKGROUND  STUDIES 

In  this  new  series  of  Smithsonian  publications,  there  were  issued 
during  the  year  the  following  7  papers : 

No.  13.  Alaska :  America's  continental  frontier  outpost,  by  Ernest  P.  Walker. 
21  pp.,  21  pis.,  2  figs.    (Publ.  3733.)     July  8,  1943. 

No.  14.  Islands  and  peoples  of  the  Indies,  by  Raymond  Kennedy.  66  pp.,  21 
pis.,  7  figs.     (Publ.  3734.)     August  5,  1943. 

No.  15.  Iceland  and  Greenland,  by  Austin  H.  Clark.  103  pp.,  21  pis.,  2  figs. 
(Publ.  3735.)     August  19,  1943. 

No.  16.  Island  peoples  of  the  western  Pacific :  Micronesia  and  Melanesia,  by 
Herbert  W.  Krieger.     104  pp.,  21  pis.,  2  figs.     (Publ.  3737.)     September  15,  1943. 

No.  17.  Burma — Gateway  to  China,  by  H.  G.  Deignan.  21  pp.,  16  pis.,  1  fig. 
(Publ.  3738.)     October  29,  1943. 

No.  18.  Peoples  of  India,  by  William  H.  Gilbert.  86  pp.,  21  pis.,  3  figs.  (Publ. 
3767.)     April  29,  1944. 

No.  19.  The  peoples  of  French  Indochina,  by  Olov  R.  T.  Janse.  28  pp.,  25  pis., 
1  fig.     (Publ.  3768.)     June  12,  1944. 

War  Background  Studies  No.  20,  "China,"  by  Archibald  C.  Wenley 
and  John  A.  Pope,  was  in  press  at  the  close  of  the  fiscal  year. 

SMITHSONIAN  ANNUAL  REPORTS 

Report  for  191(2. — The  complete  volume  of  the  Annual  Keport  of  the 
Board  of  Regents  for  1942  was  received  from  the  Public  Printer  on 
September  24,   1943. 


REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  105 

Annual  Report  of  the  Board  of  Regents  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution  showing 
the  operations,  expenditures,  and  condition  of  the  Institution  for  tlie  year  ended 
June  30,  1942.     xiii+421  pp.,  83  pis.,  44  figs.     (Publ.  3705.)     1943. 

The  general  appendix  contained  the  following  papers  (Pubis.  3706- 
3725)  : 

The  1914  tests  of  the  Langley  "aerodrome,"  by  C.  G.  Abbot. 

The  problem  of  the  expanding  universe,  by  Edwin  Hubble. 

Galaxies,  by  Harlow  Shapiey. 

Is  there  life  on  the  other  worlds?  by  Sir  James  Jeans. 

Solar  radiation  and  the  state  of  the  atmosphere,  by  Harlan  True  Stetson. 

The  sun  and  the  earth's  magnetic  field,  by  J.  A.  Fleming. 

Ultraviolet  light  as  a  sanitary  aid,  by  Louis  Gershenfeld. 

Trends  in  petroleum  geology,  by  A.  I.  Levorsen. 

Meteorites  and  their  metallic  constituents,  by  E.  P.  Henderson  and  Stuart 

H.  Perry. 
Philippine  tektites  and  the  tektite  problem  in  general,  by  H.  Otley  Beyer. 
Chemical  properties  of  viruses,  by  W.  M.  Stanley. 

Industrial  development  of  synthetic  vitamins,  by  Randolph  T.  Major. 
The  nutritional  requirements  of  man,  by  C.  A.  Elvehjem. 
Past  and  present  status  of  the  marine  mammals  of  South  America  and 

the  "West  Indies,  by  Remington  Kellogg. 
The  return  of  the  musk  ox,  by  Stanley  P.  Young. 
Insect  enemies  of  our  cereal  crops,  by  C.  M.  Packard. 
The  geographical  aspects  of  malaria,  by  Sir  Malcolm  Watson. 
The  bromeliads  of  Brazil,  by  Milford  B.  Foster. 
Canada's  Indian  problems,  by  Diamond  Jenness. 
Dakar  and  the  other  Cape  Verde  settlements,  by  Derwent  Whittlesey. 

Report  for  191^3. — The  Keport  of  the  Secretary,  which  included  the 
financial  report  of  the  executive  committee  of  the  Board  of  Regents, 
and  which  will  form  part  of  the  Annual  Report  of  the  Board  of 
Regents  to  Congress,  was  issued  Decen.ber  21,  1943. 

Report  of  the  Secretary  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution  and  financial  report  of 
the  executive  committee  of  the  Board  of  Regents  for  the  year  ended  June  30, 
1943.     ix+95  pp.,  2  pis.     (Publ.  3740.)     1943. 

The  Report  volume,  containing  the  general  appendix,  was  in  press 
at  the  close  of  the  year. 

SPECIAL  PUBLICATIONS 

Classified  li«t  of  Smithsonian  publications  available  for  distribution  October 
1,  1943,  by  Helen  Munroe.     47  pp.     (Publ.  3736.)     October  1,  1943. 

A  field  collector's  manual  in  natural  history,  by  members  of  the  staff  of  the 
Smithsonian  Institution.     118  pp.,  66  figs.     (Publ.  3766.)     April  26,  1944. 

The  following  special  publication  was  reprinted : 

Handbook  of  the  National,  Aircraft  Collection,  by  Paul  E.  Garber.  Fifth 
Edition.     43  pp.,  26  pis.,  1  fig.     (Publ.  3635.) 


106         ANNUAL   REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

PUBLICATIONS  OF  THE  UNITED  STATES  NATIONAL  MUSEUM 

The  editorial  work  of  the  National  Museum  has  continued  during  the 
year  under  the  immediate  direction  of  the  editor,  Paul  H.  Oehser. 
There  were  issued  1  Annual  Report,  14  Proceedings  papers,  4  Bulletins, 
and  1  separate  paper  in  the  Bulletin  series  of  Contributions  from  the 
United  States  National  Herbarium,  as  follows : 

MUSEUM   REPORT 

Report  on  the  progress  and  condition  of  the  United  States  National  Museum 
for  the  fiscal  year  ended  June  30,  1943.    Hi +108  pp.    January  1944. 

proceedings:  volume  91 

Title  page,  table  of  contents,  and  index.  Pp.  i-viii,  521-529.  October  26, 
1943. 

VOLUME   92 

Title  page,  table  of  contents,  and  index.  Pp.  i-viii,  621-668.  November  29, 
1943. 

VOLUME  93 

No.  8167.  New  species  of  buprestid  beetles  of  the  genus  Agrilv^  from  Trin- 
idad, by  W.  S.  Fisher.     Pp.  375-380.     July  26, 1943. 

No.  3168.  Some  fungus  beetles  of  the  family  Endomychidae  in  the  United 
States  National  Museum,  mostly  from  Latin  America  and  the  Philippine  Islands, 
by  H.  F.  Strohecker.    Pp.  381-392,  fig.  12.    August  5, 1943. 

No.  3169.  Summary  of  the  collections  of  snakes  and  crocodilians  made  in 
Mexico  under  the  Walter  Rathbone  Bacon  traveling  scholarship,  by  Hobart  M. 
Smith.     Pp.  393-504,  figs.  13-15,  pi.  32.     October  29, 1943. 

No.  3170.  The  North  American  parasitic  wasps  of  the  genus  Tetrastichus — ^A 
contribution  to  biological  control  of  insect  pests,  by  B.  D.  Burks.  Pp.  505-608, 
figs.  16-21.     October  26,  1943. 

Title  page,  table  of  contents,  and  index.    Pp.  i-viii,  609-647.    April  13, 1944. 

VOLUME   94 

No.  3171.  Catalog  of  human  crania  in  the  United  States  National  Museum 
collections :  Non-Eskimo  people  of  the  Northwest  coast,  Alaska,  and  Siberia,  by 
AleS  Hrdlidka.     Pp.  1-172.    April  6,  1944. 

No.  3172.  The  catfishes  of  Venezuela,  with  descriptions  of  thirty-eight  new 
forms,  by  Leonard  P.  Schultz.  Pp.  173-338,  figs.  1-5,  pis.  1-14.  February  11, 
1944. 

No.  3173.  Revisions  of  two  genera  of  chalcid-flies  belonging  to  the  family 
Eupelmidae  from  North  and  South  America,  by  A.  B.  Gahan.  Pp.  339-369. 
November  26,  1943. 

No.  3174.  New  species  of  American  scolytoid  beetles,  mostly  Neotropical,  by 
M.  W.  Blackman.    Pp.  371-399,  pis,  15-17.    November  22, 1943. 

No.  3175.  A  revision  of  the  Embioptera,  or  web-spinners,  of  the  New  World, 
by  Edward  S.  Ross.     Pp.  401-504,  figs,  &-156,  pis.  18-19.     January  19,  1944. 

No.  3176.  Twelve  new  species  of  Chinese  leaf-katydids  of  the  genus 
Xiphidiopsis^  by  Ernest  R.  Tinkham.     Pp.  505-527,  fig.  157.    April  29,  1944. 


REPORT   OF   THE    SECRETARY  107 

VOLUME   95 

No.  3178.  New  American  cynipids  from  galls,  by  Lewis  H.  Weld.  Pp.  1-24, 
pis,  1-2.    April  15,  1944. 

BULLETINS 

No.  183.  Archeological  investigations  in  Platte  and  Clay  Counties,  Missouri, 
by  Waldo  R.  Wedel.  With  appendix,  Slseletal  remains  from  Platte  and  Clay 
Counties,  Missouri,  by  T.  Dale  Stewart,  viii+284  pp.,  22  figs.,  50  pis.  October 
1,  1943. 

No.  184.  The  metallography  of  meteoric  iron,  by  Stuart  H.  Perry,  viii+206 
pp.,  9  figs.,  78  pis.     February  15, 1944. 

No.  185,  part  1.  Checklist  of  the  coleopterous  insects  of  Mexico,  Central  Amer- 
ica, the  West  Indies,  and  South  America,  compiled  by  Richard  E.  Blackwelder. 
xii+188  pp.     March  7,  1944. 

No.  185,  part  2.  Checklist  of  the  coleopterous  insects  of  Mexico,  Central 
America,  the  West  Indies,  and  South  America,  compiled  by  Richard  E.  Black- 
welder.     Pp.  189-341.     June  30,  1944. 

CONTRIBUTIONS      FROM      THE      UNITED      STATES      NATIONAL      HERBARIUM 

VOLUME  29 

Part  1.  Taxonomic  studies  of  tropical  American  plants,  by  C.  V.  Morton.  Pp. 
i-xi,  1-86.     March  23,  1944. 

PUBLICATIONS  OP  THE  BUREAU  OF  AMERICAN  ETHNOLOGY 

The  editorial  work  of  the  Bureau  has  continued  under  the  immedi- 
ate direction  of  the  editor,  M.  Helen  Palmer.  During  the  year  there 
were  issued  1  Annual  Report  and  6  Bulletins,  as  follows : 

REPORT 

Sixtieth  Annual  Report  of  the  Bureau  of  American  Ethnology, 
1942-1943.    9  pp.    January  1944. 

BULLETINS 

133.  Anthropological  papers,  numbers  19-26.  ix-f  615  pp.,  34  pis.,  62  figs. 
1943. 

No.  19.  A  search  for  songs  among  the  Chitimacha  Indians  in  Louisiana, 
by  Frances  Densmore. 

No.  20.  Archeological  survey  on  the  northern  Northwest  coast,  by  Philip 
Drucker;  with  appendix,  Early  vertebrate  fauna  of  the  British  Columbia 
coast,  by  Edna  M.  Fisher. 

No.  21.  Some  notes  on  a  few  sites  in  Beaufort  County,  South  Carolina,  by 
Regina  Flannery. 

No.  22.  An  analysis  and  interpretation  of  the  ceramic  remains  from  two 
sites  near  Beaufort,  South  Carolina,  by  James  R.  Griffin. 

No.  23.  The  eastern  Cherokees,  by  William  Harlen  Gilbert,  Jr. 

No.  24.  Aconite  poison  whaling  in  Asia  and  America :  An  Aleutian  trans- 
fer to  the  New  World,  by  Robert  F.  Heizer. 

No.  25.  The  Carrier  Indians  of  the  Bulkley  River:  Their  social  and 
religious  life,  by  Diamond  Jenness. 

No.  26.  The  quipu  and  Peruvian  civilization,  by  John  R.  Swanton. 


108  ANNUAL   REPORT    SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

136.  Anthropological  papers,  numbers  27-32.  viii+375  pp.,  32  pis.,  5  figs. 
1943. 

No.  27.  Music  of  the  Indians  of  British  Columbia,  by  Frances  Densmore. 

No.  28.  Choctaw  music,  by  Frances  Densmore. 

No.  29.  Some  ethnological  data  concerning  one  hundred  Yucatan  plants, 
by  Morris  Steggerda. 

No.  30.  A  description  of  thirty  towns  in  Yucatan,  Mexico,  by  Morris 
Steggerda. 

No.  31.  Some  western  Shoshoni  myths,  by  Julian  H.  Steward. 

No.  32.  New  material  from  Acoma,  by  Leslie  A.  White. 

138.  Stone  monuments  of  southern  Mexico,  by  Matthew  W.  Stirling,  vii+84 
pp.,  62  pis.,  14  figs.     1943. 

139.  An  introduction  to  the  ceramics  of  Tres  Zapotes,  Veracruz,  Mexico,  by 
C.  W.  Weiant.     xiv+144  pp.,  78  pis.,  54  figs.,  10  maps.     1943. 

140.  Ceramic  sequences  at  Tres  Zapotes,  Veracruz,  Mexico,  by  Philip  Drucker. 
ix+155  pp.,  65  pis.,  46  figs.     1943. 

141.  Ceramic  stratigraphy  at  Cerro  de  las  Mesas,  Veracruz,  Mexico,  by  Philip 
Drucker.     viii+95  pp.,  58  pis.,  210  figs.     1943. 

PUBLICATIONS  OF  THE  FREER  GALLERY  OF  ART 

The  Freer  Gallery  of  Art  issued  1  pamphlet,  as  follows : 

The  Freer  Gallery  of  Art  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution.  12  pp.,  5  pis.,  2 
figs.     January  1944. 

REPORT  OF  THE  AMERICAN  HISTORICAL  ASSOCIATION 

The  annual  reports  of  the  American  Historical  Association  are 
transmitted  by  the  Association  to  the  Secretary  of  the  Smithsonian 
Institution  and  are  communicated  by  him  to  Congress,  as  provided 
by  the  act  of  incorporation  of  the  Association.  The  following  report 
volumes  were  issued  this  year : 

Annual  Report  of  the  American  Historical  Association  for  the  year  1942. 
Volume  1,  Proceedings  and  list  of  members ;  Volume  2,  Letters  from  the  Berlin 
Embassy. 

The  following  were  in  press  at  the  close  of  the  fiscal  year :  Annual 
Report  for  1942,  Volume  3  (The  quest  for  political  unity  in  world 
history) ;  Annual  Report  for  1943,  Volume  1  (Proceedings)  and  Vol- 
ume 2  (Writings  on  American  History). 

REPORT  OF  THE  NATIONAL  SOCIETY,  DAUGHT'ERS  OF  THE  AMERICAN 

REVOLUTION 

The  manuscript  of  the  Forty-sixth  Annual  Report  of  the  National 
Society,  Daughters  of  the  American  Revolution,  was  transmitted  to 
Congress,  in  accordance  with  law,  November  15, 1943. 


REPORT   OF   THE    SECRETARY  109 

ALLOTMENTS  FOR  PRINTING 

The  congressional  allotments  for  the  printing  of  the  Smithsonian 
Annual  Reports  to  Congress  and  the  various  publications  of  the  Gov- 
ernment bureaus  under  the  administration  of  the  Institution  were 
virtually  used  up  at  the  close  of  the  year.  The  appropriation  for  the 
coming  year  ending  June  30,  1945,  totals  $88,500,  allotted  as  follows : 

Smithsonian  Institution $16,  000 

National  Museum 43,  000 

Bureau  of  American  Etlinology 17,480 

National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts 500 

International  Exchanges 200 

National  Zoological  Park 200 

Astrophysical  Observatory 500 

American  Historical  Association 10,  620 

Total 88, 500 

Respectfully  submitted. 

W.  P.  True,  Chief,  Editorial  Division. 
The  Secretary, 

Smithsonian  Institution. 


EEPORT  OF  THE  EXECUTIVE  COMMITTEE  OF 
THE  BOARD  OF  REGENTS  OF  THE  SMITH- 
SONIAN INSTITUTION 

FOR  THE  YEAR  ENDED  JUNE  30,  1944 

To  the  Board  of  Regents  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution: 

Your  executive  committee  respectfully  submits  the  following  report 
in  relation  to  the  funds  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution,  together  with 
a  statement  of  the  appropriations  by  Congress  for  the  Government 
bureaus  in  the  administrative  charge  of  the  Institution. 

SMITHSONIAN  ENDOWMENT  FUND 

The  original  bequest  of  James  Smithson  was  £104,960  8s.  6d.— $508,318.46. 
Refunds  of  money  expended  in  prosecution  of  the  claim,  freights,  insurance,  etc., 
together  with  payment  into  the  fund  of  the  sum  of  £5,015,  which  had  been  with- 
held during  the  lifetime  of  Madame  de  la  Batut,  brought  the  fund  to  the  amount 
of  $550,000. 

Since  the  original  bequest  the  Institution  has  received  gifts  from  various 
sources  chiefly  in  the  years  prior  to  1893,  the  income  from  which  may  be  used 
for  the  general  work  of  the  Institution.  These,  including  the  original  bequest, 
plus  savings,  are  listed  below,  together  with  the  income  for  the  present  year. 

ENDOWMENT  FUNDS 

(Income  for  unrestricted  use  of  the  Institution) 

Partly  deposited  in  U.  S.  Treasury  at  6  percent  and  partly  invested  in  stocks. 

bonds,  etc. 


Investment 


Income  pres- 
ent year 


Parent  fund  (original  Smithson  bequest,  plus  accumulated  savings) 

Subsequent  bequests,  gifts,  etc.,  partly  deposited  in  the  U.S.  Treasury  and 
partly  invested  in  the  Consolidated  Fund: 

Avery,  Kobert  S.  and  Lydia,  bequest  fund 

Endowment,  from  gifts,  income,  etc 

Habel,  Dr.  S.,  bequest  fund 

Hachenberg,  George  P.  and  Caroline,  bequest  fund 

Hamilton,  James,  bequest  fund 

Henry,  Caroline,  bequest  fund 

Hodgkins,  Thomas  O.,  fund  (general) 

Rhees,  William  Jones,  bequest  fund 

Sanford,  George  H.,  memorial  fund 

Witherspoon,  Thomas  A.,  memorial  fund 

Special  fund,  stock  in  reorganized  closed  banks 

Total 


110 


$728,845.38 


1, 349, 626.  67 


$43,  700.  77 


60, 766.  70 

2, 133. 13 

283,  751. 87 

9, 988. 86 

600.00 

30.00 

3, 971.  01 

139. 66 

2,898.60 

164.00 

1, 194. 17 

41.98 

145, 841.  66 

8,009.64 

1, 057. 12 

51.80 

1,978.97 

96.89 

127,  421.  29 

4, 481. 58 

1,  400.  00 

70.00 

620,  781.  29 

25,  207. 44 

68, 908. 61 


REPORT    OF   THE   EXECUTIVE   COMMITTEE 


111 


The  Institution  holds  also  a  number  of  endowment  gifts,  the  income 
of  each  being  restricted  to  specific  use.  These,  plus  accretions  to  date, 
are  listed  below,  together  with  income  for  the  present  year. 


Abbott,  William  L.,  fund,  for  investigations  in  biology 

Arthur,  James,  fund,  for  investigations  and  study  of  the  sun  and  lecture  on 

same - . 

Bacon,  Virginia  Purdy,  fund,  for  traveling  scholarship  to  investigate 

fauna  of  countries  other  than  the  United  States. 

Baird,  Lucy  H.,  fund,  for  creating  a  memorial  to  Secretary  Baird 

Barstow,  Frederick  D.,  fund,  for  purchase  of  animals  for  the  Zoological 

Park _ 

Canfield  Collection  fund,  for  increase  and  care  of  the  Canfleld  collection 

of  minerals 

Casey,  Thomas  L.,  fund,  for  maintenance  of  the  Casey  collection  and  pro- 
motion of  researches  relating  to  Coleoptera 

Chamberlain,  Francis  Lea,  fund,  for  increase  and  promotion  of  Isaac  Lea 

collection  of  gems  and  mollusks 

Eickemeyer,  Florence  Brevoort,  fund,  for  preservation  and  exhibition  of 

photographic  collection  of  Rudolph  Eickemeyer,  Jr 

Hillyer,  Virgil,  fund,  for  increase  and  care  of  Virgil  Hillyor  collection  of 

lighting  objects 

Hitchcock,  Dr.  Albert  S.,  Library  fund,  for  care  of  Hitchcock  Agrosto- 

logical  Library , 

Hodgkins  fund,  specific,  for  increase  and  diffusion  of  more  exact  knowledge 

in  regard  to  nature  and  properties  of  atmospheric  air 

Hughes,  Bruce,  fund,  to  found  Hughes  alcove 

Myer,  Catherine  Walden,  fund,  for  purchase  of  flrst-class  works  of  art  for 

the  use  and  benefit  of  the  National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts 

National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts,  Julia  D.  Strong  bequest,  for  the  benefit 

of  National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts 

Pell,  Cornelia  Livingston,  fund,  for  maintenance  of  Alfred  Duane  Pell 

collection 

Poore,  Lucy  T.  and  George  W.,  fund,  for  general  use  of  the  Institution 

when  principal  amounts  to  the  sum  of  $250,000.00 - 

Reid,  Addison  T.,  fund,  for  founding  chair  in  biology  in  memory  of  Asher 

Tunis .-- 

Roebling  fund,  for  care,  improvement,  and  increase  of  Roebling  collection 

of  minerals 

Rollins,  Miriam  and  William,  fund,  for  investigations  in  physics  and 

chemistry _. 

Smithsonian  employees  retirement  fund _ 

Springer,  Frank,  fund,  for  care,  etc.,  of  Springer  collection  and  library 

Walcott,  Charles  D.  and  Mary  Vaux,  research  fund,  for  development  of 

geological  and  paleontological  studies  and  publishing  results  thereof 

Younger,  Helen  Walcott,  fund,  held  intrust 

Zerbee,  Frances  Brinckl6,  fund,  for  endowment  for  aquaria 

Special  research  fund,  gift,  in  the  form  of  real  estate  (no  income) 

Total 


Investment 

Income 

present 

year 

$104, 598.  38 

$3, 348.  29 

39,488.66 

1, 388. 87 

49, 468. 47 
23.  772. 94 

1, 739.  86 
841. 19 

751. 09 

26.40 

37,  764. 34 

1,  328. 20 

9, 056. 38 

318. 52 

27, 805. 06 

977. 94 

500. 92 

4.43 

6, 489.  28 

228.  20 

1,459.30 

51.30 

100. 000. 00 
18,899.72 

6.000.00 
664. 70 

18.  716. 49 

658.  29 

9, 871. 78 

347. 18 

7,318.99 

257.40 

92,266.68 

3, 907. 33 

29,868.86 

1, 390. 37 

119,165.01 

4, 191. 20 

92,724.31 
45, 195.  31 
17,  706. 50 

3, 249. 78 

1, 589. 57 

622.  75 

427, 479.  27 

49, 628. 70 

751. 47 

20.946.00 

13,024.00 

2,  396. 33 

26.40 

1,351,693.81 

48, 578. 50 

The  above  funds  amount  to  a  total  of  $2,701,320.48,  and  are  carried 
in  the  following  investment  accounts  of  the  Institution : 

U.  S.  Treasury  deposit  account,  drawing  6  percent  interest $1,  000,  000.  00 

Consolidated  investment  fund  (income  in  table  below) 1,  372,  516.  41 

Real  estate,  mortgages,  etc 277,775.37 

Special  funds,  miscellaneous  investments 51, 028.  70 


2,  701,  320.  48 


CONSOLIDATED  FUND 


This  fund  contains  substantially  all  of  the  investments  of  the  Institu- 
tion, with  the  exception  of  those  of  the  Freer  Gallery  of  Art;  the 
deposit  of  $1,000,000.00  in  the  U.  S.  Treasury,  with  guaranteed  income 
of  6  percent ;  and  investments  in  real  estate  and  real  estate  mortgages. 


112  ANNUAL   REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

This  fund  contains  endowments  for  both  unrestricted  and  sp'ecific  use. 
A  statement  of  principal  and  income  of  this  fund  for  the  last  10  years 
follows : 


Fiscal  year 

Principal 

Income 

Per- 
cent- 
age 

Fiscal  year 

Principal 

Income 

Per- 
cent- 
age 

1935 

$706,  765. 68 
723,  795. 46 
738,  868.  54 
867, 528. 50 
902, 801.  27 

$26, 808. 86 
26,836.61 
33, 819. 43 
34, 679.  64 
30,  710. 53 

3.79 
3.71 
4.57 
4.00 
3.40 

1940     --- 

$1,081,249.25 
1,093,301.51 
1,  270,  968. 45 
1, 316,  533. 49 
1, 372,  516. 41 

$38, 673. 29 
41,  167. 38 
46,  701. 98 
50,  624.  22 
50,  783.  79 

3.47 

1936 

1941 

1942       .  

3.76 

1937     

3.67 

1938 

1943 

3.83 

1939 

1944 

3.69 

CONSOLIDATED    FUND 

Gain  in  investments  over  year  1943 

Investments  made  from  gifts  and  savings  on  income $46,  061.  80 

Investments  of  gain  from  sales.,  etc.,  of  securities 9, 921. 12 

55,  982.  92 
FREER  GALLERY  OF  ART  FUND 

Early  in  1906,  by  deed  of  gift,  Charles  L.  Freer,  of  Detroit,  gave 
to  the  Institution  his  collection  of  Chinese  and  other  Oriental  objects 
of  art,  as  well  as  paintings,  etchings,  and  other  works  of  art  by  Whist- 
ler, Thayer,  Dewing,  and  other  artists.  Later  he  also  gave  funds  for 
the  construction  of  a  building  to  house  the  collection,  and  finally  in  his 
will  probated  November  6,  1919,  he  provided  stock  and  securities 
to  the  estimated  value  of  $1,958,591.42,  as  an  endowment  fund  for  the 
operation  of  the  Gallery. 

The  above  fund  of  Mr.  Freer  was  almost  entirely  represented  by  20,- 
465  shares  of  stock  in  Parke,  Davis  &  Co.  As  this  stock  advanced  in 
value,  much  of  it  was  sold  and  the  proceeds  reinvested  so  that  the 
fund  now  amounts  to  approximately  three  times  the  original  value, 
or  $5,881,402.17,  in  a  selected  list  of  securities  classified  later. 

The  invested  funds  of  the  Freer  bequest  are  under  the  following 
headings : 

Court  and  grounds  fund $658,  864.  68 

Court  and  grounds  maintenance  fund 165,  479.  65 

Curator  fund 670,  500.  62 

Residuary  legacy 4,  386,  557.  22 

Total 5,  881,  402. 17 

Statement  of  principal  and  income  for  the  last  10  years 


Fiscal  year 

Principal 

Income 

Per- 
cent- 
age 

Fiscal  year 

Principal 

Income 

Per- 
cent- 
age 

1935 

$4,  769.  362.  53 
4,  651, 867. 07 
4. 881, 986. 96 
4, 820,  777. 31 
6, 075, 976.  76 

$257,  510.  33 
259,  420.  73 
280,  969.  53 
255,  651. 61 
212,  751. 78 

5.39 
5.57 
5.75 
5.30 
4.19 

1940 

$6,112,953.46 
6, 030,  586. 91 
5,  912, 878. 64 
5, 836,  772. 01 
5, 881, 402. 17 

$242,  573. 92 
233, 079.  22 
241,  557.  77 
216, 125. 07 
212, 395. 27 

3  96 

1936 

1941 

3  86 

1937 

1942 

4  08 

1938 — . 

1943 

3  70 

1939 

1944 

3  61 

REPORT    OF   THE   EXECUTIVE    COMMITTEE  113 

FEEEB  FUND 

Gain  in  investments  over  year  1943 

Investment  of  gain  from  sale,  call  of  securities,  etc $44,  630. 16 

SUMMARY 

Invested  endowment  for  general  purposes $1,  349,  626.  67 

Invested  endowment  for  specific  purposes  otlier  than  Freer  endow- 
ment      1,  351,  693.  81 

Total  invested  endowment  other  than  Freer  endowment 2, 701,  320.  48 

Freer  invested  endowment  for  specific  purposes 5, 881, 402. 17 

Total  invested  endowment  for  all  purposes 8,  582,  722.  65 

CLASSIFICATION  OF  INVESTMENTS 

Deposited  in  the  U.  S.  Treasury  at  6  percent  per  annum,  as  author- 
ized in  the  United  States  Revised  Statutes,  sec.  5591 $1,  000,  000.  00 

Investments  other  than  Freer  endowment  (cost  or  market  value 
at  date  acquired)  : 

Bonds  ( 15  different  groups ) $592,  791.  43 

Stocks  (43  different  groups) 801,  420.  91 

Real  estate  and  first-mortgage  notes 206,  604.  24 

Uninvested  capital 503.  90 

1,  701,  320.  48 

Total  investments  other  than  Freer  endowment 2,  701,  320.  48 

Investments  of  Freer  endowment  (cost  or  market  value  at  date 
acquired)  : 

Bonds  (25  different  groups) $2,617,447.75 

Stocks  (52  different  groups) 3,  250,  673. 19 

Real  estate  first-mortgage  notes 7,  000.  00 

Uninvested  capital 6,  281.  23 

$5,  881,  402. 17 

Total  investments 8,  582,  722.  65 

CASH    BALANCES,    RECEIPTS,    AND    DISBURSEMENTS    DURING    THE 

FISCAL  YEAR' 

Cash  balance  on  hand  June  30, 1943 $671,  698.  43 

Receipts : 

Cash  income  from  various  sources  for  general 

work  of  the  Institution $85,530.75 

Cash  gifts  and  contributions  expendable  for  spe- 
cial scientific  objects  (not  for  investment) 75,  419.  86 

Cash  income  from  endowments  for  specific  use 
other  than  Freer  endowment  and  from  miscel- 
laneous sources  ( including  refund  of  temporary 
advances) 127, 460.  84 

Cash  capital  from  sale,  call  of  securities,  etc. 

(for  investment) 220,962.85 

Total  receipts  other  than  Freer  endowment 509, 374.  30 

» This  statement  does  not  include  Government  appropriations  under  the  administrative 
charge  of  the  Institution. 


114         ANNUAL  REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

CASH    BALANCES,    RECEIPTS,    AND    DISBURSEMENTS    DURING    THE 

FISCAL  YEAR— Continued 
Receipts — Continued. 

Cash  income  from  Freer  endowment $210, 663.  89 

Cash  capital  from  sale,  call  of  securities,  etc.  (for 
investment) 710,  039.  26 

Total  receipts  from  Freer  endowment $920,  703. 15 

Total 2, 101,  775.  88 

Disbursements : 

From  funds  for  general  work  of  the  Institution  : 

Buildings — care,  repairs,  and  alterations $3,246.87 

Furniture  and  fixtures 33.90 

General    administration  * 34, 955. 20 

Library 3,  025.  26 

Publications  (comprising  preparation,  print- 
ing, and  distribution) 31,943.79 

Researches  and  explorations 11,  703. 21 

$84, 908.  23 

From  funds  for  speciflic  use,  other  than  Freer 

endowment : 

Investments  made  from  gifts  and  from  sav- 
ings on  income 46, 061.  80 

Other  exi)enditures,  consisting  largely  of 
research  work,  travel,  increase  and  care 
of  special  collections,  etc.,  from  income 
of  endowment  funds,  and  from  cash  gifts 
for  specific  use  (including  temporary  ad- 
vances)      118,  461.  61 

Reinvestment  of  cash  capital  from  sale,  call 
of  securities,   etc 226, 609. 13 

Cost  of  handling  securities,  fee  of  invest- 
ment counsel,  and  accrued  interest  on 
bonds  purchased 2, 971.  51 

394, 104.  05 

From  Freer  endowment: 

Operating  expenses  of  the  gallery,  salaries, 
field  expenses,   etc 45, 764.  82 

Purchase  of   art  objects 126,774.81 

Reinvestment  of  cash  capital  from  sale,  call 

of  securities,  etc 709,  947.  31 

Cost  of  handling  securities,  fee  of  invest- 
ment counsel,  and  accrued  interest  on 
bonds  purchased 20,962.18 

903, 449. 12 

Cash  balance  June  30,  1944 719,  314.  48 

Total 2, 101,  775.  88 

Included  in  the  above  receipts  was  cash  received  as  royalties  from 
sales  of  Smithsonian  Scientific  Series  to  the  amount  of  $21,150.31. 

="  This  includes  salary  of  the  Secretary  and  certain  others. 


REPORT    OF   THE   EXECUTIVE   COMMITTEE  115 

This  was  distributed  as  follows : 

Endowment  fund $9,127.36 

Smithsonian  Institution  emergency  fund 2,  281.  84 

Smithsonian  Institution  unrestricted  fund,  general 6,  845.  51 

Salaries 2,895.60 

21, 150.  31 

Included  in  the  foregoing  are  expenditures  for  researches  in  pure 
science,  publications,  explorations,  care,  increase,  and  study  of  col- 
lections, etc.,  as  follows : 

Expenditures  from  general  funds  of  the  Institution : 

Publications $31,  943.  79 

Researches  and  explorations: 11,  703. 21 

$43, 647.  00 

Expenditures  from  funds  devoted  to  specific  purposes : 

Researches  and  explorations 29,  355. 18 

Care,  increase,  and  study  of  special  collections 7,  422.  06 

Publications 7,  984.  60 

44,761.84 

Total 88,  408. 84 

The  practice  of  depositing  on  time  in  local  trust  companies  and 
banks  such  revenues  as  may  be  spared  temporarily  has  been  continued 
during  the  past  year,  and  interest  on  these  deposits  has  amounted  to 
$657.15. 

The  Institution  gratefully  acknowledges  gifts  or  bequests  from  the 
following : 

Carnegie  Institution,  for  the  support  and  maintenance  of  diatom  studies. 
Thomas  G.  Corcoran,  toward  the  purchase  of  portrait  of  George  Washington 

Carver, 
Edith  F.  B.  and  George  B.  Engelhardt,  for  assistance  in  publication  of  bulletin 

by  the  late  George  B.  Engelhardt. 
Friends  of  Dr.  Albert  S.  Hitchcock,  for  the  Hitchcock  Agrostological  Library. 
John  A.  Roebling,  further  contributions  for  research  in  radiation. 

All  payments  are  made  by  check,  signed  by  the  Secretary  of  the 
Institution  on  the  Treasurer  of  the  United  States,  and  all  revenues  are 
deposited  to  the  credit  of  the  same  account.  In  many  instances  depos- 
its are  placed  in  bank  for  convenience  of  collection  and  later  are  with- 
drawn in  round  amounts  and  deposited  in  the  Treasury. 

The  foregoing  report  relates  only  to  the  private  funds  of  the 
Institution. 

The  following  annual  appropriations  were  made  by  Congress  for 
the  Government  bureaus  under  the  administrative  charge  of  the  Smith- 
sonian Institution  for  the  fiscal  year  1944. 

Salaries  and  Expenses,  1944 $1,129,040.00 

National  Zoological  Park,  D.  C,  1944 270, 130.  00 

Cooperation  with  the  American  Republics  (transfer  to  the  Smith- 
sonian Institution),   1944 77,000.00 


116         ANNUAL   REPORT    SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

A  deficiency  appropriation  of  $57,000  was  also  made  by  Congress  to 
pay  Federal  employees  for  overtime  work. 

The  report  of  the  audit  of  the  Smithsonian  private  funds  is  given 
below : 

Septembeb  30, 1944. 
Executive  Committee,  Board  of  Regents, 

Smithsonian  Institution,  Washington,  D.  C. 

Sirs  :  Pursuant  to  agreement  we  have  audited  the  accounts  of  the  Smithsonian 
Institution  for  the  fiscal  year  ended  June  30,  1944,  and  certify  that  the  balance 
of  cash  on  hand,  including  Petty  Cash  Fund,  June  30,  1944,  to  be  $721,214.48. 

We  have  verified  the  record  of  receipts  and  disbursements  maintained  by  the 
Institution  and  the  agreement  of  the  book  balances  with  the  bank  balances. 

We  have  examined  all  the  securities  in  the  custody  of  the  Institution  and  in 
the  custody  of  the  banks  and  found  them  to  agree  with  the  book  records. 

We  have  compared  the  stated  income  of  such  securities  with  the  receipts  of 
record  and  found  them  in  agreement  therewith. 

We  have  examined  all  vouchers  covering  disbursements  for  account  of  the 
Institution  during  the  fiscal  year  ended  June  30, 1944,  together  with  the  authority 
therefor,  and  have  compared  them  with  the  Institution's  record  of  expenditures 
and  found  them  to  agree. 

We  have  examined  and  verified  the  accounts  of  the  Institution  with  each  trust 
fund. 

We  found  the  books  of  account  and  records  well  and  accurately  kept  and  the 
securities  conveniently  filed  and  securely  cared  for. 

All  information  requested  by  your  auditors  was  promptly  and  courteously 
furnished. 

We  certify  the  Balance  Sheet,  in  our  opinion,  correctly  presents  the  finan- 
cial condition  of  the  Institution  as  at  June  30,  1944, 

Respectfully  submitted. 

William  L.  Yaeger, 
Certified  Public  Accountant. 

Respectfully  submitted. 

Frederic  A.  Delano, 
Vannevar  Bush, 
Clarence  Cannon, 

Executwe  Corrwnittee. 


GENERAL  APPENDIX 

TO  THE 

SMITHSONIAN  EEPORT  FOR  1944 


117 


ADVERTISEMENT 

The  object  of  the  General  Appendix  to  the  Annual  Report  of  the 
Smithsonian  Institution  is  to  furnish  brief  accounts  of  scientific  dis- 
covery in  particular  directions;  reports  of  investigations  made  by 
collaborators  of  the  Institution;  and  memoirs  of  a  general  character 
or  on  special  topics  that  are  of  interest  or  value  to  the  numerous 
correspondents  of  the  Institution. 

It  has  been  a  prominent  object  of  the  Board  of  Regents  of  the 
Smithsonian  Institution  from  a  very  early  date  to  enrich  the  annual 
report  required  of  them  by  law  with  memoirs  illustrating  the  more 
remarkable  and  important  developments  in  physical  and  biological 
discovery,  as  well  as  showing  the  general  character  of  the  operations 
of  the  Institution;  and,  during  the  greater  part  of  its  history,  this 
purpose  has  been  carried  out  largely  by  the  publication  of  such  papers 
as  would  possess  an  interest  to  all  attracted  by  scientific  progress. 

In  1880,  induced  in  part  by  the  discontinuance  of  an  annual  sum- 
mary of  progress  which  for  30  years  previously  had  been  issued  by 
well-known  private  publishing  firms,  the  Secretary  had  a  series  of 
abstracts  prepared  by  competent  collaborators,  showing  concisely  the 
prominent  features  of  recent  scientific  progress  in  astronomy,  geology, 
meteorology,  physics,  chemistry,  mineralogy,  botany,  zoology,  and 
anthropology.  This  latter  plan  was  continued,  though  not  altogether 
satisfactorily,  down  to  and  including  the  year  1888. 

In  the  report  for  1889  a»return  was  made  to  the  earlier  method  of 
presenting  a  miscellaneous  selection  of  papers  (some  of  them  original) 
embracing  a  considerable  range  of  scientific  investigation  and  discus- 
sion. This  method  has  been  continued  in  the  present  report  for  1944. 
118 


SOLAR  VARIATION  AND  WEATHER 


By  Charles  G.  Abbot 
Former  Secretary,  Smithsonian  Institution 


[With  2  plates] 
NATURE  OF  THE  SUN 

The  sun  is  a  gaseous  body  860,000  miles  in  diameter  of  about  330,000 
times  the  mass  of  the  earth.  Though  so  hot  that  neither  solids  nor 
liquids  exist  in  it,  the  force  of  gravity  due  to  its  enormous  mass  com- 
presses the  sun's  gaseous  substance  to  an  average  density  nearly  1.5 
times  that  of  water,  or  nearly  1,100  times  that  of  air  at  sea  level.  This 
density  prevails,  notwithstanding  that  the  great  temperature  not  only 
gasifies  the  chemical  elements,  but  still  further  subdivides  them  by  ion- 
izing them  strongly.  They  are  no  longer  composed  of  molecules,  like 
gaseous  substances  that  we  find  in  the  laboratory,  or  even  complete 
atoms,  for  the  atomic  nuclei  have  lost  some  of  the  ions  which  at  lower 
temperatures  would  surround  them  to  make  up  complete  atoms.  The 
surface  temperature  of  the  sun  is  of  the  order  6,000°  Centigrade,  or 
10,800°  Fahrenheit,  nearly  twice  as  hot  as  the  arc  light.  Within  the 
sun  the  temperature  rapidly  rises,  and  at  the  sun's  center  it  is  supposed 
to  be  many  millions  of  degrees.  At  such  enormous  temperatures  and 
with  its  immense  surface,  the  sun  is  a  tremendously  powerful  radiator, 
so  powerful  that  at  the  earth's  mean  distance,  93,000,000  miles,  the 
sun's  average  radiation  in  free  space  measures  1.94  calories  per  cm.^  per 
minute.  This  value  is  called  the  solar  constant  of  radiation.  It  im- 
plies that  the  earth,  which  is  about  8,000  miles  in  diameter,  receives 
all  the  time  from  the  sun  the  heat  equivalent  to  a  quarter  of  a  quadril- 
lion horsepower  (10^^/4  hp.) 

SOLAR  ROTATION 

The  sun,  like  the  earth,  rotates  on  an  axis.  The  sun's  axis  is  not 
exactly  parallel  to  the  earth's,  but  inclines  toward  a  point  halfway  be- 
between  the  Pole  Star  and  Vega  at  26°  from  the  North  Pole.    It  has 


*  The  twelfth  Arthur  lecture  given  under  the  auspices  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution, 
February  29,  1944. 

119 

619830 — 45 9 


120         ANNUAL  REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

been  observed  by  spectroscopic  methods  that  the  angular  rotation  of 
the  sun's  surface  is  much  faster  at  the  Equator  than  near  the  Poles. 
Adams  found  the  following  times  of  rotation  as  viewed  from  a  fixed 
star: 

Solar  latitude 0"  30°  45»  60°  80° 

Rotation  period 24.  7        26.  7        28.  0        31.  2        35.  3 

The  earth  revolves  about  the  sun  in  365^/4  days,  and  approximately  in 
the  same  direction  that  the  sun  rotates  on  its  axis.  Consequently  the 
solar  rotation  appears  slower  as  viewed  from  the  earth,  which  adds  over 
7  percent  to  the  sun's  apparent  time  of  rotation.  The  effective  mean 
period  of  solar  rotation  viewed  from  the  earth  may  be  taken  as  27 
days. 

FACULAE  AND  SUNSPOTS 

In  a  telescope,  as  shown  in  plate  1,  the  sun's  surface  is  seen  to  be 
mottled,  but  at  some  places  to  show  decidedly  brighter  areas  called 
faculae  which  are  most  prevalent  in  the  neighborhood  of  sunspots. 
Sunspots  appear  as  darker  dots  on  the  sun's  surface,  but  they  are 
dark  only  by  contrast.  Langley  compared  the  faculae  to  white-hot 
steel  in  a  converter,  which  made  the  molten  steel  look  like  chocolate. 
Though  sunspots  appear  small  on  the  enormous  disk  of  the  sun,  actually 
many  of  them  are  so  large  that  the  earth,  8,000  miles  in  diameter, 
would  only  occupy  a  corner  of  one.  Sunspots  are  seldom  within  10° 
of  the  sun's  equator  or  more  than  30°  away  from  it.  They,  of  course, 
rotate  along  with  the  surface  of  the  sun  at  such  latitudes,  and  their 
average  time  of  rotation  is  about  27  daj^s,  as  viewed  from  the  earth. 

SOLAR  VARIATION  AND  SOLAR  ROTATION 

Sunspots  are  like  machine  guns  shooting  electric  ions  into  space. 
These  ions  plentifully  strike  and  are  captured  by  the  earth's  atmos- 
phere. With  ions  from  other  sources  they  make  up  that  high-level 
electrical  reflecting  surface  in  our  atmosphere  which  causes  radio  rays 
to  bounce  along  the  surface  of  the  earth  for  thousands  of  miles,  in- 
stead of  losing  themselves  at  once  into  limitless  space.  As  the  sun 
rotates  on  its  axis  the  conical  columns  of  flying  ions  sent  out  from  sun- 
spots  sweep  through  space.  The  columns  from  those  spots  which  are 
nearly  central  on  the  sun's  apparent  disk  encounter  the  earth  for  the 
short  time  of  2  or  3  days.  From  certain  observations  we  made  in 
March  1920,  it  seems  that  such  a  column  of  ions,  93  million  miles  long 
between  the  sun  and  the  earth,  by  scattering  the  sun's  rays  sometimes 
reduces  the  intensity  of  the  sun  beam  at  the  earth  by  as  much  as  5 
percent.  Ordinarily  such  effects  are  much  less,  seldom  exceeding  1 
percent.  But  it  is  easy  to  see  that  the  rotation  of  a  spotted  sun,  by  ionic 
scattering,  may  produce  successions  of  small  variations  of  the  solar 


SOLAR   VARIATION    AND   WEATHER — ABBOT  121 

constant  of  radiation.  The  presence  of  areas  of  faculae,  hotter  and 
more  radiative  than  the  adjoining  solar  surfaces,  will  also,  as  they 
march  around  with  the  sun's  rotation,  produce  variations  of  the  solar 
constant. 

THE  EARTH'S  TEMPERATURE 

The  earth  as  a  planet  is  kept  in  its  present  approximately  constant 
state  at  the  mean  temperature  of  14°  Centigrade  by  the  balance  of  its 
receipt  of  heat  from  sun  rays  against  the  outgo  of  heat  caused  by  the 
earth's  emission  to  space.  This  earth  emission  arises  in  the  invisible 
long-wave  rays  which  lie  between  the  gamut  of  visible  light  and  the 
gamut  of  rays  of  very  great  wave  length,  which  are  used  in  radio 
transmission.  To  fix  ideas  in  terms  of  the  centimeter,  the  unit  of 
length  in  the  metric  system,  visible  light  rays  have  wave  lengths 
between  4  and  7  hundred-thousandths  (0.00004  and  0.00007) ,  earth  rays 
between  4  and  40  ten-thousandths  (0.0004  and  0.0040),  and  radio  rays 
between  10  and  1  million  (10  and  1,000,000)  centimeters.  But  all  of 
them  are  of  the  same  fundamental  nature  of  transverse  vibrations. 

Since  the  earth's  mean  temperature  keeps  within  fairly  definite 
bounds  because  the  total  receipt  of  heat  from  the  sun  is  in  approxi- 
mate equilibrium  with  the  total  escape  of  heat  from  the  earth,  it  is 
plain  that  if  the  sun's  contribution  should  change  permanently,  the 
earth's  mean  temperature  would  change  to  a  new  state  of  equilibrium. 
However,  the  sun  is  so  immense  that  no  considerable  general  change 
of  this  kind  is  to  be  apprehended  in  thousands,  or  even  millions,  of 
years.  Nevertheless,  in  what  follows  it  will  be  shown  that  temporary 
changes  of  the  order  of  1  percent  do  frequently  occur  in  the  sun's 
output,  and  that  these  affect  weather  locally  so  much  that  solar  changes 
must  be  rated  as  major  meteorological  factors. 

SMITHSONIAN  SOLAR-CONSTANT  WORK 

For  many  years  the  Smithsonian  Institution  has  maintained  ob- 
servatories for  measuring  the  intensity  of  solar  rays.  Our  best  sta- 
tion is  Montezuma,  in  the  Atacama  Desert  of  northern  Chile.  It 
is  located  on  a  mountain  9,000  feet  high,  where  years  frequently  go 
by  without  a  drop  of  rain.  The  observers  must  be  supplied  from  the 
city  of  Calama,  12  miles  away,  with  water,  as  well  as  all  other  ne- 
cessities. The  sun  shines  from  an  unclouded  sky  on  nearly  80  percent 
of  all  days.  As  it  is  very  trying  to  the  nervous  system  to  live  in  such 
isolation  under  constantly  cloudless  skies,  it  is  necessary  to  relieve  the 
observers  at  intervals  of  2  or  3  years.  Indeed,  great  loyalty  to  the 
objects  of  the  work,  excellent  ability  as  observers,  much  tact  in  dealing 
with  the  people  of  the  vicinity,  and  conscientious  honesty  and  industry 
are  absolute  requirements  of  the  observers  for  the  successful  operation 


122  ANNUAL   REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

of  the  station.     We  have  been  fortunate  that  these  qualities  have  so 
seldom  been  lacking  in  our  representatives  there. 

Solar  radiation,  by  being  absorbed  on  black  surfaces,  is  converted 
into  heat.  Its  intensity  is  measured  by  its  heating  effect.  The  ob- 
servatories for  measuring  the  solar  constant  of  radiation  have  no 
telescopes.    To  insure  constant  temperature  surroundings,  highly  fa- 


<S     05 

^     O 


vorable  to  exact  measurements,  they  consist  of  horizontal  tunnels 
about  10  feet  wide  and  7  feet  high  driven  into  the  mountain  some  40 
feet.  We  located  the  tunnels  on  a  south  slope  in  the  Northern  Hemi- 
sphere, and  on  a  north  slope  in  the  Southern  Hemisphere.  Within  the 
tunnel  is  installed  a  large  prismatic  spectroscope,  whereby  the  sun  ray 
reflected  into  the  tunnel  by  the  coelostat  outside  (shown  in  pi.  2) 


SOLAR   VARIATION    AND   WEATHER — ABBOT  123 

is  cast  into  an  intense  spectrum,  which  comes  to  focus  on  the  bo- 
lometer. The  bolometer,  originally  invented  about  1880  by  Dr.  Samuel 
P.  Langley,  is  an  electrical  thermometer  so  sensitive  that  a  change  of 
a  millionth  of  a  degree  in  temperature  can  be  registered,  A  clockwork 
causes  the  solar  spectrum  to  drift  slowly  across  the  fine  hairlike  re- 
ceiver of  the  bolometer,  and  at  the  same  time  causes  a  photographic 
plate  to  drop  slowly  past  the  tiny  spot  of  light  reflected  from  the 
mirror  of  the  magnetic-needle  system  of  the  sensitive  galvanometer 
connected  to  the  bolometer.  Thus  is  produced  in  less  than  10  minutes 
a  holograph,  or  curve  showing  the  distribution  of  energy  of  radiation  in 
the  spectrum  of  the  sun  from  far  up  in  the  ultraviolet  to  far  down 
in  the  infrared.  Several  such  energy  curves  are  taken  with  appro- 
priate intervals  during  a  morning  as  the  sun  rises  higher  and  higher. 
A  group  of  them  is  shown  in  figure  1.  Simultaneously  with  each  holo- 
graph the  total  heating  effect  of  the  rays  is  measured  outside  the 
tunnel  with  an  instrument  called  the  pyrheliometer  (heat-of-the-sun- 
meter) .  Also  the  altitude  of  the  sun  above  the  horizon  is  taken  simul- 
taneously with  the  theodolite  to  indicate  the  slant  thickness  of  the 
atmosphere.  From  this  combination  of  observations  it  is  possible 
to  compute  the  intensity  of  the  solar  radiation  as  it  is  outside  our 
atmosphere  in  free  space  at  mean  solar  distance.  This  is  the  solar 
constant  of  radiation. 

DAILY  VARIATIONS  OF  THE  SOLAR  CONSTANT 

For  25  years  the  Smithsonian  Institution  has  been  collecting  daily 
measurements  of  the  solar  constant,  when  practicable,  with  a  view  to 
determining  the  march  of  the  variations  of  the  sun's  output  of  radia- 
tion. These  fluctuations  are  small  in  percentage,  rarely  exceeding  1 
percent.  Figure  2  gives  the  still  smaller  variations  of  the  monthly 
mean  solar-constant  values,  1920-1939.  It  therefore  requires  very 
great  accuracy  of  observing  to  disclose  and  evaluate  them,  hampered 
as  we  are  by  the  superincumbent  highly  variable  atmosphere.  We  are 
at  a  disadvantage  compared  to  astronomers  who  measure  variable 
stars,  for  they  can  compare  the  star  investigated  with  other  similar 
stars  nearby,  all  of  which  suffer  equal  percentage  losses  of  light  from 
atmospheric  hindrances.  The  sun  is  unique  and  can  be  compared 
with  nothing  near  it  in  the  sky.  One  can  only  compare  an  absolute 
solar  measurement  of  today  against  an  absolute  solar  measurement  of 
tomorrow,  trusting  altogether  to  the  accurate  determination  of  atmos- 
pheric transmission  on  each  day  to  make  the  measurements  comparable. 

The  Institution  maintains  three  solar-constant  observatories,  two 
in  the  Northern  and  one  in  the  Southern  Hemisphere,  all  on  high  moun- 
tains in  desert  lands.  The  following  table  and  summary  shows  how 
well  the  solar-constant  daily  measurements  at  great  distances  apart, 


124  ANNUAL   REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

1920  21         22       23       24       25        26       27        20       29       I930     31        32       33       3*       3S       3«       3T       38       39   I94< 


FiGTJBE  2. — March  of  monthly  values  of  solar  constant  of  radiation,  1920  to  1939. 
A,  observed ;  B,  synthesis  of  14  regular  periodicities,  all  approximately  aliquot 
parts  of  273  months. 

and  in  opposite  hemispheres,  agree  in  the  5-year  interval  from  Jan- 
uary 1932  to  December  1936.  All  days  simultaneously  observed,  good 
and  bad  alike,  are  included. 

These  results  we  arranged  in  groups  in  order  of  their  divergence,  as 
shown  in  the  table.  The  unit  is  1/1,000  calorie.  Most  of  the  values 
concern  Montezuma  and  Table  Mountain,  but  there  are  a  great  many 
in  which  Mount  St.  Katherine  figures  with  one  of  the  other  stations. 


Table  1. — Numhers  of  daily  differences  'between  stations  having  certain  j  i 

amplitudes 

Amplitudes,   ^ 22-28     20-22     18-20     16-18       15       14       13       12       11       10 

Number  of  days 17  12  10  35       13       15       22       20       22       27 

Product  lines  1  x  2 391  252  190         595     195     210     286     240     242     270 


Amplitudes,  a 9  8  7 

Number  of  days 34  30  35 

Product  lines  1  x  2 306         240         245 


6         5         4         3         2  10 

43       51        55       55       37       48       35 

258     255     220     165       74       48         0 


Total    days 616 

Total  of  products 4,  682 

Weighted  mean  ^ 7.  6 


SOLAR    VARIATION    AND   WEATHER — ABBOT 


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115 

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427 

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465 

117 

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540 

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26  B 

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475 

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176 

28  B 

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FiQTTBE  3. — Facsimile  of  page  133,  volume  6,  Annals  of  the  Astrophysical 

Observatory. 


126         ANNUAL  REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

The  weighted  divergence  between  stations  being  0.0076  calorie, 
the  weighted  average  departure  of  one  station  from  the  mean  solar 
constant  derived  from  two  stations  is  0.0038  calorie. 

Although  it  is  not  fair  to  Montezuma  to  suppose  that  the  stations 
are  of  equal  merit,  yet  if  we  make  that  assumption,  and  proceed  as 
usual,  we  find  the  weighted  mean  percentage  probable  accidental  error 
of  a  single  day  of  observation  of  the  solar  constant  at  one  station 
to  be: 

100  X  0.0038  X  0.84 -M.94= 0.164,  or  %  of  1  percent. 

In  volume  6  of  the  Annals  of  the  Astrophysical  Observatory  of  the 
Smithsonian  Institution  are  contained  in  table  24  nearly  19,000  meas- 
urements of  the  solar  constant  observed  through  the  years  1924  to  1939. 
Several  thousand  earlier  observations  of  the  years  1920  to  1923  are  con- 
tained in  other  publications.  Figure  3  is  a  facsimile  of  a  part  of  page 
133  of  the  Annals,  which  includes  the  work  of  September  1934.  The 
several  observing  stations  are  distinguished  by  letters  M,  K,  T,  meaning 
Montezuma,  St.  Katherine,  and  Table  Mountain.  The  solar-constant 
values  in  columns  "S.  C."  and  "Pf  d.  S.  C."  are  to  be  understood  as  pre- 
fixed with  1.9.  Thus  for  "50"  read  "1.950."  Using  the  result  of  Monte- 
zuma and  St.  Katherine  only,  which  are  more  accurate  than  those  of 
Table  Mountain,  there  was  apparently  an  increase  in  the  column  "Pf  d. 
S.  C."  from  the  1st  to  the  5th  and  from  the  10th  to  the  14th  of  Sep- 
tember, and  a  decrease  from  the  14th  to  the  19th.  These  changes  had 
an  amplitude  of  the  order  of  0.5  to  0.9  percent,  that  is  about  0.010  to 
0.018  calorie  in  the  solar  constant  of  radiation. 

SEQUENCES  OF  RISING  AND  OF  FALLING  SOLAR  ACTIVITY 

I  give  in  table  2  a  summary  of  nearly  500  of  the  best  supported  in- 
stances of  rise  and  of  fall  in  the  solar  constant  of  radiation  selected 
from  table  24  of  volume  6  of  the  Annals.  The  table  is  arranged  by 
months  and  will  readily  be  understood  by  an  example.  Thus,  "Janu- 
ary, Rising,  24,  12"  means  that  a  case  of  the  solar  constant  rising  for 
a  few  days  appeared  to  occur  beginning  January  12,  1924. 

It  is  of  interest  and  importance  to  note  that  the  solar  variation 
increases  in  percentage  toward  shorter  wave  lengths.  It  is  six  times 
as  great  at  3500  A.  in  the  ultraviolet  as  in  the  total  solar  constant. 

EFFECT  OF  SEQUENCES  OF  SOLAR  CHANGE  ON  TERRESTRIAL 
TEMPERATURES 

Using  this  tabulation  of  the  dates  whereon  sequences  of  rise  and  of 
fall  of  the  solar  constant  apparently  began,  I  have  sought  to  determine 
whether  such  phenomena  were  associated  with  special  behavior  of  the 


SOLAR   VARIATION    AND   WEATHER — ABBOT 


127 


departures  from  normal  temperature  and  normal  barometric  pressure 
at  numerous  cities.  For  this  purpose  I  tabulated  the  departures,  let 
us  say  of  temperature,  to  illustrate,  for  5  days  before,  and  for  14  days 
after,  each  date  included  in  table  2.  Figure  4  is  a  facsimile  of  such  a 
tabulation  of  temperature  departures  covering  the  months  of 
January,  February,  and  March  for  Washington,  D.  C.  Two  curves 
of  temperature  departures  are  shown  for  each  month.  One  corre- 
sponds to  the  average  influence  of  sequences  of  rising  solar  activ- 
ity, the  other  to  the  average  influence  of  sequences  of  falling  solar 
activity  over  the  years  1924  to  1939.  It  is  to  be  understood  that  these 
curves  show  temperatures  only,  not  solar  constants.  One  knows  only 
that  on  the  zeroth  day  of  each  line  of  the  table  a  3-  to  4-day  sequence 
of  solar  changes  began.  The  upper  curves  of  the  figure  show  the 
average  march  of  temperature  departures  at  Washington  in  the  months 
of  January,  February,  and  March,  each  associated  with  19  or  more  cases 
of  rising  solar  sequences,  and  the  lower  curves  show  the  average  march 
of  temperature  departures  at  Washington  in  January,  February,  and 
March,  each  associated  with  from  16  to  21  cases  of  falling  solar 
sequences. 


Table  2. — Dates  when  sequences  of  rise  and  fall  of  the  sun's  emission  of  radiation 

began 


January 

February 

March 

April 

Rising 

Falling 

Rising 

Falling 

Rising 

FaUing 

Rising 

Falling 

24  12 

24 

15 

24 

4 

27 

13 

24 

17 

24 

8 

24 

2 

24   9 

18 

20 

27 

28 

11 

23 

19 

14 

18 

29 

26 

1 

27 

8 

29 

9 

30 

25 

25 

7 

23 

25   1 

9 

28 

8 

30 

28 

25 

18 

25 

22 

15 

2G  15 

26   3 

17 

17 

34 

21 

25 

29 

28 

29 

27   1 

28 

5 

29 

2 

35 

16 

26 

5 

26 

20 

26 

10 

27  16 

6 

14 

30 

18 

21 

27 

25 

28 

4 

24 

28   6 

28   9 

30 

32 

5 

36 

4 

28 

2 

20 

27 

7 

16 

28 

31 

16 

34 

12 

12 

24 

30 

16 

22 

29   5 

31  13 

34 

4 

26 

37 

8 

30 

24 

31 

30 

29 

32   5 

34  20 

36 

16 

35 

19 

23 

30 

34 

17 

28 

19 

15 

35   3 

37 

6 

36 

8 

38 

1 

31 

22 

35 

23 

29 

9 

27 

10 

26 

37 

2 

39 

24 

28 

30 

4 

30 

21 

33   4 

36  21 

38 

14 

19 

32 

5 

20 

32 

9 

13 

29 

16 

37 

1 

33 

10 

34   9 

37   8 

35 

3 

10 

20 

17 

14 

16 

38 

9 

28 

35   1 

31 

36 

9 

39 

16 

34 

7 

19 

38   6 

37 

6 

35 

7 

27 

18 

12 

14 

38  12 

26 

39 

18 
25 

36 
37 
38 

39 

25 
3 

8 
7 

16 
7 

25 

39   4 

17 

128  ANNUAL   REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

Table  2. — Dates  when  sequences  of  rise  and  fall  of  the  sun's  emission  of  radiation 

began — Continued 


May 

June 

July 

August 

Bising 

Falling 

Rising 

Falling 

Rising 

Falling 

Rising 

Falling 

24   8 

24 

4 

24 

12 

24 

3 

24 

7 

24 

22 

24 

13 

24   4 

12 

10 

26 

6 

20 

12 

30 

23 

31 

27  10 

28 

6 

25 

26 

15 

23 

26 

12 

28 

22 

26  10 

24 

20 

27 

4 

27 

10 

26 

5 

27 

26 

29 

15 

28   5 

28   3 

29 

21 

16 

29 

18 

17 

28 

3 

30 

24 

29   8 

9 

33 

18 

28 

11 

31 

1 

27 

13 

19 

31 

20 

21 

13 

34 

5 

31 

22 

32 

16 

24 

26 

32 

22 

30  28 

29   1 

35 

4 

32 

23 

34 

4 

28 

5 

29 

1 

33 

18 

31  15 

30  15 

36 

13 

33 

16 

35 

12 

23 

12 

26 

32   4 

33   1 

30 

34 

8 

36 

16 

29 

4 

30 

1 

34 

2 

34   8 

5 

37 

10 

14 

37 

6 

17 

33 

13 

11 

22 

35  13 

38 

6 

24 

22 

32 

25 

34 

6 

35 

8 

35  16 

38   4 

24 

35 

19 

38 

5 

33 

10 

35 

5 

36 

9 

36  17 

16 

23 

12 

19 

36 

26 

21 

24 

28 

37 

4 

39 

10 

34 

3 

37 

26 

39 

26 

37   6 

39  21 

39 

30 
13 
25 

21 

36 
37 

38 
39 

13 
22 
13 

6 
22 
16 

8 

38 
39 

20 
4 

19 

September 

October 

November 

December 

,  Rising 

FaUing 

Rising 

Falling 

Rising 

Falling 

Rising 

Falling 

24   3 

24  11 

24 

21 

24 

3 

24 

28 

24 

19 

24 

6 

24   1 

23 

19 

29 

27 

27 

4 

26 

3 

23 

25   7 

26   3 

26   5 

26 

7 

26 

1 

19 

13 

25 

24 

27  8 

27   2 

27   8 

15 

10 

29 

5 

27 

24 

26 

2 

24 

17 

14 

24 

20 

19 

29 

9 

27 

4 

28  22 

19 

21 

27 

4 

28 

31 

3 

14 

19 

29  12 

26 

29 

18 

27 

10 

22 

31 

25 

27 

30   7 

28  17 

29   5 

26 

21 

28 

33 

18 

28 

14 

31   6 

23 

31   3 

28 

5 

28 

8 

32 

22 

34 

4 

20 

17 

29   4 

9 

30 

20 

21 

33 

5 

35 

17 

29 

15 

33  26 

12 

33   9 

31 

8 

30 

4 

15 

27 

31 

10 

34  17 

27 

19 

18 

13 

35 

15 

36 

2 

32 

27 

35  29 

30  10 

34   6 

28 

31 

2 

21 

19 

33 

30 

36  10 

31  11 

14 

32 

3 

33 

9 

36 

5 

37 

23 

34 

22 

37  19 

22 

21 

33 

13 

22 

13 

38 

13 

35 

1 

38  28 

33   4 

35  13 

34 

11 

34 

13 

27 

24 

37 

4 

13 

36  20 

17 

36 

12 

37 

19 

38 

7 

28 

37   7 

28 

18 

38 

8 

25 

34  10 

21 

35 

14 

37 

9 

35   9 

28 

36 

9 

23 

22 

38   6 

16 

38 

5 

« 

36  13 

11 

37 

15 

17 

38 

9 

37   5 

10 

38   1 
9 

18 

22 

39   4 

11 

21 

SOLAR   VARIATION    AND   WEATHER — ABBOT 


129 


yr'4tV-^?*^^g?  } 


u 


£  yigijgr?  1 5| 


{^liiigiigYg  ^|gg> 


.a 


130         ANNUAL  REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

CONTROL  OF  TEMPERATURES  BY  SOLAR  SEQUENCES  OF  VARIATION 

With  this  method  of  investigation  clearly  set  forth,  I  now  give 
in  figures  5  to  7  results  for  temperatures  for  all  months  of  the  year  at 
Washington,  Albany,  and  Helena,  and  point  out  several  characteristics 
of  these  curves. 

1.  At  every  station,  and  in  every  month,  the  temperatures  depart  in 
opposite  directions,  attending,  respectively,  rising  and  falling  solar 
activity.  Thus  comes  about  an  axial  symmetry  of  the  pairs  of  curves 
such,  for  instance,  as  subsists  with  one's  right  hand  and  one's  left. 

2.  The  march  of  the  curves  differs  from  month  to  month,  and  differs 
for  the  same  month  from  station  to  station,  yet  the  right  and  left 
symmetry  always  prevails. 

3.  The  effects  are  large.  Differences  of  temperature  of  the  order 
of  10  degrees  Fahrenheit,  or  more,  depend  on  whether  a  rising  or  a 
falling  sequence  of  solar  activity  preceded  them  many  days  before. 

4.  The  effects  of  solar  changes  on  temperature  persist  for  many 
days.  They  may  surely  be  traced  from  3  days  before  to  14  days  after 
the  zeroth  day  of  the  solar  sequence. 

5.  The  coefficient  of  correlation  of  these  curves  for  the  three  stations 
and  the  12  months  of  the  year,  and  from  3  days  before  to  14  days 
after  the  solar  change,  is  found  to  be  r  =  —  61.2  ±  1.7  percent. 

6.  Since  far-separated  cities  respond  in  a  similar  manner  to  the  com- 
mon system  of  dates  given  in  table  2,  this  system  of  dates  must  have 
a  cosmic  significance.  The  system  of  dates,  in  other  words,  betrays 
an  extra-terrestrial  selection,  harmonious  to  the  claim  that  on  these 
dates  changes  in  radiation  occurred  in  the  sun. 

SUPPORTING  EVIDENCES  OF  SOLAR  WEATHER  CONTROL 

Doubters,  however,  may  argue  to  the  contrary  as  follows : 
The  changes  claimed  in  solar  radiation,  they  may  say,  are  so  small 
in  percentage  that  it  is  improbable  that  observation,  however  accurate, 
can  distinguish  them  from  accidental  errors,  and  from  the  influences  of 
atmospheric  sources  of  error.  May  it  not  more  probably  be  that  the 
series  of  dates  was  selected  by  chance?  They  were,  indeed,  dates  on 
which,  in  the  average,  large  variations  of  temperature  followed  over 
periods  of  17  days,  but  this  was  merely  accidental.  It  would  then 
naturally  occur  that  sequences  of  dates  closely  following  those  at- 
tributed to  rising  solar  radiation  would  show  opposite  temperature 
tendencies,  since  whatever  goes  up  must  come  down.  That  far-sep- 
arated cities  would  react  to  the  same  systems  of  dates,  though  not  identi- 
cally, is  not  surprising.  For,  as  is  well  known,  weather  travels  in 
waves  from  west  toward  cast,  so  that  a  disturbance  arrived  at  Wash- 
ington would  have  passed  by  stations  to  the  west  some  days  earlier. 


SOLAR    VARIATION    AND   WEATHER — ABBOT 


131 


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Figure  5. — Average  marches  of  temperature  departures,  Fahrenheit,  at  Washing- 
ton, D.  C,  accompanying  sequences  of  variation  of  the  solar  constant,  January 
to  December. 


132  ANNUAL  REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 


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N.  Y.,  accompanying  sequences  of  variation  of  the  solar  constant,  January  to 
December. 


SOLAR   VARIATION    AND   WEATHER — ABBOT 


133 


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FiGUKE  7. — Average  marches  of  temperature  departures,  Fahrenheit,  at  Helena, 
Mont.,  accompanying  sequences  of  variation  of  the  solar  constant,  January  to 
December. 


134         ANNUAL  REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

These  plausible  arguments  may  be  confuted,  but  it  is  doubtful  if  so 
complex  a  proposition  could  be  made  altogether  clear  to  the  lay  reader. 
The  simpler  course  is  to  show  that  these  same  marches  of  temperature, 
at  these  same  cities,  are  associated  with  another  common  system  of  dates 
in  another  series  of  years,  which  system  of  dates  has  an  undoubted  solar 
connection.     This  I  shall  now  show. 

THE  SPECTROHELIOGRAPH  AT  THE  OBSERVATORIO  DEL  EBRO 

The  eminent  astronomer,  Dr.  George  E.  Hale,  in  his  youth  invented 
the  beautiful  instrument  which  he  named  the  spectroheliograph.  This 
device  photographs  the  clouds  of  vapors  of  individual  chemical  ele- 
ments, such  as  hydrogen,  helium,  iron,  or  calcium  which  float  above  the 
sun's  surface.  Hale's  spectroheliograph  found  instant  favor  all  over 
the  world,  and  many  observatories  were  equipped  with  it.  Among 
them  is  the  Observatorio  del  Ebro  in  northern  Spain,  which  is  main- 
tained by  the  Jesuits.  Every  available  day  from  1910  to  1937  the 
monks  at  Ebro  photographed  the  calcium  clouds  on  the  solar  surface 
with  their  spectroheliograph.  And  not  only  did  they  observe,  but  they 
measured  the  areas  of  these  clouds  as  well  as  their  mean  distances  from 
the  center  of  the  sun's  disk,  and  they  published  all  the  measures. 

CHARACTER  FIGURES  OF  THE  SOLAR-FLOCCULUS  ACTIVITY 

With  the  help  of  my  assistants,  Mrs.  Bond  and  Miss  Simpson,  I  have 
used  these  Spanish  measurements  of  every  day  of  observation  from 
1910  to  1937  to  compute  character  figures.  These  represent  the  solar 
activity  of  a  given  day  as  measured  by  the  summation,  according  to  cer- 
tain weights,  of  the  areas  of  the  calcium  clouds,  or  "flocculi,"  photo- 
graphed that  day  on  the  sun's  disk.  These  character  figures  having 
been  assembled  by  months  in  12  groups,  it  was  seen  at  once  that  they 
showed  sequences  of  rise  and  of  fall,  for  intervals  of  a  few  days  each, 
just  as  the  solar-constant  values  do. 

Going  over  the  tables  with  care,  I  selected  dates  in  each  of  the  12 
months  in  the  years  from  1910  to  1937  when  the  best  examples  of  se- 
quences of  rise  and  sequences  of  fall  occurred.  The  period  of  28 
years  is  so  long  that  there  was  no  difficulty  in  finding  enough  excellent 
sequences  without  including  doubtful  cases.  I  thus  tabulated  the 
zeroth  dates  of  the  rising  and  the  falling  sequences  of  flocculus  char- 
acter figures  for  each  of  the  12  months  covering  the  years  1910  to  1937. 
Then  the  Washington  temperature  departures  from  6  days  before  to 
14  days  after  each  zeroth  date  were  tabulated  in  the  same  way  as  for 
solar-constant  correlation. 


SOLAR    VARIATION    AND   WEATHER — ABBOT 


135 


CONFIRMATION  OF  SOLAR-CONSTANT  RESULTS  BY  WORK  AT  EBRO 

Mean  values  were  taken,  and  often  in  these  tabulations  more  than  30 
cases  entered  in  each  mean.    I  show  in  figure  8  a  computation  and 


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FiGUBE  8. — Temperature  departures,  Fahrenheit,  at  Washington,  D.  C,  in  October, 
accompanying  sequences  of  rise  and  of  fall  of  the  character  figures  of  solar 
calcium  flocculi,  beginning  zeroth  day. 

graphical  representation  of  the  results  at  Washington  for  the  month 
of  October.    Finally  I  show  in  figure  9  the  march  of  temperature  de- 


619830 — 45- 


-10 


136  ANNUAL   REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 


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Figure  9. — Average  marches  of  temperature  departure,  Fahrenheit,  at  Washington, 
D.  C,  accompanying  sequences  of  solar  change  (a)  of  the  solar  constant  in 
years  1924  to  1939;  (b)  of  character  figures  for  solar  calcium  flocculi  in  years 
1910  to  1937,  for  months  January  to  December.  Ordinates  are  temperature 
departures;  abscissae  are  days  from  beginning  of  solar-constant  sequence. 
Flocculi  area  curves  are  displaced  2  days  to  right. 


SOLAR   VARIATION    AND   WEATHER — ABBOT  137 

partures  at  Washington  for  the  12  months,  as  associated  both  with 
solar-constant  sequences  and  with  flocculus  character-figure  sequences. 

It  is  at  once  apparent  that  similar  curves  of  temperature  resulted, 
but  that  the  curves  based  on  flocculus  character  figures  show  2  days' 
lag  in  phase  compared  to  the  curves  based  on  solar  constants.  The  two 
kinds  of  solar  change,  in  other  words,  are  not  exactly  simultaneous. 
The  reader  will  see  in  the  diagram  that  for  comparison  purposes  the 
flocculus  temperature  curves  are  all  moved  to  the  right  2  days  with 
respect  to  the  solar-constant-temperature  curves.  This  phase  dif- 
ference allowed  for,  the  correlation  coefficient  between  solar-constant 
and  flocculus  temperature  curves  for  Washington  is  /•= 59.7  ±1.9  per- 
cent. It  will  be  noted  that  the  two  systems  of  dates  used  for  the  two 
determinations  have  almost  nothing  in  common.  They  are  spread 
over  two  different  series  of  years,  one  interval  1910  to  1937,  the  other 
1924  to  1939.  Owing  to  differences  in  days  lost  for  cloudiness  in  Spain 
and  northern  Chile,  only  a  few  of  the  dates  in  the  two  intervals  are 
adjacent.  In  short,  in  method,  in  the  years  observed,  and  in  detail, 
the  two  determinations  have  only  this  in  common:  both  purport  to 
show  the  influence  of  changes  of  solar  activity  on  Washington  tem- 
perature. One  of  the  methods  uses  photographic  phenomena  univer- 
sally admitted  to  be  solar.  Since  the  results  of  the  two  methods  are 
well-nigh  identical,  how  can  critics  longer  reasonably  deny  that  in  the 
basis  of  the  other  method  (the  solar-constant  variation)  is  also 
a  truly  veridical  solar  phenomenon  ? 

I  therefore  claim  for  the  Smithsonian  Institution  the  discovery  and 
measurement  of  variations  of  the  solar  constant  of  radiation,  and  the 
proof  that  these  solar  variations  are  major  factors  in  the  control  of 
terrestrial  temperatures. 

SOLAR  SEQUENCES  AND  BAROMETRIC  PRESSURE 

We  have  investigated  also  the  dependence  of  barometric  pressure 
on  the  solar  variations  tabulated  in  table  2.  I  will  not  enter  extensively 
into  this  branch  of  the  subject,  nor  show  further  examples  of  the  tem- 
perature effects,  because  I  have  much  else  to  present  in  this  lecture.  I 
will  only  draw  attention  to  the  march  of  barometric  pressure  at  Denver 
and  Ebro  (figs.  10, 11)  for  the  12  months,  as  associated  with  rising  and 
falling  sequences  of  solar-constant  changes.  It  will  be  seen  that  the 
curves,  while  not  so  consistent  as  the  temperature  curves,  already 
shown,  still  generally  display  that  right-and-left  symmetry  which  has 
been  referred  to  in  temperature. 

POSSIBILITIES  OF  DETAILED  LONG-RANGE  FORECASTING 

I  now  turn  to  the  question  whether  these  solar  variations,  since  indi- 
vidually they  apparently  produce  major  changes  of  weather  for  inter- 


FiGUKE  10.  Figure  11. 

FiGtniES  10  AND  11. — Barometric  departures  associated  with  sequences  of  solar- 
constant  variation  for  12  months,  January  to  December,  at  Denver,  Colo.  (fig. 
10)  and  Observatory  of  Ebro,  Spain  (fig.  11).  Full  curves,  rising  sequences; 
dotted  curves,  falling  sequences. 


SOLAR   VARIATION    AND   WEATHER — ABBOT 


139 


vals  of  nearly  20  days,  may  give  hope  that  a  method  of  forecasting  for 
many  days  in  advance  may  be  evolved  therefrom.  I  have,  indeed,  made 
a  preliminary  test  of  this  possibility. 

It  will  be  apparent  that  after  computing  basic  curves  of  the  tempera- 
ture effects  of  solar  variation  for  a  given  station,  it  may  be  assumed  that 
when  a  sequence  of  rise  of  the  solar  constant  is  descried  in  the  daily 
observations,  one  may  write  down  in  a  column  for  some  2  weeks  there- 
after the  departures  in  temperature  expected  to  follow  this  sequence  of 
rising  solar  activity.  As  other  sequences  occur,  some  rising,  some 
falling,  other  parallel  columns  of  expected  temperature  departures  are 
written  down  on  the  proper  dates,  appropriate  to  each. 


S2.pte.7n.ber  1535  October 


?'V'M   J  1'liliJ.LL 
riGUEE  12. — Forecast  and 


verification  of  Washington  temperature  departures. 


By  the  summation  of  all  of  these  columns  day  by  day,  one  finds  an 
expression  of  the  total  influence  of  solar  variation.  This  summation 
may  go  on  continuously,  always  for  as  much  as  10  days,  in  advance  of 
the  calendar.  Figure  12  gives  such  a  summation  for  September  and 
October  1935,  prepared  from  solar-constant  basic  curves  for  Wash- 
ington and  Ebro  dates. 

Unfortunately  the  solar-constant  daily  values  of  first-class  quality 
are  too  scattered  as  yet,  with  only  our  two  first-class  stations  observing. 
However,  I  have  found  several  months  in  the  long  record  of  calcium- 
flocculi  measurements  kept  at  Ebro  when  the  breaks  were  so  rare 


140         ANNUAL   REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

that  a  fair  estimate  of  the  dates  of  changes  in  solar  activity  could  be 
made.  With  allowance  made  for  the  difference  of  2  days  in  phase,  the 
basic  curves  used  were  those  derived  for  Washington  temperatures 
from  solar-constant  work.  The  general  result  was  as  summarized 
below : 

Days 
Total   predicted 201 

Observed  and  predicted,  same  sign 139 

Observed  and  predicted,  opposite  sign 62 

Observed  departures  :  Plus  65,  minus  136. 
Predicted  departures :  Plus  64,  minus  137. 

Num-        Percent- 
iers  ages 

Differences :  0°  to   2° 66  82.7) 

3°  to   4° 43  21.8  [6%  69.8% 

5°  to   6' 32  15.8) 

General  7°  to  10° 33  16.3) 

mean=        11°  to  15° 20  10.0 [6°,  30.3% 

5«.35.  Over  15° 8  4.o) 

Correlation  coefl5cient=56.9±3.2  percent. 

This  preliminary  test,  which  is  a  forecast  based  on  solar  data  alone, 
gives  some  ground  for  hope  that  with  more  accurate  and  continuous  ob- 
servation of  solar-constant  values,  when  these  are  obtained  every 
single  day,  such  solar  forecasts,  supplemented  and  corrected  by  the  ex- 
tensive knowledge  of  terrestrial  influences  now  available  to  meteorolo- 
gists, may  in  that  combination  greatly  promote  longer-range  weather 
forecasting.  Since  solar  changes  are  a  major  weather  factor  it  is 
difficult  to  see  how  long-range  weather  forecasts  can  be  made  if  they 
are  neglected  as  always  heretofore. 

THE  27-DAY  PERIOD  IN  WASHINGTON  PRECIPITATION 

I  now  present  a  curious  result  of  investigation  of  the  sunspot  rota- 
tion period  of  27  days  in  connection  with  the  precipitation  at  Wash- 
ington. In  the  year  1942  I  collected  values  of  the  daily  precipitation 
at  Washington  from  1924  to  1941.  These  values  I  arranged  in  cycles 
of  27  days.  Since  27  such  cycles  fill  2  complete  years,  lacking  1  or 
2  days  depending  on  leap  year,  it  was  convenient  to  tabulate  the  values 
in  nine  2-year  tables,  and  take  the  mean  values  for  each  of  them. 

I  was  immediately  struck  by  the  circumstance  that  for  the  mean  of 
every  2-year  tabulation,  the  11th  day  of  the  cycle  in  the  earlier  years 
and  the  12th  day  of  the  cycle  in  the  later  years  was  from  2  to  3  times 
as  rich  in  precipitation  as  the  6th  and  7th  day.  The  cycle,  whose  true 
period  seems  to  be  27.0074  days,  was  always  taken  in  the  phase  as  of 
January  1-27,  1924.  On  taking  the  general  mean  of  243  cycles,  the 
characteristic  of  high  values  about  the  12th  day  was  very  marked,  but 
other  parts  of  the  cycle  also  were  conspicuous  as  high  or  as  low  in 


SOLAR    VARIATION    AND   WEATHER — ABBOT 


141 


precipitation.  I  then  divided  the  data  into  three  sections  representa- 
tive of  dry  years,  54  cycles;  intermediate,  108  cycles;  wet  years,  81 
cycles.    The  results  are  given  in  figure  13. 

A  VERIFIED  PREDICTION  ONE  YEAR  IN  ADVANCE 

In  March  1943  I  informed  the  Chief  of  the  Weather  Bureau  that  on 
a  certain  list  of  dates  the  average  daily  precipitation  would  be  higher 
than  on  the  remaining  dates  of  the  year.  I  recently  tabulated  the  re- 
sults :  Using  curve  3,  applicable  to  years  of  intermediate  precipitation, 
the  selected  dates  of  1943  were  expected  to  show  166  times  the  average 


13  5  7  9  tl  13  IS 

Figure  13. — 27.0074-day  period  in  Washington  precipitation.  Curve  1,  general 
mean,  243  cycles ;  curve  2,  dry  years,  54  cycles ;  curve  3,  intermediate,  108  cycles ; 
curve  4,  wet  years,  81  cycles. 

rainfall  of  the  nonselected  dates.  The  actual  ratio,  for  the  175  selected 
dates  compared  to  191  nonselected  (the  work  included  December  31, 
1942)  was  1.58.^  The  27-day  cycle  has  continued  so  consistently  for 
20  years  at  Washington  that  one  is  inclined  to  think  it  may  be  trusted 
to  hold  for  some  years  to  come. 

MONTHLY  MEAN  SOLAR  CONSTAN'TTg 

We  will  now  consider  monthly  mean  values  of  the  solar  constant 
of  radiation,  the  variations  they  disclose,  the  periodicities  found 

*  I  might  add  that  the  2  days  of  large  rainfall  in  January  1944  fell  on  selected  dates 
also. 


142  ANNUAL  REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

therein,  and  the  effects  of  these  long-term  solar  variations  on  weather. 
Figure  2  gives  the  monthly  mean  solar-constant  values  from  1920  to 
1939.  The  curve  shows  fluctuations  which  appear  to  be  wholly  irregu- 
lar. If  one  asks,  are  these  fluctuations  really  true  changes  in  solar 
radiation,  their  very  magnitudes  give  a  strong  presumption  that  they 
are  so.  For  in  the  comparison  of  daily  values  given  above  it  was  shown 
that  the  probable  error  of  the  result  of  a  single  day  of  observation 
from  one  station  is  but  %  of  1  percent.  A  monthly  mean  includes  from 
30  to  80  such  values.  Hence,  recalling  that  the  probable  error  of  a 
mean  is  the  probable  error  of  the  individual  value  divided  by  the 
square  root  of  the  number  of  values  entering  into  the  mean,  we  see 
that  the  probable  error  of  a  monthly  mean  value  is  from  a  thirtieth 
to  a  fiftieth  of  1  percent.  Yet  the  fluctuations  in  figure  2  range  up  to 
more  than  1  percent.    Hence  probably  many  of  them  are  veridical. 

PERIODICITIES  IN  SOLAR  VARIATION 

Although  seemingly  irregular,  the  march  of  solar  variation  shown 
in  curve  A,  figure  2,  like  the  characteristic  voice  of  the  violin  or  of 
the  trumpet,  comprises  a  long  wave  with  many  simultaneously  active 
shorter  waves  related  to  it  by  simple  ratios.  However  in  the  solar 
variation  the  simple  relationships  appear  to  be  only  approximate, 
not  quite  exact,  to  the  master  cycle  of  22%  years,  or  273  months. 
Nevertheless  it  is  very  interesting  that  this  master  period,  so  nearly 
a  least  common  multiple  of  13  shorter  ones,  is  approximately  double 
the  well-known  sunspot  cycle  of  lll^  years,  and  thus  equal  to  Hale's 
period  of  magnetic  changes  in  sunspots.  Strangely  enough,  though, 
the  sunspot  cycle  does  not  appear  among  the  13  submultiples  of  the 
solar-constant  master  period,  for  no  evidence  of  this  liy^-yeav  period 
can  be  found  in  the  variation  of  the  solar  constant.^* 

Here  are  the  observed  periods,  and  their  approximate  relationship 
to  273  months : 


1 

% 

% 

% 

Ve 

Vi 

Vs 

273 

91 

68 

54 

45% 

39% 

34 

% 

%i 

%3 

V23 

%4 

%8 

1/34 

30% 

25% 

21 

11.87 

11.29 

9.79 

8.12 

Curve  B  of  figure  2  is  made  up  by  adding  together  the  separate 
influences  of  these  14  periodicities  as  they  were  determined  from 
curve  A  by  numerical  analysis.  The  fit  of  the  observed  curve  by 
the  synthetic  one  is  so  good  that  in  figure  14  of  the  Annals,  pub- 
lished several  years  ago,  the  curve  B  was  carried  on  as  a  prophecy 
of  solar  variation  to  the  end  of  1945.  Four  years  of  observation 
have  become  available  from  Montezuma  station,  though  only  in  a 
provisional,  not  the  final,  reduction.  Figure  14  shows  a  comparison 
between  the  prophesied  and  actually  observed  solar  variation.    Not 

'•  See,  however,  L.  B.  Aldrich,  Smithsonian  Misc.  Coll.,  vol.  104,  No.  12,  July  2,  1945. 


SOLAR   VARIATION    AND   WEATHER — ABBOT 


143 


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144         ANNUAL  REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

only  in  general,  but  in  many  details,  there  is  much  similarity.  We 
await  with  very  great  interest  the  crucial  test  to  come  in  the  latter 
part  of  1944  and  1945.  If  the  prophecy  is  then  verified,  we  may 
expect,  as  I  pointed  out  occurred  about  1922-23,^  unusual  weather 
conditions  in  1945-46. 


EFFECT  OF  LONGER  SOLAR  VARIATIONS  ON  WEATHER 

Among  the  shorter  periods  found  in  solar  variation,  as  indicated 
by  Smithsonian  solar-constant  measures,  are  periods  of  approxi- 
mately 8,  9%,  and  11^4  months.  I  have  sought  to  determine  how 
these  and  the  longer  periods  of  solar  variation  affect  temperature 
and  precipitation  in  many  cities.  To  fix  ideas  I  give  a  tabulation 
(tables  3  and  4)  for  8,  9%,  and  11^4  months  at  Copenhagen  to  show 
how  these  influences  are  examined.* 

Table  3. — Copenhagen  temperature  departures,  smoothed.     Test  of  8-month  period 
[Values  of  January  to  August  only.    Unit:  1/10  degree  C;  for  means,  1/100  degree  C] 


Year 

Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug. 

1800 ... 

-19 

-17 

-47 

33 

29 

-12 

-  4 

15 

1802 

-15 

-11 

22 

10 

-15 

-17 

-33 

6 

1804 

18 

-21 

-25 

-  8 

11 

3 

5 

11 

1806 

17 

19 

-  4 

-19 

8 

-20 

-15 

9 

1808 

8 

-11 

-19 

-17 

9 

9 

24 

26 

1810 

1 

-  5 

-  2 

-16 

-27 

-  4 

8 

6 

1812 _. 

-  1 
-53 

13 
-53 

-18 
-29 

-32 

4 

-14 
-30 

-  4 
-15 

-21 
10 

2 

1814 

-  2 

1816-.-.: 

4 

-22 

-  4 

-  6 

-27 

-15 

2 

-14 

1818 

14 

15 

20 

-21 

-  3 

11 

14 

-  2 

1820 

-32 

1 

-  4 

12 

0 

-15 

-  7 

-  3 

Mean 

-53 

-64 

-100 

-39 

-54 

-72 

-15 

4-49 

TABLE  OF  MEANS 


1800  to  1820 

-53 

-64 

-100 

-39 

-54 

-72 

-15 

+  49 

1822  to  1842 

-71 

-  6 

105 

42 

8 

15 

-  4 

18 

1844  to  1864 

-76 

4 

-17 

-  1 

-  9 

-11 

-52 

-30 

1866  to  1886 

127 

115 

44 

85 

-27 

4 

35 

24 

1888  to  1908 

123 

59 

25 

1 

-  1 

17 

-25 

-64 

1910  to  1930 

74 

108 

133 

96 

58 

-69 

46 

-16 

The  maximum  appears  to  shift  11  months  and  the  minimum  19  months  to  the  right  in  110  years.    With 
such  large  shifts  one  cannot  exactly  determine  the  proper  correction  to  the  period  with  one  trial.    These 

1 1 VJ^  1  10^8  1 

shifts  however  Indicate:  By  the  maximum,  =—    month;  by  the  minimum,  ^^  -  month. 

Further  trials  led  us  to  fix  on  the  correction  }i  month,  and  to  prefer  the  period  8H  months. 


8  Proc.  Nat.  Acad.  Scl.,  vol.  9,  No.  6,  June  1923. 

*  In    this    publication    I    give    only    the    tabulation    for    the    8-month    period,    and    Its 
correction  to  8%  months  for  Copenhagen.     Others  were  shown  at  the  lecture. 


SOLAR   VARIATION    AND   WEATHER — ^ABBOT 


145 


Table  4. — Copenhagen  temperature  departures,  smoothed.     Test  of  8}i-month  period 
[Values  of  all  months  employed.    Means  only  given.    Unit:  1/100  degree  C.  throughout.] 


Years 


November-December  beginnings 


1798  to  1833- - 
1833  to  1868-. 
1868  to  1903.- 
1903  to  1937-. 
1798  to  1937.. 

Nov.  and  Dec. 
Jan.  and  Feb-. 
Mar.  and  Apr. 
May  and  June 
July  and  Aug. 
Sept.  and  Oct. 


-19 

-153 

20 

-102 

-79 


24 

21 

7 

84 

11 

18 

-55 

-48 

-4 

-10 

-75 

-41 

85 

88 

103 

33 

77 

-23 

20 

36 

44 

29 

-4 

-5 

22 

29 

65 

41 

3 

-15 

-6 
66 
-3 
■20 
29 


1798  to  1937 


-79 

22 

29 

65 

41 

3 

-15 

4 

-3 

-32 

34 

59 

-1 

-7 

-29 

-29 

-64 

-19 

-66 

-39 

-29 

-1 

45 

44 

4 

-12 

24 

33 

29 

38 

-24 

-1 

-12 

16 

8 

24 

32 

52 

6 

5 

18 

40 

-29 

-6 

15 

46 

-31 

42 


That  there  is  here  no  progressive  secular  displacement  of  the  phases  of  means  of  groups  beginning  at  a 
constant  season  of  the  year,  is  shown  by  the  extended  table  for  November-December.  But  groups  begin- 
ning at  different  seabons  of  the  year  do  show  displacement  of  phases  with  respect  to  one  another. 

I  soon  found  that  while  there  seemed  to  be  some  tendency  to  perio- 
dicities in  weather  corresponding  to  the  solar  changes,  these  weather 
periodicities,  unlike  their  solar  counterparts,  fluctuated  in  phase.  It 
occurred  to  me,  however,  that  this  instability  of  phase  is  but  a  natural 
seasonal  effect  for  the  periods  of  shorter  duration  like  8,  9%,  or  II14 
months.  For  the  phase  of  terrestrial  response  to  a  solar  cause  must 
evidently  depend  on  local  terrestrial  circumstances.  For  instance, 
there  will  be  a  longer  lag  with  stations  under  oceanic  control  than  for 
those  in  cloudless  deserts.  Pursuing  this  thought  it  occurred  to  me 
that  the  phase,  for  example,  of  an  8-month  period  of  response  to  solar 
change  in  weather  must  be  different  if  the  solar  cause  occurs  in 
summer  than  if  it  occurs  in  winter.  I  investigated  this  idea  for  several 
periods  and  many  stations.  Figure  15  shows  that  my  surmise  was 
a  correct  one. 

Hence  terrestrial  responses  to  solar  periods  of  moderate  lengths 
should  be  expected  to  be  in  the  same  phases  only  when  the  solar  causes 
occur  at  the  same  time  of  the  year.  If  a  solar  period  of  exactly  8 
months  existed,  we  must  compare  its  terrestrial  effects  2  years  apart, 
for  then  their  solar  causes  would  occur  exactly  at  the  same  seasons  of 
the  year. 

I  will  not  delay  to  show  exactly  how  we  make  use  of  the  calendar  to 
eliminate  seasonal  phase  changes,  but  will  content  myself  with  show- 
ing for  three  stations,  Copenhagen,  Vienna,  and  New  Haven  (see  tables 
3  and  4) ,  that  when  this  complication  is  properly  allowed  for,  and  when 
the  exact  length  of  the  solar  period  is  determined,  the  terrestrial  re- 
sponse is  proved  to  be  exactly  in  phase  from  the  year  1700  to  the  present 


146  ANNUAL  REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

time.  Figure  16  shows  how  necessary  it  is  in  such  a  long  term 
of  years  to  select  the  exact  period.  Using  8  months  there  is  but  small 
amplitude,  even  when  seasonal  influences  are  eliminated,  but  with 


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81^  months  all  three  stations  show  a  strong  periodicity,  with  ampli- 
tudes of  1°.3  C,  IM  C,  and  1°.3  F.,  respectively,  over  nearly  a  cen- 
tury and  a  half.     In  this  way  we  have  been  able,  by  using  tempera- 


SOLAR    VARIATION    AND   WEATHER — ABBOT 


147 


ture  records  at  terrestrial  stations,  to  obtain  more  exact  periods  of  the 
solar  changes  than  could  be  fixed  by  solar-constant  measurements  ex- 
tending only  since  the  year  1920. 


yiemia 


New  Haven 


FiGUKE  16. — A  periodicity  of  8%  months  in  temperatures  at  Copenhagen,  Vienna, 
and  New  Haven,  CJonn.,  since  the  year  1700.  Seasonal  phase  disturbances  are 
excluded. 

PERIODICITIES  IN  WEATHER 

Since  the  14  periods'  simultaneously  active  in  solar  variation  are 
approximately  aliquot  parts  of  273  months,  we  may  anticipate  that 
the  many  weather  features  occurring  at  a  station  in  this  interval  of 
nearly  23  years  will  tend  to  repeat  with  some  measure  of  similarity 
in  successive  23-year  cycles.  Experience  shows  that  this  influence 
is  more  effective  at  some  stations  than  at  others.  Figure  17  shows 
what  has  happened  at  one  of  the  most  responsive  stations,  Peoria,  111. 
It  will  be  seen  that  especially  in  the  last  half  of  the  cycles  the  tendency 
of  features  to  repeat  in  Peoria  precipitation  is  quite  marked.  Two 
attempts  to  forecast,  made  in  1934  and  in  1938,  are  shown  by  heavy 
dotted  lines,  and  by  light  full  lines,  respectively,  in  figure  17. 

I  have  made  use  of  this  273-month  master  period  to  predict 
precipitation  for  some  years  in  advance  at  a  number  of  limited 
regions  of  the  United  States.  I  reduced  the  prediction  to  a  purely 
routine  computation,  and  used  the  percentages  of  normal  precipi- 
tation smoothed  by  5-month  consecutive  means.     Thus  for  March 


273 


» To  them  must  be  added  the  sunspot  cycle  of  approximately  — s"    months.     For  though 

it  does  not  appear  in  variations  of  the  solar  constant,  the  ionic  bombardment  of  the  earth 
from  sunspots  Is  not  negligible  as  a  weather  factor. 


148  ANNUAL  REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 


use 


^,                 ^.       Jan.  +  Feb.  +  Mar. + Apr.  +  May         ,   -       .      ., 
the  summation    = —,  and  for  April, 


Feb.  +  Mar. + Apr. + May + June  ,  rm.  j;  xi.  ^  j  ^x.  j 
^ ,  etc.    Then  for  the  expected  smoothed 

percentage  precipitation  value  for  January  of  a  future  year,  take  the 
smoothed  value  for  April  46  years  previously,  plus  the  smoothed  value 
for  February  23  years  previously,  and  divide  by  2.  This  simple  rule 
works  very  well  for  some  stations.  Thus  for  Eastport,  Maine,  from 
1935  to  1942,  inclusive : 

For  96  months,  average  observed  minus  predicted ±16  percent. 

Number  observed  and  predicted  on  same  side  of  100  percent 78 

Number  observed  and  predicted  on  opposite  sides  of  100  percent IS 

Number,  though  observed  and  predicted  on  opposite  sides  of  100  percent, 
their  difference  observed  minus  predicted,  less  than  ±16  percent 6 


E^GXiEE  17. — Precipitation  at  Peoria,  111.,  smoothed  by  5-month  running  means, 
arranged  in  23-year  cycles.  Letters  represent  similar  features  in  successive 
cycles.  Forecasts  (dotted  line,  from  1934;  thin  line,  from  1938)  made  by  con- 
sideration of  preceding  cycles. 

From  these  figures  one  may  fairly  claim  that  of  96  months  predicted 
84  were  useful  predictions,  or  a  measure  of  success  of  87  percent. 
For  12  New  England  stations  similarly  evaluated,  807  were  useful, 
345  unsatisfactory  months'  predictions. 

Several  years  ago,  at  the  resquest  of  a  Colonel  of  Engineers  I 
made  in  this  way  from  records  of  10  stations  a  prediction  for  3 
months  of  the  expected  precipitation  in  the  Tennessee  Valley  region. 
My  prediction  of  precipitation  was  84  to  87  percent  normal.  The 
event  was  87  percent  normal. 


SOLAR   VARIATION    AND   WEATHER— ABBOT 


149 


YEARS 


23-YEAR  PERIOD  IN  TREE  RINGS 
FROM  5  GROUPS,  SO.  CALIFORNIA 

10  15  20 


FiQUEE  18. — The  23-year  period  as  found  in  the  thiclsness  of  tree  rings  from  five 
southern  California  groups,  1829  to  1920. 


150         ANNUAL  REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

The  double  and  quadruple  master  periods  of  about  46  and  91  years 
seem  even  more  prominent  than  the  23-year  cycle  in  precipitation. 
In  further  illustration  of  the  effects  of  the  23-,  46-,  and  91-year  perio- 
dicities I  give  figures  18, 19,  and  20.  They  show,  respectively,  the  23- 
year  period  in  the  growth  of  trees  in  California,  the  46-year  period 
in  the  precipitation  at  Bismarck,  N.  D.,  and  the  23-,  46-,  and  91-year 
periods  in  the  level  of  Lake  Huron.    It  seems  probable  that  large  de- 


1930        12  3  4  1935  6     •        7  8  9  1940  I  2  3        1944 

BISMARCK,    S.DAKOTA.      PRECIPITATION  AT  EPCX;HS  SEPARATED  46  YEARS. 

FiGUiiE  19. — The  dotted  line  iu  the  lower  curve,  from  1937  to  1943,  was  drawn  in 

1937  as  a  prediction. 

clines  in  the  Great  Lakes  levels,  accompanying  great  droughts  in  the 
Northwest,  will  begin  about  the  years  1975  and  2020. 

THE    14    SOLAR    PERIODICITIES    REFLECTED    INDIVIDUALLY    IN 

WEATHER 

There  is  another  method  of  making  long-range  weather  forecasts 
based  on  solar  variation.  With  strict  attention  to  the  seasonal  in- 
fluences on  phase  already  referred  to,  one  may  compute  from  monthly 


SOLAR    VARIATION    AND    WEATHER — ABBOT 


151 


weather  records  of  the  past  what  are  the  effects  of  each  of  the  14 
solar  periodicities  on  temperature  and  on  rainfall  for  any  desired  sta- 
tion. Then,  assuming  that  these  influences  will  continue  with  the 
same  effects  in  future,  and  still  paying  close  attention  to  the  seasonal 
changes  of  phase,  one  may  add  together  all  these  effects,  and  also  the 
sunspot-cycle  effect,  similarly  determined  from  records  of  the  past, 
and  thus  prepare  a  forecast  for  several  years  in  the  future. 

With  the  aid  of  my  assistant.  Miss  McCandlish,  I  have  made  such 
forecasts  of  temperature  and  precipitation  for  several  cities  in  the 


1837   39        41        43        4S        47        49        51         S3        55        57        59        61        63        65        67        69        71         73        75        77        79        81    1683 


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FiGUKK  20.— Levels  of  Lake  Huron  (minus  581  ft. ) .  Note  the  cycles  of  23,  46,  and 
91  years.  (Yearly  means.)  Great  droughts  in  the  Northwest  following  1838, 
1886,  and  1929  recessions.  The  grand  cycle  is  92  years  (or  better,  91.2).  Minor 
droughts  following  1859,  1906,  and  to  be  expected  following  1952. 

United  States.  They  have  been  very  successful  in  some  cases,  not  so 
much  so  in  others.  Figure  21  shows  one  of  the  most  successful,  again 
dealing  with  the  precipitation  at  Peoria,  111.  We  employed  the  pre- 
cipitation records  prior  to  1930  to  determine  the  outlines  of  the  pe- 
riodic terms,  and  then  synthesized  the  expected  precipitation  through 
1944.  As  will  be  seen,  10  years  out  of  the  13  show  both  in  phase  and 
amplitude  considerable  similarity  to  the  event.  The  later  years  betray 
an  increasing  tendency  for  the  prophecy  to  anticipate  in  phase.  This 
may  indicate  that  some  adjustment  of  length  of  periods  is  desirable. 


619830 — 45- 


-11 


152  ANNUAL   REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 


SOLAR   VARIATION    AND   WEATHER — ABBOT  153 

However,  if  one  were  content  with  5-  or  7-year  predictions,  such 
shifts  of  phase  could  be  corrected  from  time  to  time. 

CONCLUSION 

I  have  brought  together  many  evidences  which  seem  to  indicate 
that  the  small  percentage  changes  observed  in  the  solar  emission  of 
radiation  are  effective  factors  in  the  domain  of  weather.  Many  others 
have  been  published  by  H.  H.  Clayton.  The  solar  measurements  in- 
volved are  exceedingly  difficult  and  require  installations  on  high  moun- 
tains in  desert  regions,  where  the  largest  percentages  of  clear  skies 
with  low  wind  velocities  prevail.  Tliree  stations  maintained  by  the 
Smithsonian  Institution  are  now  engaged  in  day-to-day  measure- 
ments of  the  solar  constant  of  radiation.  On  account  of  the  variable 
obstruction  occasioned  by  the  atmosphere,  laden  as  it  is  with  clouds, 
dust,  ozone,  and  water  vapor,  these  three  stations  are  insufficient 
adequately  to  follow  and  record  the  sun's  variation.  About  three 
times  as  many  mountain  stations,  widely  separated  in  the  most  cloud- 
less and  calm  regions  of  the  earth  are  needed.  They  could  be  installed 
for  $500,000,  and  operated  for  $250,000  per  annum.« 

I  think  there  is  a  great  probability  that  if  such  additional  solar 
stations  were  in  operation  they  would  furnish  information  of  major 
value  to  meteorology.  I  believe  that  with  the  solar  data  that  would 
then  be  available,  and  using  the  rich  store  of  information  regarding 
terrestrial  factors  now  familiar  to  meteorologists,  great  progress 
would  ensue.  The  neglect  of  solar  variation,  which  seems  to  be  a 
major  factor  in  weather,  cannot  continue  if  meteorology  is  to  progress 
as  it  should.  It  would  be  like  the  play  "Hamlet"  with  Hamlet's  part 
omitted. 


•  Very  recent  developments  of  the  research,  however,  give  hope  that  another  approach 
to  the  problem  not  requiring  additional  stations  may  be  successful. 


Smithsonian  Report.  1944. — Abbot 


Plate  1 


Solar  Photograph   by   Mount  Wilson  Observatory,   Showing  Sunspots, 
Faculae,  and  Prominences. 


Smithsonian  Report,  1944. — Abbot 


Plate  2 


The  Coelostat  and  the  Pyrheliometer  Just  outside  the  Tunnel  at 

Montezuma,  Chile. 


ASTRONOMY  IN  A  WORLD  AT  WAR' 


By  A.  ViBEET  Douglas 
Queen's  University 
Kingston,  Ontario 


Science  has  advanced  during  the  last  4  years  both  because  and 
in  spite  of  war.  Some  of  the  sciences  have  made  tremendous  strides 
as  a  direct  result  of  the  challenge  of  war  necessities.  Physics,  chem- 
istry, metallurgy,  and  all  the  branches  of  medical  science  are  in  this 
category;  some  day  the  full  story  of  their  great  achievements  may 
be  made  known.  Other  branches  of  knowledge,  while  far  from  being 
unaffected  by  the  war,  have  continued  to  advance  largely  in  spite 
of  the  upheavals  in  the  life  of  nations  and  individuals  which  world 
war  inevitably  brings.    Astronomy  is  in  this  latter  class. 

Astronomy  and  astronomers  are  playing  an  important  part  in  the 
war  chiefly  along  the  two  lines  which  have  always  presented  funda- 
mentally stellar  problems — direction  and  time.  But  the  main  ad- 
vances in  astronomy  in  these  last  4  years  have  been  made  in  spite 
of  the  war.  It  is  right  and  fitting  and  indeed  very  encouraging  that 
this  is  the  case.  When  so  much  that  is  of  intrinsic  beauty  and  of 
fundamental  value  is  being  destroyed  by  war,  and  when  so  many 
worthwhile  activities  have  to  cease,  it  is  good  indeed  to  know  that 
there  are  astronomers  on  this  continent,  and  even  in  some  parts  of 
Europe,  and  in  Australia,  Africa,  India,  and  probably  in  Japan, 
who  are  able  to  carry  on  the  continuity  of  observations  on  stars  and 
starlight,  sun  and  moon,  planets  and  asteroids,  comets  and  meteors. 

If  the  continuity  of  observation  in  many  branches  of  astronomical 
work  were  to  be  completely  broken,  it  would  be  an  irreparable  loss 
to  science.  Thus  it  is  with  satisfaction  and  great  admiration  that 
we  read  in  the  Reports  of  the  Royal  Observatory,  Greenwich,  that 
damage  done  by  enemy  action  to  one  of  the  buildings  and  to 
the  Airy  transit  circle  has  been  largely  made  good,  and  observations 
recommenced  with  that  instrument  upon  Sun,  Venus,  and  the  stars 

^  Address  of  the  president  of  the  Royal  Astronomical  Society  of  Canada,  January  1944. 
Reprinted  by  permission  from  The  Journal  of  the  Royal  Astronomical  Society  of  Canada, 
vol.  38,  No.  3,  March  1944. 

155 


156  ANNUAL  REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

in  the  clock  and  azimuth  lists ;  that  parallax  determinations  are  going 
on ;  that  solar  photography  and  observations  of  chromospheric  erup- 
tions in  Ha  are  continuing;  and  that  the  two  Time  Service  Stations 
have  operated  continuously.  During  this  period  the  exhaustive  work 
on  the  solar  parallax  was  brought  to  completion. 

In  France  solar,  planetary,  and  stellar  research  have  been  carried 
on,  and  in  Holland  galactic  problems,  long-period  variables,  dark 
nebulosity,  and  theoretical  astrophysics  have  been  under  investiga- 
tion even  in  these  tragic  years.  In  the  U.  S.  S.  R.,  where  at  least 
three  observatories  have  been  destroyed  and  another  dismantled,  plans 
are  already  made  for  resumption  of  activity  and  for  the  erection  of 
new  observatories  to  further  the  study  of  latitude  variations  and  solar 
research.  From  two  observatories  east  of  the  farthest  battle  front  we 
know  that  papers  have  been  published  recently  on  photoelectric  calo- 
rimetry  and  on  color  temperatures. 

Similar  records  of  observations  and  measurements  carried  on  des- 
pite air  raids,  despite  reduction  of  staff,  despite  pressing  war  problems 
and  difficulties  of  all  kinds,  could  be  quoted  from  many  observatories 
in  countries  deeply  involved  in  fighting  for  their  very  existence. 

In  these  and  in  countries  like  our  own — at  war,  but  far  removed 
from  the  main  theaters  of  conflict — there  has  been  a  very  important 
contribution  made  by  astronomers  in  the  adaptation  of  astronomical 
observations  and  calculations  to  the  problems  of  air  navigation.  The 
Director  of  the  Glasgow  University  Observatory,  W.  M.  Smart,  has 
produced  three  books  on  nautical  astronomy  since  this  war  began,  and 
under  his  instruction,  R.  A.  F.  pilots  and  cadets  are  learning  the  art 
and  science  of  navigation.  Scores  of  astronomers,  including  Canadian 
men  well  known  to  many  of  us,  are  doing  similar  work,  giving  all 
their  time,  skill,  and  energy,  and  often  risking  their  lives  in  the  air 
with  student  pilots,  in  order  to  impart  this  so  necessary  instruction 
in  air  navigation. 

In  the  Koran,  it  is  written:  "God  has  given  you  the  stars  to  be 
guides  in  the  dark,  both  by  land  and  sea."  Homer  tells  of  Ulysses 
on  his  raft  that  he  sat  at  the  helm  and  "marked  the  skies,  nor 
closed  in  sleep  his  ever  watchful  eyes."  But  navigation  from  the 
back  of  a  camel  or  from  the  bridge  of  a  ship  can  be  a  relatively 
leisurely  performance.  Not  so  in  a  modern  airplane !  The  naviga- 
tor takes  a  sight  on  a  star  or  planet,  he  reads  his  chronometer,  and 
then  if  his  calculations  take  him  5  minutes  to  perform,  he  and  his 
plane  are  already  perhaps  25  miles  away  from  the  ascertained  posi- 
tion. Every  minute  that  astronomers  have  been  able  to  cut  off  the 
time  for  computation  of  position  is  of  the  greatest  value  to  airmen 
flying  over  seven  seas  and  six  continents,  across  enemy  lines,  with 
objectives  a  mere  dot  on  the  map — a  railway  yard,  a  factory,  an 
airfield. 


ASTRONOMY  IN   A  WORLD  AT  WAR — DOUGLAS  157 

II 

Turning  to  the  subject  of  time  measurement,  it  is  worthy  of  note 
that  during  these  war  years  an  accuracy  never  before  dreamed  of 
has  been  attained.  It  was  in  April  1938  that  Essen  described  before 
the  Royal  Astronomical  Society  the  researches  at  the  National  Phj'si- 
cal  Laboratory  which  had  resulted  in  the  new  quartz  clock,  of  which 
so  much  was  hoped.  This  clock  makes  use  of  the  properties  of  the 
crystal  oscillator,  one  of  the  most  reliable  and  perfect  mechanical 
systems  known  to  man.  Essen  describes  quartz  clocks  briefly  as  "con^ 
sisting  of  phonic  motors  controlled  via  frequency  dividers  by  vibrating 
quartz  crystals."  In  a  paper  presented  to  the  Royal  Astronomical 
Society  last  June,  Greaves  and  Symms  record  the  intercomparisons 
of  three  Greenwich  free  pendulum  Shortt  clocks,  two  National  Physi- 
cal Laboratory  quartz  clocks,  and  three  quartz  clocks  at  the  I'ost 
Office  Radio  Branch  Laboratories. 

They  analyze  clock  errors  into  three  classes:  (a)  erratic  varia- 
tions in  phase,  (b)  erratic  variations  in  rate,  (c)  a  combination  of 
phase  and  rate  variations,  producing  a  cumulative  effect.  They  show 
that  two  Shortt  clocks  and  two  quartz  clocks  may  indicate  approxi- 
mately the  same  mean  absolute  second  differences  of  relative  clock 
error,  but  the  distribution  of  errors  between  the  three  classes  is  differ- 
ent— the  quartz  clocks  show  very  little  error  of  (b)  and  (c)  relative  to 
Shortt  clocks,  and  errors  of  class  (a)  do  not  affect  the  long-period 
performance  of  a  clock. 

The  famous  Shortt  clocks  are  now  known  to  be  incapable  of  giving 
the  precision  demanded,  but  the  Astronomer  Royal  hastened  to  pay 
them  a  deserved  tribute : 

Twenty  years  ago  we  had  several  papers  dealing  with  the  performance  of 
the  Shortt  clocks,  then  looked  upon  with  great  expectations.  In  this  clock  waa 
achieved  in  a  simple  and  beautiful  manner  what  horologists  had  been  striving 
after  for  years,  namely,  a  pendulum  designed  solely  for  the  purpose  of  beating 
time  whilst  being  called  upon  to  perform  no  mechanical  work.  But  if  the  subse- 
quent performance  of  this  type  of  clock  did  not  fully  come  up  to  our  high  expec- 
tations, the  Shortt  Free  Pendulum  has  one  thing  to  its  everlasting  credit — it 
forced  the  astronomers  to  adopt  the  use  of  Mean  Sidereal  Time  where  formerly 
True  Sidereal  Time  had  been  adequate.  During  the  intervening  20  years  since 
this  type  of  clock  was  installed  in  many  observatories,  new  requirements  have 
sprung  up.  In  the  past  the  main  purpose  of  a  time  service  was  to  provide  absolute 
tinje  with  an  accuracy  suflScient  for  navigational  and  surv^eying  requiren»ents. 
But  the  new  use  of  frequency  standards  has  raised  a  demand  for  24-hour  intervals 
correct  to  the  very  high  accuracy  of  a  millisecond. 

It  will  be  seen  then  that  as  absolute  standards  at  Greenwich,  Shortt  clocks 
have  become  obsolete.  Our  long-range  predictions  are  now  based  entirely  on 
quartz  clocks,  free  pendulum  clocks  being  used  only  for  extrapolation  over  an 
Interval  of  24  hours. 


158  ANNUAL   REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

III 

Let  us  turn  our  thoughts  to  cosmology  and  recall  that  it  was  during 
the  first  World  War  that  Einstein's  general  theory  of  relativity  ap- 
peared. Two  years  later,  in  the  war  year  1917,  came  the  first  sugges- 
tion of  an  expanding  universe.  This  was  one  interpretation  of  de 
Sitter's  modification  of  Einstein's  cosmology,  implying  as  it  did  red 
shifts  of  the  spectrum  lines  of  faint  distant  objects.  Incidentally,  we 
may  turn  aside  to  remark  that  while  de  Sitter  was  then  working  in 
a  Holland  that  had  been  allowed  to  remain  neutral,  his  spirit  is  living 
on  in  the  occupied  and  battered  Holland  of  this  war,  and  he,  though 
dead,  yet  speaketh,  inspiring  his  successors  at  Leiden  and  Amsterdam 
to  carry  on  the  tradition  of  astrophysical  research  in  spite  of  all  ex- 
ternal difficulties — thus  Verweij  has  produced  a  theoretical  discussion 
of  Stark  effect  in  stellar  spectra  which  was  published  in  Holland  and 
found  its  way  to  the  United  States  of  America  just  before  the  entry 
of  that  country  into  this  war.  Perhaps  I  may  add  that  Verweij  in 
that  paper  dealt  a  hard  blow  at  a  paper  by  a  McGill  colleague  and 
myself,  though  I  do  not  accept  it  as  a  knock-out  blow.  Further  re- 
search on  this  controversial  subject  is  now  in  progress  at  the  Dominion 
Astrophysical  Observatory.^ 

De  Sitter  had  also  deduced  from  Einstein's  theory  the  four  con- 
clusions which  offered  a  hope  of  observational  confirmation.  One 
of  these  four  crucial  tests  was  whether  radiant  energy  passing  close 
to  a  body  with  an  intense  gravitational  field  surrounding  it,  would  be 
deflected  in  accordance  with  Newton's  law  of  gravitation  or  with  Ein- 
stein's modification  of  that  law.  It  was  Prof.  A.  S.  Eddington  who 
realized  the  great  importance  of  making  this  test  at  the  first  favor- 
able opportunity,  namely,  at  the  time  of  the  total  solar  eclipse  which 
was  to  occur  on  May  29,  1919,  with  the  Hyades  as  background.  War 
or  no  war,  all  the  plans  and  preparations  were  pushed  ahead  and  thus 
it  was  that  when  the  eventful  day  arrived,  even  though  the  Treaty  of 
Versailles  had  not  yet  been  signed,  two  British  expeditions  were  in 
readiness  to  take  the  crucial  photographs.  I  often  reread  the  passage 
written  by  a  learned  mathematician  and  philosopher  in  which  he 
described  the  meeting  of  the  Royal  Society  when  the  results  of  these 
eclipse  expeditions  were  announced,  verifying  as  they  did  the  theory 
of  Einstein: 

The  whole  atmosphere  of  tense  interest  was  exactly  that  of  the  Greek  drama ; 
we  were  the  chorus  commenting  on  the  decree  of  destiny  as  disclosed  in  the 
development  of  a  supreme  incident.  There  was  dramatic  quality  in  the  very 
staging; — the  traditional  ceremonial,  and  in  the  background  the  picture  of 
Newton  to  remind  us  that  the  greatest  of  scientific  generalisations  was  now,  after 


*  Recent  work  at  the  D.  A.  O.  points  to  a  confirmation  of  the  work  of  Foster  and  Douglas 
on  the  interpretation  of  helium  profiles. 


ASTRONOMY  IN   A  WORLD   AT  WAR — DOUGLAS  159 

more  than  two  centuries,  to  receive  its  first  modification.  Nor  was  tlie  personal 
interest  wanting :  a  great  adventure  in  thought  had  at  length  come  safe  to  shore. 
[A.  N.  Whitehead.] 

De  Sitter's  expanding  universe  suggested  an  outward  motion  of 
the  stellar  bodies  within  the  framework  of  space  as  defined  by  his 
modification  of  the  Einstein  equation  of  spacetime  geometry.  Ten 
years  later,  Lemaitre,  who  had  fought  with  the  Belgian  army  in  the 
war  years  and  afterward  entered  Louvain  University,  brought  for- 
ward his  theory  of  expanding  space.  This  made  the  radius  of  cur- 
vature of  space  a  function  of  time,  and  gave  a  new  stimulus  to  the 
astronomers  in  those  great  observatories  equipped  to  probe  most 
deeply  into  space.  In  the  following  years,  at  Mount  Wilson  and 
Harvard  particularly,  the  exploration  of  space  was  carried  on  with 
vigor,  and  methods  were  found  of  estimating  the  distances  of  the 
remote  galaxies.  A  special  lens  was  designed  to  obtain  their  spectra 
at  Mount  Wilson,  and  thanks  to  the  broad,  strong  H  and  K  lines  of 
ionized  calcium,  red  shifts  could  be  measured  to  distances  estimated 
as  250,000,000  light-years.  The  correlation  between  distance  and  red 
shift  has  provided  a  remarkable  confirmation  of  the  theory  of  the 
expanding  universe.  Recessional  velocities  up  to  one-seventh  the 
velocity  of  light  have  now  been  observed.  In  the  years  between  the 
wars  a  few  voices  were  heard  to  question  the  interpretation  of  the  red 
shift  as  a  Doppler  displacement,  but  since  no  alternative  explanation 
suggested  itself  without  postulating  some  entirely  new  law  of  Nature, 
the  expanding  universe  remained  as  a  working  hypothesis  in  the  back- 
ground of  most  astronomers'  minds. 

One  of  the  interesting  things  that  these  recent  war  years  have 
brought  is  the  reopening  of  this  question  by  E.  P.  Hubble.  Is  the 
universe  expanding?  Is  the  red  shift  actually  indicative  of  motion? 
Or  is  the  framework  of  the  universe  static?  And  if  static,  what  is 
the  explanation  of  the  displacement  of  all  spectrum  lines  to  the 
red  for  distant  galaxies?  Hubble's  analysis  of  all  available  data 
based  on  the  assumption  that  the  universe  is  expanding,  necessitates 
the  calculation  of  a  dimming  factor  due  to  recession.  When  cor- 
rection is  made  for  this  in  the  estimation  of  distances,  he  claims 
that  a  map  results  which  is  not  of  homogeneous  density,  which 
implies  an  increasing  rate  of  expansion  with  distance,  and  therefore 
an  "age"  of  the  universe  totally  inadequate.  On  the  other  hand 
when  he  assumes  a  static  framework  for  the  universe,  the  analysis 
of  all  the  data  gives  a  map  that  shows  a  linear  relation  between 
red  shift  and  distance,  and  a  homogeneity  of  density.  This  map 
has  more  to  commend  it  than  has  the  former  map,  and  hence  the 
assumption  of  a  static  framework  appears  to  be  favored.  But,  as 
various  astronomers  have  pointed  out,  the  weakness  of  this  result 
lies  in  the  large  probable  errors  of  the  quantities  involved,  so  that 


160  ANNUAL  REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

even  an  apparent  divergence  of  30  percent  from  uniformity  of  den- 
sity is  not  evidence  weighty  or  certain  enough  to  overthrow  the 
Lemaitre  theory  of  an  expanding  universe. 

IV 

Important  advances  have  been  made  recently  by  Gamow  and 
Betlie  in  our  understanding  of  the  sources  of  energy  within  stars 
which  permit  them  to  radiate  energy  as  they  do.  Bethe  has  given 
an  exposition  of  a  cyclical  sequence  of  atomic  changes  and  interac- 
tions whose  net  result  leaves  a  star  with  fewer  hydrogen  atoms,  but 
with  more  helium  and  the  liberation  of  excess  nuclear  energy  in  the 
form  of  gamma  rays.  This  is  now  generally  referred  to  as  the  carbon 
cycle  and  it  is  too  beautiful  not  to  be  recorded  here,  for  though 
published  a  few  months  before  the  war,  it  has  been  during  the  war 
years  that  it  has  become  a  part  of  astronomical  thinking.  Of  the 
six  stages,  four  result  from  collisions  with  hydrogen  atoms  in  the 
deep,  hot  interiors  of  main  sequence  stars,  and  two  are  spontaneous 
disintegrations  of  unstable  nuclei. 

1.  C'2  4-  H^     =  W  -{-  y 

2.  W^  ->       C^^  +      positron 

3.  0^3  +  H^     =  N^*  +  7 

4.  W  +  H^     =  0^5  +  7 

5.  O^^  ->        W^  +      positron 

6.  N^s  +  H'     =  C'2  ^  He4 

The  two  positrons  rapidly  interact  with  electrons  to  give  rise  to 
gamma  radiation.  Thus  is  produced  the  penetrating  radiation,  most 
of  which  in  the  course  of  its  progress  toward  the  boundary  of  the 
star  becomes  transformed  into  the  heat,  light,  and  ultraviolet  radiation 
that  pour  out  from  the  photosphere.  The  central  temperatures  of 
the  cool  giant  stars  are  insuflBcient  to  maintain  this  active  cycle,  but 
theory  can  explain  their  radiant  energy  in  terms  of  atomic  collisions 
and  transmutfitions  which  are,  however,  noncyclical.  Hydrogen, 
deuterium,  lithium,  beryllium,  boron  are  slowly  transformed  into 
helium. 

If  the  central  regions  of  the  hottest  stars  are  not  the  crucibles  of 
nature  wherein  the  elements  are  built  up,  where  and  under  what 
conditions  were  they  formed?  A  highly  speculative  answer  is  to  be 
found  in  an  intensely  interesting  piece  of  theoretical  research  carried 
out  during  the  early  years  of  this  war  by  Chandrasekhar  and  Heinrich. 
They  have  been  inquiring  under  what  conditions  of  nature  the  basic 
units  of  matter — electrons,  protons,  neutrons,  positrons — could  be  ex- 
pected to  come  together  to  form,  in  their  various  proportions,  the 
atoms  of  all  the  isotopes  of  the  elements  familiar  to  the  chemist.    As 


ASTRONOMY  IN   A  WORLD   AT  WAR — DOUGLAS  161 

these  elements  compose  all  stellar  bodies  as  well  as  all  things  ter- 
restrial, their  synthesis  is  a  cosmic  problem.  They  find  that  such 
tremendous  extremes  of  high  temperature  and  high  density  would  be 
required  that  it  is  necessary  to  suppose  that  all  the  matter  of  the 
known  universe  was  once  confined  to  a  volume  of  radius  only  about 
twenty  times  that  of  the  solar  system.  Such  a  sphere  drawn  around 
our  sun  as  center  does  not  now  contain  a  single  other  star.  Yet  into 
such  a  volume  there  may  once  have  been  packed  not  only  all  the 
thousand  million  stars  of  our  own  galaxy,  but  all  the  millions  of 
other  galaxies.  This  is  indeed  a  picture  reminiscent  of  the  "giant 
molecule"  of  Lemaitre.  Since  stars  and  galaxies  are  not  now  thus 
packed,  expansion  must  have  taken  place  some  time  very  long  ago. 
The  present  rate  of  expansion  is  such  that  galactic  distances  are 
doubled  every  1,800  million  years.  This  gives  the  time  elapsed,  since 
the  expansion  began,  as  several  thousand  million  years  which  is  in 
satisfactory  accord  with  the  age  of  the  earth  as  determined  by  other 
physical  lines  of  approach  and  regarded  necessarily  as  a  lower  limit 
for  the  age  of  the  universe. 

The  last  chapter  on  these  cosmological  problems  is  not  yet  written — 
indeed  there  may  well  be  many  chapters  yet  to  come  and  still  no  last 
chapter  in  sight.  It  is  the  glory  of  the  quest  that  as  men  seek  the 
unexplored  horizon  the  margin  fades  forever  and  forever  as  they 
move. 

V 

An  investigation  of  very  recent  date  has  led  to  positive  conclusions 
about  planetlike  bodies  associated  with  stars  other  than  our  sun. 
There  is  strong  evidence  for  this  in  the  case  of  61  Cygni  and  70 
Ophiuchi.  This  may  be  the  beginning  of  a  new  search  and  a  new 
certainty  in  a  field  of  astronomy  hitherto  theoretical  and  speculative. 
Already  several  astronomers  on  two  continents  are  studying  the  im- 
plications. 

Another  astrophysical  problem  that  has  been  worked  upon  with 
considerable  success  during  these  war  years,  is  the  old  backlog  prob- 
lem since  1869  of  the  solar  corona.  At  Uppsala,  Edlen  has  been 
examining  the  X-ray  and  ultraviolet  spectra  of  some  very  highly  ion- 
ized atoms,  and  a  year  ago  his  1942  paper  was  received  in  England  and 
also  in  the  United  States  of  America.  He  uses  his  laboratory  data  as 
basis  for  calculation  of  forbidden  lines  and  altogether  he  identifies  17 
coronal  lines  with  lines  of  Fe  X,  XI,  XIII,  XIV,  XV,  Ni  XII,  XIII, 
XV,  XVI,  Ca  XII,  XIII,  A  X ;  and  two  other  lines  less  certainly  with 
Ca  XV  and  A  XIV.  The  ionization  potentials  required  to  produce 
such  atoms  are  very  high,  actually  233  volts  for  Fe  X,  655  volts  for 
Ca  XIII,  and  at  first  this  seemed  to  offer  an  insuperable  obstacle  to 


162         ANNUAL   REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

acceptance  of  Edlen's  proposals.  The  age-old  question  of  Nicodemus 
arose — how  can  these  things  be?  These  atoms  are  many  thousand 
miles  from  the  photosphere  of  the  sun ;  and  to  produce  such  ionization, 
temperatures  of  2,000,000  degrees  are  necessary.  Speculation  and 
calculation  have  followed.  A  few  months  ago  an  explanation  was 
given  in  a  letter  to  Nature  by  V.  Vand  of  London.  Even  higher  tem- 
peratures he  shows  to  be  possible  in  the  low-density  regions  of  the 
corona  as  a  result  of  collisions  of  high-velocity  atoms  falling  toward 
the  sun  from  interplanetary  space.  With  the  greater  density  of  the 
inner  corona  and  consequent  increase  in  radiation  losses,  he  believes 
conditions  may  be  favorable  to  just  those  transitions  postulated  by 
Edlen. 

VI 

The  numbers  136,  137,  256  will  awaken  in  the  minds  of  many  of 
you  memories  of  a  kindled  interest,  of  perplexity,  doubt,  expecta- 
tion, and  perhaps  of  moments  of  great  thrill,  as  you  think  back 
over  the  last  15  years.  One  name  alone  stands  central  among  these 
memories — that  of  Sir  A.  S.  Eddington.  This  has  been  his  play- 
ground pre-eminently.  Some  of  us  have  stood  fascinated  at  the  edge 
of  the  field  watching  this  illusive  game  played  patiently,  skillfully, 
brilliantly  by  one  man,  a  master  juggler  with  the  elements  of  the 
theory  of  groups,  with  quantum  mechanics,  and  with  the  basic  units 
of  measurement,  producing,  as  from  the  proverbial  hat,  physical  con- 
stants both  atomic  and  astronomical.  Some  there  have  been  who 
paused  to  watch  briefly,  to  smile  or  even  ridicule  the  Aristotelian 
tour  de  force.  But  steadily  and  doggedly  the  theory  has  been  pushed 
forward,  several  papers  having  appeared  in  the  last  3  years  until 
now  the  evidence  is  overwhelmingly  great  that,  with  no  observational 
data  other  than  three  basic  constants,  namely,  the  velocity  of  light 
and  the  Rydberg  and  Faraday  constants  for  hydrogen,  it  is  possible 
to  calculate  theoretically  the  following  13  physical  constants :  charge 
e;  Planck's  constant;  masses  of  electron,  proton,  hydrogen  atom; 
gravitation  constant ;  fine  structure  constant ;  nuclear  range-constant ; 
nuclear  energy-constant;  mass  of  universe;  number  of  particles  in 
universe ;  Einstein  radius  of  space ;  nebular  speed.  This  is  a  striking 
achievement. 

Let  us  look  briefly  at  just  two  of  these  constants.  The  recessional 
velocity  of  the  spiral  nebulae  is  calculated  to  be  572.36  km.  per  sec- 
ond per  megaparsec.  The  observational  value  of  Hubble  and  Huma- 
son  is  560.  When  the  great  200-inch  reflector  comes  into  action,  we 
shall  expect  to  see  the  observational  value  come  closer  to  Eddington's 
determination. 

The  number  of  independent  quadruple  wave  functions  at  any  point 
is  2X136X22=«  or  3.15X10'»  and  in  his  earlier  work  Eddington  iden- 


ASTRONOMY  IN   A  WORLD   AT  WAR — DOUGLAS  163 

tified  this  with  the  number  of  particles  in  the  universe.  Since  1939  he 
has  found  that  a  question  of  nonintegr ability  in  spherical  space 
necessitates  a  reduction  of  25  percent;  so  the  number  given  in  his 
1942  paper  is  2.36X10''*. 

This  theortical  approach  has  now  reached  a  point  where  its  author 
can  write  "I  think  the  theory  now  deserves  to  be  the  accepted  theory — 
my  definition  of  an  'accepted  theory'  being  that  it  is  the  theory  which 
is  so  far  right  that  everyone  is  interested  in  trying  to  discover  what 
is  wrong  with  it."  Can  we  wonder  that  he  pauses  in  his  work  to  refer 
to  "the  devastating  beauty  of  quantum  arithmetic."  This  entire  in- 
vestigation must  surely  rank  as  one  of  the  great  adventures  of  the 
human  mind  exemplifying  Blake's  stately  metaphor — "Imagination 
goes  forth  in  its  uncurbed  glory." 

VII 

This  brief  survey  of  a  few  fields  of  astronomical  research,  incom- 
plete as  it  obviously  is,  will  serve  nevertheless  to  indicate  that  pure 
science  is  not  dormant,  much  less  is  it  dead,  during  the  terrible  years 
when  the  vile  demoniacal  God  of  War  stands  astride  the  earth.  For 
many  years  the  International  Astronomical  Union  has  been  an  in- 
fluence for  understanding,  and  for  cooperation  in  the  search  for 
knowledge  with  mutual  respect  and  trust.  It  is  temporarily  in  abey- 
ance, but  it  will  once  again  rise  to  carry  on  its  good  work.  The 
lesson  of  astronomy  down  the  centuries  has  been  one  of  international 
interdependence  and  mutual  indebtedness. 

The  problems  facing  mankind  are  very  complex — the  dealings  of 
man  with  man,  the  attitude  of  nation  to  nation.  No  solutions  making 
for  international  good  will  and  world  peace  will  be  achieved  by  men 
of  narrow  mind,  myopic  sight,  and  dwarfed  soul.  The  far  vision 
in  time  and  space,  the  winged  imagination  that  leaps  the  barrier 
of  here  and  now — these  are  the  qualities  of  mind  and  spirit  needed  in 
every  walk  of  life  and  needed  superlatively  in  the  leaders  of  every 
nation  if  in  the  years  just  ahead  of  us  progress  is  to  be  made  toward 
the  great  ideal  of  international  unity.  How  can  the  eyes  of  the 
blind  be  awakened  to  the  dazzling  vision  of  the  City  of  God?  For 
some  it  may  be  by  the  contagious  enthusiasm  of  a  great  teacher  or 
leader,  for  others  the  illumination  from  poetry,  for  some  the  spark 
is  kindled  by  the  study  of  history,  or  of  philosophy,  and  for  yet  others 
it  is  through  natural  philosophy  and  astronomy.  Mankind  needs  the 
perspective  of  the  cosmic  background.  "The  great  values,"  said 
Field  Marshal  Smuts,  "retain  their  unfading  glory  and  derive  new 
meaning  from  a  cosmic  setting." 

There  is  a  challenge  to  the  scientists  and  to  the  lovers  of  science 
to  teach  the  boys  and  girls,  the  young  men  and  women  of  today  and 


164         ANNUAL  REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

tomorrow,  the  ideals,  the  aims,  the  methods,  and  the  integrity  of  the 
scientific  approach  to  facts  and  to  problems. 

We  do  not  forget  the  dictum  of  Rabelais,  "Science  without  con- 
science is  damnation."  Wartime  drives  this  home  with  bitter  and 
tragic  intensity.  But  we  may  say  with  great  assurance  that  science 
with  conscience  has  an  essential  part  to  play  in  procuring  and  main- 
taining world  conditions  in  which  peace  can  endure. 

All  who  have  the  ideal  of  world  citizenship  at  heart,  all  who  have 
the  far  vision  of  things  that  have  been  and  of  things  that  may  be, 
and  the  realistic  grasp  of  things  that  are,  must  cooperate  in  the  great 
task  of  bringing  into  the  affairs  of  mankind  upon  this  earth  some 
semblance  of  the  order,  beauty,  and  harmony  of  the  universe  of 
stars.  Toward  this  end,  both  directly  and  indirectly,  astronomy  and 
astronomers  can  play  a  part;  and  it  may  prove  to  be  a  part  which 
no  one  else  can  play  for  them  because  they,  the  astronomers,  are  the 
people  with  the  fullest  understanding  of  the  cosmic  background. 


THE  STRUCTURE  OF  THE  UNIVERSE ' 


By  Claude  William  Heaps 
Professor  of  Physics,  The  Rice  Institute 


It  may  seem,  at  first  sight,  presumptuous  to  attempt  the  discussion, 
in  one  hour  or  less,  of  such  a  comprehensive  topic  as  the  structure  of 
the  universe.  Actually  the  subject  is  not  as  big  as  it  sounds.  There 
are,  in  one  sense,  as  many  universes  as  there  are  individuals;  but  the 
universe  in  this  personal  sense  will  be  ruled  out  of  the  present  discus- 
sion. A  tremendous  simplification  is  at  once  achieved  when  we  limit 
our  topic  to  the  physical  universe.  We  now  inquire,  what  is  the  phys- 
ical universe? 

Eddington  has  defined  it  as  the  "theme  of  a  specified  body  of  knowl- 
edge, just  as  Mr.  Pickwick  might  be  defined  as  the  hero  of  a  specified 
novel."  Such  a  definition  emphasizes  the  epistemological  point  of 
view  and  therefore  it  suffers  from  lack  of  definiteness  and  simplicity. 
There  is  beautiful  directness  and  decisiveness  in  the  attitude  of  the 
mathematician  who  wrote  an  equation  on  one  line  in  one  of  his  pub- 
lished papers  and  said,  "This  equation  contains  everything  we  know 
about  the  physical  universe."  The  conciseness  of  the  language  of 
mathematics  is  probably  nowhere  better  exemplified  than  in  this  equa- 
tion. On  the  other  hand,  the  universe,  if  it  can  be  described  in  terms 
of  mathematical  symbols  and  with  one  equation,  may  not  seem  like 
such  a  big  subject  after  all. 

To  the  physicist,  matter,  space,  and  time  exist  outside  the  human 
mind.  The  physical  universe  is  an  objective,  dynamic  arrangement 
of  all  matter,  space,  and  time.  In  discussing  the  structure  of  the 
universe  we  merely  attempt  to  describe  some  of  the  features  of  this 
arrangement. 

Before  beginning  such  a  description  it  seems  necessary  to  indicate 
just  how  it  is  related  to  human  welfare — since  the  general  title  of 
this  series  of  lectures  is  "Science  and  Human  Welfare."  I  am  ventur- 
ing to  interpret  the  phrase  "human  welfare"  in  the  broadest  possible 
sense.  There  are  many  types  of  scientific  investigation  which  do  not 
appear  to  have  any  direct  bearing  on  the  pleasures  or  pains  of  the 

*  Public  lecture  delivered  at  The  Rice  Institute  in  the  spring  of  1943.  Reprinted  by 
permission  from  The  Rice  Institute  Pamphlet,  vol.  SO,  No.  4,  October  1943. 

165 


166         ANNUAL  REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

human  race.  The  discovery  of  the  planet  Pluto  cannot  be  said  to  have 
done  very  much  toward  raising  the  sum  total  of  human  welfare,  in 
the  ordinary  sense.  But  in  the  broadest  sense,  it  may  be  said  that 
the  welfare  of  a  nation  is  closely  tied  up  with  the  capacity  of  that 
nation  for  untiring  search  after  truth.  Intellectual  unrest,  intellectual 
curiosity  is,  we  like  to  think,  essential  to  the  true  growth  and  develop- 
ment of  a  people.  A  dairy  company  advertises  that  its  milk  comes 
from  contented  cows.  A  rival  company  is  perhaps  more  progressive 
in  its  views  when  it  advertises  that  its  cows  are  not  contented — they  are 
always  trying  to  do  better. 

The  thesis  is,  then,  that  the  pursuit  of  pure  knowledge  is  indicative 
of  a  healthy  national  mind;  that  full  development  of  intellectual 
activity,  whether  it  be  in  the  matter  of  investigating  the  stars  or  in 
building  a  better  radio,  is  essential  to  the  true  welfare  of  a  nation. 
The  Russians  asked  a  captured  Nazi  why  he  came  into  their  country. 
He  replied,  "I  am  just  a  little  man,  I  do  what  the  Fiihrer  says."  A 
nation  is  facing  tragedy  when  free  speculation  is  discouraged,  when 
science  is  devoted  solely  to  control  of  men  and  machines  and  to  the 
production  of  a  workable  mass  of  "little  men." 

To  begin  this  discussion  of  matter,  space,  and  time  we  will  try  first 
to  systematize  our  ideas  of  space,  or  size,  in  relation  to  matter.  Im- 
agine a  long,  horizontal  line  drawn  so  as  to  represent  the  "the  x-axis." 
Let  all  objects  in  the  universe  be  placed  along  this  line  in  the  order  of 
their  sizes.    The  smallest  objects  will  be  placed  near  the  beginning  of 

MICROSCOPIC  REGION  MACROSCOPIC  REGION 

Zero 
size      Electron 

I  Positron  Neutron 

Neutrino   Mesotron      Proton     Atom 


Solar     Spiral 
Stone      Mountain     Earth      system  nebula 


Figure  1 

the  line,  at  its  left  end.  Larger  and  larger  objects  will  be  placed 
farther  and  farther  to  the  right.  We  next  divide  the  line  into  two 
parts  by  a  vertical  line.  All  objects  to  the  left  of  this  vertical  line 
are  too  small  to  be  seen  with  the  naked  eye,  so  this  region  is  called  the 
microscopic  region.  In  it  are  placed  different  kinds  of  particles  such 
as  molecules,  atoms,  the  proton,  the  neutron,  the  mesotron,  the  electron, 
positron,  and  neutrino.  These  particles  are  placed  nearer  and  nearer 
to  the  origin  of  the  line  as  they  become  smaller  and  smaller.  It  is 
worth  noting  that  nature  seems  not  to  have  given  us  anything  smaller 
than  the  electron,  in  spite  of  the  fact  that  there  is  plenty  of  room  for 
particles  between  the  electron  and  the  origin  of  the  line. 

To  the  right  of  the  vertical  dividing  line  we  place  all  objects  large 
enough  to  be  seen  with  the  naked  eye.  This  region  is  called  the 
macroscopic  region.    We  might  put  in  here,  stones,  mountain,  earth, 


STRUCTURE   OF   THE    UNIVERSE — HEAPS  167 

solar  system,  spiral  nebulae.  The  farther  end  of  the  macroscopic 
region  may  be  given  a  special  subtitle,  the  astronomical  region. 

We  have  arranged  here  various  matter  elements  in  a  certain  spatial 
relationship.  The  time  concept  is  involved  because  this  is  an  arrange- 
ment which  may  be  correct  only  at  one  instant  of  time.  It  is  possible 
that  the  position  of  some  of  these  entities  on  the  line  is  constantly 
changing.  When  an  electron  gets  into  rapid  motion  its  mass  is 
changed  a  little  and  it  shortens  one  of  its  dimensions.  It  thus  shifts  its 
position  on  the  line  slightly  to  the  left  whenever  it  has  a  high  velocity. 
The  solar  system  may  be  slowly  running  down  so  that  the  planets  grad- 
ually approach  the  sun.  If  this  is  the  case  the  position  of  the  solar 
system  on  the  line  is  slowly  shifting  to  the  left. 

Certain  segments  of  this  line  have  occupied  the  attention  of  various 
specialists.  Astronomers  deal  with  everything  listed  to  the  right  of 
earth.  Thousands  of  specialists  work  on  the  section  from  earth  to 
atom.  Physicists  in  recent  years  have  concentrated  intensively  on  the 
segment  from  atom  to  zero.  The  discovery  of  the  positron,  the  neutron, 
and  the  mesotron  within  the  last  decade,  has  opened  up  a  most  fruitful 
field  of  research  in  physics.  In  this  region,  forever  beyond  the  reach 
of  the  human  eye,  is  probably  contained  most  of  the  mystery  of  the 
entire  universe.  As  K.  K.  Darrow  has  expressed  it,  "This  field  is 
unique  in  modem  physics  for  the  minuteness  of  the  phenomena,  the 
delicacy  of  the  observations,  the  adventurous  excursions  of  the 
observers,  the  subtlety  of  the  analysis,  and  the  grandeur  of  the 
inferences." 

It  is  not  too  much  to  say  that  if  some  American  physicist  could  only 
make  the  right  kind  of  discovery  in  this  domain  our  entire  oil  and  coal 
industries  would  become  more  or  less  obsolete  and  World  War  II 
would  be  won  in  a  matter  of  days.  It  should  also  be  said  that  such  a 
discovery  is  possible  but  not  probable. 

Returning  now  to  our  linear  lay-out  for  the  universe  we  may  note 
that  everything  to  the  right  of  proton  is  constructed  out  of  the  mate- 
rial included  in  the  range  from  proton  to  zero.  All  matter  in  the  uni- 
verse exists  in  the  form  of  bunches  or  aggregates  of  smaller  parts. 
Protons,  neutrons,  electrons  bunch  to  form  atoms;  atoms  group  into 
molecules;  molecules  group  into  stones  and  mountains;  stones  and 
mountains  form  the  earth.  In  the  astronomical  field,  planets  group 
about  the  sun  to  form  the  solar  system — a  solar  system  which  in  the 
astronomical  field  is  remarkably  like  the  atom  in  the  microscopic  field. 

The  important  unit  of  structure  in  the  astronomical  field  is  a  sun. 
Practically  all  the  stars  which  we  can  see  on  a  clear  night  are  distant 
suns,  much  like  our  own,  although  it  is  thought  that  only  an  extremely 
small  fraction  of  these  suns  have  planets  around  them  like  our  own. 

619830 — 45 12 


168         ANNUAL  REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

All  these  suns  which  can  be  recognized  distinctly  are  grouped  in  a 
sort  of  flattened,  disklike  bunch  which  is  whirling  in  empty  space. 
Our  own  sun  and  planetary  system  is  a  member  of  this  group,  being 
located  about  30,000  light-years  ^  distant  from  the  center,  or  hub,  of 
this  gigantic  disk.  When  we  look  into  space  along  the  plane  of  the 
disk  the  stars  seem  to  be  distributed  very  densely.  We  see  the  milky 
way.  This  bunch  of  suns  is  called  a  spiral  nebula.  It  is  sometimes 
called  a  galaxy,  or  an  island  universe.  The  word  "universe"  in  this 
sense  has  a  restricted  meaning  because  our  island  universe  is  not  the 
only  one  in  existence.  There  are  millions  of  others  distributed 
throughout  space  as  far  as  our  most  powerful  telescopes  have  been 
able  to  penetrate. 

The  nebulae  are  by  no  means  recent  discoveries.  Sir  William 
Herschel,  150  years  ago,  suspected  that  they  were  distant  groups  of 
stars.  The  philosopher  Kant  believed  that  they  were  "systems  of 
many  stars,  whose  distance  presents  them  in  such  a  narrow  space 
that  the  light  which  is  individually  imperceptible  from  each  of  them, 
reaches  us,  on  account  of  their  immense  multitude,  in  a  uniform  pale 
glimmer."  They  have  been  described  as  looking  like  "candlelight  seen 
through  horn."  A  rough  diagram,  not  drawn  to  scale,  is  given  in 
figure  2  to  indicate  the  total  extent  of  the  entire  universe  which  has 
been  observed,  up  to  the  present,  with  our  most  powerful  telescopes. 

We  might  now  indicate  on  the  linear  lay-out  of  figure  1  the  approxi- 
mate size  of  the  largest  bunch  of  matter,  the  spiral  nebula,  as  100,000 
light-years.  Also  we  might  speculate  as  to  the  possibility  of  nebulae 
themselves  forming  still  larger  groups.  Extensive  surveys  have  been 
made  by  the  astronomers  at  Harvard  and  Mount  Wilson,  of  the  dis- 
tribution in  space  of  the  nebulae,  and  there  is,  indeed,  evidence  of 
grouping  of  nebulae.  It  is  legitimate  to  add  another  bunch  of  matter 
to  the  line  lay-out — the  supernebula,  or  supergalaxy. 

The  supergalaxy  is  the  largest  known  aggregation  of  matter  in 
the  universe.  Its  diameter  may  be  of  the  order  of  a  million  light- 
years.  At  least  that  is  the  estimate  made  by  Harlow  Shapley  of 
the  diameter  of  the  group  of  nebulae  in  which  our  own  is  located. 
Our  local  group  contains  perhaps  15  or  20  nebulae,  but  in  some  super- 
galaxies  there  are  hundreds  of  members. 

So  far,  then,  our  picture  of  the  universe  reveals  a  granular,  or 
atomic  structure.  We  start  near  the  zero  point  of  size,  with  a  particle 
of  definite  size.  A  fundamental  law  of  attraction  operates  to  cause 
the  small  particles  to  group  together  to  form  larger  particles,  these 
larger  particles  again  group  to  form  still  larger  particles,  and  so  on 
until  we  reach  the  limit  of  observation,  the  enormous  supergalaxy. 

'  A  light-year  is  the  distance  which  light  travels  in  one  year.  It  is  approximately 
6,000,000,000,000  miles. 


STRUCTUJIE   OF    THE    UNIVERSE — HEAPS 


169 


We  are  unable  to  put  a  stop  at  the  right-liand  end  of  our  line,  as  we 
have  done  at  the  left  end.  Space  may  go  on  into  infinity— possibly 
matter  may  go  on  bunching  up  into  larger  and  larger  aggregates 
with  no  limit  as  to  the  ultimate  size  of  any  final  bunch,  because  there 
may  never  be  any  final  bunch.  Speculations  of  this  kind  may  be 
interesting  but  they  are  not  of  much  significance  otherwise,  because 
they  take  us  outside  the  realm  of  possible  human  experience. 


FiQUEE  2. — Sphere  of  view  of  the  100-inch  telescope.  Distances  are  in  light-years, 
L.  Y.,  and  the  diagram  is  not  to  scale.  Our  earth  is  about  30,000  L.  Y.  away 
from  the  center  of  the  central  nebula  above. 


It  seems  probable  that  in  detecting  the  supergalaxy  man  has  reached 
the  limits  of  observation  in  his  probing  of  the  depths  of  space.  The 
new  200-inch  telescope  will  be  doing  a  fine  job  in  helping  to  chart  and 
analyze  these  enormous  groups  of  matter. 

The  line  diagram  of  the  universe,  limited  at  one  end  by  the  electron, 
at  the  other  by  the  supergalaxy,  has  given  a  rather  simple  picture  in 
terms  of  two  variables,  space  and  matter.  The  third  variable,  time, 
must  now  be  considered.  We  have  to  consider  the  relationship  be- 
tween the  various  units  of  our  structure  as  this  relationship  may 


170         ANNUAL  REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

change  from  time  to  time.  Newton's  Law  of  Universal  Gravitation 
says  that  every  particle  of  matter  in  the  universe  attracts  every  other 
particle.  If  forces  of  attraction  cause  matter  to  bunch  up  into  aggre- 
gates of  various  sizes,  why  may  not  the  various  bunches  themselves 
start  coming  together  until  eventually  there  results  just  one  large, 
static  bunch  of  matter  floating  quietly  in  an  infinity  of  space  ?  Such 
an  end  result  seems  logical,  but  it  cannot  happen  until  the  kinetic 
energy  of  matter,  the  energy  of  motion,  has  been  converted  into 
radiation  and  transferred  to  infinity.  Such  a  transfer  of  energy 
appears,  in  fact,  to  be  going  on. 

A  study  of  the  motions  of  the  various  aggregates  may  be  expected  to 
throw  some  light  on  this  question.  We  start  with  the  smallest  par- 
ticles, electrons,  for  example.  In  addition  to  random  motions  caused 
by  collisions  with  other  particles,  all  electrons  are  supposed  to  spin. 
They  may  be  thought  of  as  being  like  tops  which  never  run  down. 
When  an  electron  helps  to  form  an  atom,  in  addition  to  spinning 
it  also  revolves  about  the  nucleus,  just  as  the  earth  revolves  about 
the  sun.  The  aggregations  of  matter  between  atom  and  earth  on 
the  diagram  of  figure  1  may  have  various  kinds  of  motion  but  when 
earth  is  reached  we  again  have  the  spin  about  an  axis  and  the  revolu- 
tion about  the  sun.  Our  sun,  together  with  all  the  other  suns  in  its 
group,  forms  a  nebula  which  spins  with  high  speed  about  a  central 
axis.  The  spin  velocity  is  very  high,  but  the  size  of  our  nebula  is 
so  great  that  it  takes  about  2  million  centuries  for  it  to  make  one 
revolution.  As  Shapley  puts  it,  this  is  the  time  required  to  "click  off 
one  cosmic  year." 

The  motion  of  the  supernebula  is  not  known  in  accurate  detail. 
It  is  possible  that  some  sort  of  gigantic  spin  is  present  here  also,  but 
so  far  such  a  spin  has  not  been  detected.  Instead,  a  very  surprising 
sort  of  motion  has  been  discovered,  a  motion  which  is  just  contrary 
to  what  we  expect  if  matter  is  to  agglomerate  into  one  big  bunch. 
The  supernebulae  appear  to  be  receding  from  us.  The  supernebula 
to  which  our  galaxy  belongs  maintains  its  fixed  dimensions,  and  be- 
haves more  or  less  as  a  unit,  but  all  the  other  supernebulae  appear 
to  be  flying  away  from  ours  with  high  speeds.  The  farther  away 
from  us  they  are,  the  faster  they  seem  to  recede.  There  seems  to  be 
no  good  way  of  explaining  such  a  phenomenon.  One  might  assume 
that  a  primeval  explosion  started  all  matter  out  in  all  directions 
from  an  original  concentration,  but  there  are  serious  difficulties 
involved  in  such  a  theory. 

The  whole  question  of  the  expanding  universe  is  definitely  con- 
troversial. The  consequences  of  accepting  or  rejecting  the  theory 
are  so  great  that  it  will  be  worth  while  to  review  briefly  the  evidence. 


STRUCTURE  OF  THE  UNIVERSE — HEAPS  171 

Suppose  the  lights  of  a  very  distant  city  are  observed  at  night 
through  a  telescope.  The  various  spots  of  light  all  look  much  alike. 
However,  they  are  not  all  the  same  in  character.  Some  may  be  caused 
by  incandescent  lamps,  some  by  neon  signs,  some,  perhaps,  may  be 
due  to  the  newer  type  of  yellow  sodium  lamp  used  for  illuminating 
highways. 

We  now  put  a  glass  prism  in  front  of  the  telescope  objective.  The 
telescope  must  be  deviated  sideways,  if  we  are  to  see  the  city  through 
the  prism  and  the  telescope.  When  we  do  see  it,  each  spot  of  light 
appears  to  be  smeared  out  into  a  band  of  color.  The  colors  present 
in  each  spot  of  light  are  separated  and  spread  out  and  we  can  see 
just  what  colors  are  present  in  the  light  from  each  source.  The  neon 
signs  are  characterized  by  definite  colors  in  the  orange  and  red;  the 
sodium  lamps  can  be  recognized  by  the  fact  that  only  one  color, 
yellow,  is  visible. 

If  we  were  to  photograph  the  lights  of  an  enormous  city  from  an 
enormous  distance  the  whole  city  would  appear  as  a  small,  luminous 
spot.  The  prism  would  smear  out  the  separate  lights  of  wliich  the 
spot  is  composed,  but  they  would  all  be  superposed  in  a  single 
smeared  spot  for  the  whole  city.  However,  if  there  were  a  large 
number  of  sodium  lamps  one  point  in  the  smear  would  be  brighter 
than  the  rest  because  there  would  be  an  excess  of  the  yellow  sodium 
light. 

A  nebula,  consisting  of  millions  of  suns  a  long  distance  away,  be- 
haves like  our  hypothetical  city  except  for  one  small  difference. 
Light  from  a  sun  has  dark  absorption  lines  or  bands  from  which 
color  is  missing  as  a  result  of  absorption  in  the  sun's  atmosphere. 
There  is  a  dark  line  in  the  spectrum  of  our  own  sun,  corresponding 
to  absorption  of  hydrogen  in  the  sun's  atmosphere.  This  dark  line 
always  appears  at  the  same  place  in  the  spectrum  no  matter  what 
kind  of  a  source,  and  always  means  that  hydrogen  is  present.  Dark 
lines  appear  in  the  nearer  nebulae  about  where  they  should  be  in  the 
spectrum.  For  the  more  distant  nebulae,  however,  they  are  shifted 
toward  the  red  end  of  the  spectrum. 

There  is  only  one  known  explanation  for  such  a  shift  of  a  spectral 
line.  If  the  source  is  moving  away  from  an  observer  the  light  re- 
ceived appears  redder  than  when  the  source  is  stationary.  This 
phenomenon  is  called  the  Doppler  effect.  It  is  a  matter  of  common 
experience  in  the  field  of  sound.  The  pitch  of  an  automobile  horn 
is  lowered  as  the  horn  passes  rapidly  by  an  observer  and  recedes 
from  him. 

The  photographs  of  the  nebulae  show  that  the  hydrogen  absorption 
line  is  shifted  farther  and  farther  away  from  the  normal  position  as 


172         ANNUAL   REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

the  pictures  go  to  more  and  more  distant  nebulae.  The  amount  of  the 
shift  gives  the  velocity  of  recession.  Many  nebulae  have  been  ob- 
served and  the  conclusion  is  reached  that  for  every  million  light-years' 
distance  from  the  earth  the  velocity  of  recession  is  increased  by 
about  100  miles  per  second.  The  farthest  nebulae  observed  are  flying 
away  from  us  with  a  speed  of  about  25,000  miles  per  second. 

It  is  well  to  weigh  critically  the  evidence  for  results  like  these.  As 
regards  estimates  of  nebular  distances,  the  methods  used  by  astrono- 
mers seem  entirely  adequate.  In  the  nearest  nebula  individual  stars 
can  be  seen.  Some  of  these  stars  fluctuate  in  brightness  with  a  period 
of  51/^  days.  Similar  stars,  known  as  Cepheid  variables,  are  found  in 
our  own  nebula,  and  the  distances  of  a  few  of  them  have  been  deter- 
mined by  ordinary  engineering  methods.  It  is  found  that  these  stars 
are  all  of  about  the  same  size,  so  that  if  one  Cepheid  variable  is  much 
fainter  than  another  its  f aintness  may  be  attributed  solely  to  its  greater 
distance.  The  distance  of  the  nearest  nebula  can  thus  be  determined 
with  considerable  accuracy  by  comparing  the  brightness  of  one  of  its 
Cepheid  variables  with  the  brightness  of  a  similar  star  in  our  own 
galaxy — a  star  whose  distance  has  been  measured  by  reliable  methods. 
Having  a  good  estimate  of  the  distance  of  one  nebula  it  is  legitimate  to 
infer  that  other  nebula  of  the  same  type  are  fainter  and  smaller  only 
because  they  are  farther  away.  It  is  thus  possible  to  estimate  their 
distances.  The  results  of  these  estimates  might  give  occasional  large 
errors,  but  when  a  great  number  of  observations  are  made  the  indi- 
vidual errors  must  average  out  fairly  well. 

As  regards  the  shift  of  the  absorption  line  toward  the  red,  a  good 
many  attempts  have  been  made  to  explain  it  in  some  other  way  than 
by  the  Doppler  effect.  So  far,  all  these  attempts  have  failed  or  en- 
countered logical  difficulties.  During  the  last  few  years,  however, 
certain  evidence  has  accumulated  which  has  brought  about  a  para- 
doxical situation  in  the  theory  of  the  expanding  universe.  There  are 
some  very  serious  objections  to  the  theory.  First,  let  us  suppose  that 
our  explosion  hypothesis  is  more  or  less  in  accord  with  the  facts.  After 
all,  if  the  nebulae  are  now  observed  to  be  scattering  they  must  at  some 
previous  time  have  been  more  closely  bunched.  It  is  not  difficult  to 
calculate  how  long  ago  it  was  when  the  nebulae  were  all  together  and 
touching  each  other.  We  know  how  far  away  they  are  now,  we  know 
how  fast  they  are  receding,  and  how  their  velocity  of  recession  varies 
with  the  distance  from  us.  These  data  enable  us  to  calculate  the  time 
when  they  must  have  started.  According  to  Hubble,  after  all  correc- 
tions have  been  made  this  starting  time  was  about  1,000  million  years 
ago.  Unfortunately  this  is  only  a  fraction  of  the  age  of  the  earth — 
indeed  there  is  evidence  that  life  actually  existed  on  earth  that  long 
ago.    It  is  difficult  to  see  how  our  earth  could  exist  in  its  present  form 


STRUCTURE   OF   THE    UNIVERSE — HEAPS  173 

at  a  time  when  all  matter  in  the  universe  was  assembled  and  ready  for 
a  cosmic  blow-out  of  such  tremendous  proportions. 

So  much  for  objection  number  one.  The  second  objection  arises  as 
follows.  When  a  source  of  light  moves  away  from  an  observer  there 
are  two  effects  produced.  The  first,  the  Doppler  effect,  has  been 
mentioned  as  a  change  of  color,  a  reddening  of  the  light.  A  second 
effect  is  a  decrease  of  brightness,  known  as  the  "dimming  factor."  It 
is  easy  to  see  why  a  light  should  appear  to  be  dimmer  when  the  source 
moves  away  from  the  observer.  Suppose  a  stationary  machine  gun 
is  firing  bullets  at  a  fixed  target  at  the  rate  of  five  per  second.  Then 
every  second  five  bullets  hit  the  target.  However,  if  the  gun  is  moving 
away  from  the  target,  still  firing  five  shots  a  second,  there  will  not  be 
five  bullets  hitting  every  second.  The  bullet  discharged  from  the  gun 
at  the  end  of  a  given  second  will  have  had  to  traverse  a  greater  distance 
than  the  bullet  which  was  fired  at  the  beginning  of  the  second,  so  it 
will  take  a  longer  time  to  reach  the  target.  Perhaps  only  four  bullets 
will  hit  the  target  in  one  second.  The  extra  bullet  has  gone  to  fill  the 
extra  space  in  the  bullet  stream — the  extra  space  created  by  the  reces- 
sion of  the  gun.     The  case  of  a  light  source  is  exactly  analogous. 

Now  in  estimating  the  distance  of  a  nebula  its  brightness  is  taken  as 
a  criterion  of  the  distance.  The  question  arises  as  to  whether  the  dim- 
ming factor  should  be  applied  when  making  the  distance  estimates. 
If  the  nebulae  are  actually  moving  away  from  us  then  the  factor  must 
certainly  be  applied.  If  the  reddening  of  the  light  is  not  caused  by 
a  velocity  of  recession  then  the  dimming  factor  must  not  be  applied. 
With  such  tremendous  speeds  of  recession  this  factor  makes  quite  a 
big  difference  in  results. 

The  following  discussion  is  very  largely  quoted  from  the  annual 
Sigma  Xi  lecture  delivered  in  December  1941  at  Dallas  by  E.  P. 
Hubble  of  the  Mount  Wilson  Observatory.  Dr.  Hubble  is  one  of  the 
world's  foremost  authorities  on  the  subject  of  nebulae. 

Let  us  first  suppose  that  the  reddening  of  the  light  is  not  caused  by  a 
velocity  of  recession.  It  may  be  due  to  some  hitherto  undiscovered  and 
unknown  phenomenon.  We  can  then  estimate  distances  without  any 
dimming  factor  and  a  survey  can  be  made  to  find  out  how  the  nebulae 
are  distributed  throughout  the  region  of  space  within  our  present 
range  of  view.  Such  surveys  have  been  made  at  Mount  Wilson  and 
Mount  Hamilton,  out  to  a  distance  of  420  million  light-years.  Data 
have  also  been  obtained  and  analyzed  at  Harvard,  and  the  net  result 
indicates  a  fairly  uniform  distribution  of  nebulae  throughout  the 
observable  regions  of  space.  There  are,  on  the  average,  just  as  many 
per  unit  volume  at  great  distances  as  in  the  immediate  neighborhood 
of  our  own  group. 


174         ANNUAL  REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

This  result  is  intellectually  very  satisfactory.  In  fact,  it  agrees 
with  a  fundamental  principle  of  cosmological  theory,  a  principle 
which  has  been  postulated  by  theorists  for  no  other  reason  than  its 
appeal  to  our  sense  of  order  and  the  fitness  of  things.  This  principle 
states  that  the  universe,  on  a  grand  scale,  will  appear  much  the  same 
from  whatever  position  in  space  it  may  be  viewed  or  explored.  This 
principle  of  cosmology  is  satisfied,  therefore,  if  the  nebulae  are  not 
assumed  to  be  receding. 

We  next  investigate  the  consequences  of  assuming  the  red  shift  to 
be  due  to  a  real  velocity  of  recession  of  the  nebulae.  The  dimming 
factor  must  now  be  applied  in  estimating  distances,  with  the  result 
that  the  most  distant  cluster  is  actually  about  13  percent  fainter  than 
it  would  be  if  it  were  stationary.  The  scale  of  distances  is  thus 
altered,  so  that  when  we  make  our  space  survey  to  find  out  how  the 
nebulae  are  distributed  it  turns  out  that  they  are  no  longer  scattered 
uniformly.  The  number  per  unit  volume  increases  steadily  with 
their  distance  away  from  us.  Here  is  a  result  which  is  intellectually 
very  disquieting.  The  cosmological  principle  of  no  favored  position 
is  violated.  We  might  be  willing  to  accept  this  violation  if  it  went 
the  other  way,  that  is,  if  the  density  of  nebulae  decreased  with  dis- 
tance. Then  we  would  conclude,  very  happily,  that  we  had  discovered 
another  super-supergalaxy,  another  big  matter  bunch  to  put  out  on  the 
right-hand  end  of  our  linear  lay-out.  No  such  interpretation  can  be 
given  when  the  nebulae  are  found  not  to  thin  out  at  big  distances,  but 
actually  to  become  more  dense  in  numbers. 

It  may  seem  obvious  to  the  layman  that  we  ought  to  discard  the 
idea  of  an  expanding  universe.  It  makes  us  worry  about  the  short 
time  which  has  elapsed  since  the  original  cosmic  explosion  occurred ; 
it  bothers  us  with  an  increasing  density  of  matter  as  we  proceed  far- 
ther and  farther  into  the  depths  of  space;  and  the  only  evidence  we 
have  to  go  on  is  a  series  of  pictures,  rather  hazy,  smeary  pictures,  in 
fact,  with  a  light  patch  shifted  too  far  to  one  side. 

The  physicist  and  the  astronomer,  unfortunately,  cannot  treat  these 
fuzzy  pictures  in  such  a  cavalier  manner.  There  is  no  denying  the 
existence  of  the  shifted  light  patch  in  the  pictures,  hazy  though  it 
may  be.  There  is  no  denying  the  fact  that  all  such  similar  shifts  of 
color  have  been  explained  satisfactorily  by  the  Doppler  effect  and  by 
the  Doppler  effect  alone.  One  is  reminded  of  the  saying  of  the  old 
colored  man,  whose  years  of  experience  had  developed  a  certain  ripe 
philosophy  of  life.  "It  ain't  so  much  what  you  don't  know  that  gets 
you  into  trouble,  it's  what  you  do  know  and  ain't  so!" 

There  are  several  ways,  more  or  less  unsatisfactory,  of  escaping 
from  the  dilemma  of  the  expanding  universe.    The  first  way  is  not 


STRUCTURE  OF  THE  UNIVERSE — HEAPS  175 

a  good  way,  but  like  other  escapist  philosophies  it  must  be  consid- 
ered and  estimated  for  what  it  is  worth.    It  involves  spatial  curvature. 

The  idea  of  curved  space  is  now  quite  a  familiar  idea  to  most 
people.  Eddington,  Jeans,  Einstein,  and  others  have  written  books 
for  popular  consumption  and  the  sales  have  been  very  gratifying. 
Even  the  pulp  magazines  do  not  hesitate  to  invoke  the  fourth  dimen- 
sion as  a  mode  of  escape  for  the  hero  or  the  villian.  A  simple  way 
of  approaching  the  concept  of  spatial  curvature  is  as  follows.  Think 
of  a  straight  line  along  one  dimension.  Given  a  second  dimension 
at  right  angles  to  the  first,  then  we  have  the  possibility  of  curving  the 
line  into  the  second  dimension.  Think  of  a  plane  surface,  like  a  sheet 
of  paper  flat  on  a  desk.  Given  a  third  dimension,  at  right  angles 
to  the  desk,  we  have  the  possibility  of  curving  the  paper  sheet  into 
this  third  dimension.  Think  of  a  solid  filling  three  dimensions.  Give 
a  fourth  dimension  at  right  angles  to  the  other  three,  we  then  have 
a  possibility  of  curving  the  solid  into  the  fourth  dimension.  It  is 
only  because  we  have  three-dimensional  minds  that  we  cannot  see 
this  fourth  dimension. 

A  mathematician  may  speak  of  space  itself  as  being  curved  without 
reference  to  any  solid  matter  in  it.  For  example,  consider  the  earth 
to  be  perfectly  smooth.  If  we  were  two-dimensional  creatures  instead 
of  being  three-dimensional,  we  might  draw  a  big  circle  on  the  earth's 
surface,  measure  its  diameter  and  its  circumference,  and  then  find 
that  the  circumference  was  not  equal  to  tt  times  the  diameter.  We 
would  not  know  that  the  circle  was  not  flat  (since  we  are  assumed 
to  be  two-dimensional),  but  we  could  certainly  infer  a  curvature 
of  our  flat  space  and  even  determine  its  radius  if  we  knew  enough 
about  ordinary  Euclidean  geometry,  which  would  work  pretty  well 
for  small  circles  on  the  earth's  surface. 

The  mathematical  description  of  the  universe  to  which  allusion 
was  made  at  the  beginning  of  the  lecture  involved  curving  of  three- 
dimensional  space  in  somewhat  the  same  fashion  as  described  above 
for  the  two-dimensional  space.  If  space  actually  is  curved  in  this 
way  our  ordinary  solid  geometry,  Euclidean  geometry,  would  not 
be  quite  correct.  In  order  to  find  out  whether  it  is  correct,  measure- 
ments of  certain  kinds  must  be  made.  For  example,  if  a  negative 
parallax  could  ever  be  observed  for  a  single  star,  a  spherically  curved 
space  would  be  implied.  The  mathematician  Schwarzschild,  a  good 
many  years  ago,  attempted  to  find  what  curvature  of  space  would 
be  possible  according  to  certain  types  of  non-Euclidean  geometry. 
In  dealing  with  these  geometries  he  said,  "One  there  finds  oneself, 
if  one  but  will,  in  a  geometrical  fairyland,  but  the  beauty  of  this 
fairy  tale  is  that  one  does  not  know  but  that  it  may  come  true." 


176  ANNUAL   REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

Schwarzschild's  results  need  not  be  considered  here  because  his  data 
were  limited  and  because  we  have  at  present  more  detailed  modes  of 
procedure  than  he  used.  There  are  at  least  two  mathematicians  who 
have  achieved  the  unique  distinction  of  having  a  universe  named 
after  them.  They  are  Einstein,  and  a  Dutchman  named  de  Sitter. 
Both  universes  are  non-Euclidean  and  the  Einstein  universe  appears 
to  be  the  more  popular.  The  curvature  of  the  Einstein  universe  is 
determined  by  the  amount  of  matter  in  it,  and  if  it  is  not  a  static 
universe,  by  certain  other  factors.  A  chunk  of  matter  produces  quite 
a  large  local  curvature,  which  is  evidenced  to  us  by  what  we  call 
gravitational  attraction. 

This  universe  is  not  infinite  in  extent.  It  is  a  closed  universe  with 
a  finite  volume  but  having  no  boundaries,  just  as  the  surface  of  a 
sphere  is  a  closed  surface  of  finite  area  yet  has  no  bounding  edges. 
In  this  universe  one  might  expect  to  see  a  star  in  two  directions,  first 
by  looking  directly  at  it,  second,  by  looking  in  the  exactly  opposite 
direction  at  light  rays  which  have  gone  completely  around  the  circuit 
of  the  universe  in  the  opposite  direction.  Star  images  have  not  been 
seen  in  this  way,  possibly  because  their  light  is  too  faint  after  the 
long  trip  around  the  universe.  There  is  also  the  possibility  that  the 
theory  is  wrong.  It  has,  however,  been  seriously  suggested  that  two 
very  faint  nebulae,  observed  in  a  certain  direction,  may  actually  be 
the  backs  of  two  of  our  nearest  neighbors,  as  seen  the  long  way 
around. 

The  theory  of  a  finite,  closed  universe  is  very  attractive  in  many 
respects.  We  may  again  use  the  term  "intellectually  satisfactory'' 
in  this  connection,  largely  because  this  universe  can  be  given  a  concise 
mathematical  description  and  in  terms  that  explain  the  gravitational 
effects  of  matter.  There  is  also,  in  many  individuals,  a  definite 
repugnance  to  the  idea  of  infinite  space.  In  discussing  the  stars 
Kant,  in  1755,  says,  "There  is  here  no  end,  but  an  abyss  of  real 
immensity  in  presence  of  which  all  the  capability  of  human  concep- 
tion sinks  exhausted."  The  finite  mind  likes  to  set  up  a  blank  wall 
somewhere,  in  order  to  end  it  all.  It  is  probably  intellectually  satis- 
factory to  Imow  that  one  can  start  out  in  imagination  and  not  have 
to  get  farther  away  forever  and  ever,  but  will  eventually  get  back  to 
the  good,  old,  familiar  region  of  the  starting  point. 

With  this  picture  of  a  finite,  closed  universe  in  mind  we  may  now 
return  to  the  question  regarding  the  nebulae.  Why  should  they 
appear  to  be  crowded  together  at  great  distances  from  us?  The 
answer  might  be  that  the  curvature  of  space  appears  to  make  them 
crowd  into  smaller  and  smaller  volumes  as  their  distance  increases. 
If  this  is  true  it  is  possible  to  calculate  what  radius  of  curvature  of 
the  universe  would  give  the  observed   apparent  crowding  of  the 


STRUCTURE   OF   THE    UNIVERSE — HEAPS  177 

nebulae  at  great  distances.  Such  calculations  have  been  made  and 
the  universe  turns  out  to  be  remarkably  small.  In  fact,  it  is  so 
small  that  our  largest  telescopes  would  allow  us  to  see  about  one-sixth 
of  the  way  around  it.  This  small  universe  is  required  in  order  to 
explain  the  apparent  nonuniform  distribution  of  the  nebulae.  How- 
ever, if  we  calculate  the  radius  of  the  universe  in  this  way  we  are 
"  obliged  to  have  only  a  certain  amount  of  matter  in  it,  since,  according 
to  Einstein,  the  radius  is  determined  by  this  total  amount  of  matter. 
Hubble  has  made  surveys  to  find  out  whether  the  observed  amount 
of  matter  will  fit  in  with  the  radius  as  determined  above.  He  esti- 
mates that  if  all  observable  stars  and  nebulae  were  smeared  out 
uniformly  there  would  be  a  maximum  of  about  one  hydrogen  atom 
per  cubic  meter.  This  density  of  matter  is  far  too  small.  In  other 
words,  there  is  not  enough  matter  in  the  universe  to  give  it  a  curvature 
great  enough  to  spread  out  the  nebulae  uniformly.  The  theory  of 
curvature  of  space  has,  therefore,  failed  to  resolve  the  problem. 

Another  way  out  of  the  dilemma  is  to  suppose  that  the  observa- 
tions of  the  astronomers  are  in  error.    Here  is  what  Hubble  has  to  say. 

These  questions  have  been  carefully  reexamined  during  the  past  few  years. 
Various  minor  revisions  have  been  made,  but  the  end  results  remain  substan- 
tially unchanged.  By  the  usual  criteria  of  probable  errors  the  data  seem  to  be 
suflSciently  consistent  for  their  purpose.  Nevertheless,  the  operations  are  deli- 
cate, and  the  most  significant  data  are  found  near  the  limits  of  the  greatest 
telescopes.  Under  such  conditions  it  is  always  possible  that  results  may  be 
affected  by  hidden  systematic  errors.  Although  no  suggestion  of  such  errors 
has  been  found,  the  possibility  will  persist  until  investigations  can  be  repeated 
with  improved  techniques  and  more  powerful  telescopes.  Ultimately  the  prob- 
lem should  be  settled  beyond  question  by  the  200-inch  reflector  destined  for 
Palomar. 

This  telescope  will  have  about  twice  the  range  of  the  best  one  now 
in  use.  Work  on  it  has  been  stopped  by  the  war,  so  it  is  impossible 
to  predict  just  how  soon  it  can  be  put  to  work  on  this  problem. 

The  last  way  which  may  be  suggested  for  escaping  from  the 
dilemma  is  to  suppose  that  in  the  region  of  astronomical  magnitudes 
some  new  principle  of  nature  is  operative — some  principle  which  we 
have  not  yet  discovered  in  the  ordinary  macroscopic  field.  Such  a 
principle  would  have  to  free  us  from  the  necessity  of  using  the  Dopp- 
ler  effect,  and  we  would  no  longer  have  to  say  that  experimental 
observation  shows  the  universe  to  be  expanding.  This  new  principle 
would,  therefore,  have  to  explain  why  the  light  from  nebulae  gets 
redder  and  redder  as  it  travels  greater  and  greater  distances.  Per- 
haps light  which  has  been  traveling  for  100  million  years  in  a  straight 
line  exhibits  its  senility  by  a  decrease  in  the  frequency  of  its  vibra- 
tions. We  do  not  know  of  any  possible  reason  such  as  this  why  old 
light  should  be  different  in  any  way  from  new  light.    The  only  place 


178  ANNUAL   REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

from  which  we  can  get  really  old  light  is  from  the  distant  nebulae, 
so  our  chances  of  establishing  by  experiment  a  new  principle  of 
physics  like  this  seems  at  present  to  be  involved  in  a  vicious  circle 
from  which  there  is  no  escape. 

It  appears,  therefore,  that  our  knowledge  of  the  structure  of  the 
universe  at  the  limits  of  the  astronomical  range  is  unsatisfactory. 
We  have  to  recognize  that  there  are  discrepancies  between  theory  .and 
experimental  observations.  Hubble  says  that  "a  choice  is  presented, 
as  once  before  in  the  days  of  Copernicus,  between  a  strangely  small, 
finite  universe,  and  a  sensibly  infinite  universe  plus  a  new  principle 
of  nature." 

We  may  now  go  back  once  more  for  a  comprehensive  view  of  what 
we  have  called  the  linear  lay-out  of  the  universe  in  figure  1.  The 
three  components,  or  variables,  were  assumed  quite  simply  to  be  space, 
matter,  and  time.  At  the  right-hand  end  of  the  scale  we  have  become 
embroiled  in  some  rather  questionable  speculations  regarding  the 
nature  of  space  and  the  behavior  of  light.  In  this  region,  where  a 
light-year  is  the  unit  of  distance  and  a  nebula  the  unit  of  mass,  we 
have  good  reason  for  suspecting  that  the  mechanics  of  the  universe 
cannot  be  described  or  explained  in  such  a  simple  way  as  in  the  region 
of  miles  and  mountains. 

Peculiarly  enough,  if  we  go  from  the  enormously  great  region  to 
the  extremely  small  region,  the  region  of  the  electron  and  the  posi- 
tron, we  encounter  similar  difficulties.  You  will  remember  that  Dar- 
row  characterized  the  microscopic  region  as  unique  because  "of  the 
adventurous  excursions  of  the  observers,"  and  "the  grandeur  of  the 
inferences."  One  or  two  of  these  inferences  and  excursions  may  be 
cited  here,  and  it  will  appear  that  the  simple  concepts  of  space  and 
matter  have  suffered  in  the  microscopic  field  in  much  the  same  way 
that  they  have  suffered  in  the  astronomical  field.  As  the  result  of 
investigations  in  the  field  of  the  small  particles  it  has  become  neces- 
sary to  broaden  our  ideas  as  to  the  nature  of  matter.  Cloud-chamber 
pictures  have  allowed  us  practically  to  see  two  particles  of  matter 
created  in  space  from  the  energy  contained  in  radiation. 

The  thing  that  happens  is  that  a  photon,  an  atom  of  radiant 
energy  traveling  with  the  speed  of  light,  somehow  gets  itself  into  a 
peculiar  situation  in  a  microscopic  field  of  some  kind.  The  result 
is  that  the  photon  changes  into  two  particles  with  electric  charges, 
a  positron  and  an  electron. 

In  the  macroscopic  size  range  an  equivalent  phenomenon  would  be 
for  a  quantity  of  sunshine,  passing  by  an  iron  ball,  to  change  sud- 
denly into  a  couple  of  buckshot. 

Needless  to  say,  no  one  has  ever  seen  anything  like  this  happen.  It 
is  only  when  sizes  become  so  small  as  to  prevent  direct  observation 


STRUCTURE  OF  THE  UNIVERSE — HEAPS  179 

that  the  event  occurs.  We  may  well  say  that  something  peculiar  is 
going  on  in  the  microscopic  field.  Something  is  happening  which  is 
foreign  to  our  ordinary  experience. 

Technically  this  phenomenon  is  known  as  pair  production  by  a 
photon.  The  reverse  process,  conversion  of  matter  into  radiation, 
can  occur  when  an  electron  and  a  positron  come  together  under  proper 
conditions.  They  disappear  and  two  photons  of  radiation  are  shot 
out  with  the  speed  of  light  in  opposite  directions. 

Matter  and  energy  can  now  be  thought  of  as  practically  synony- 
mous. It  thus  becomes  possible  to  make  certain  grand  inferences 
with  the  object  of  saving  the  universe  from  running  down.  Millions 
of  suns  are  slowly  but  surely  converting  their  matter  and  their 
energy  into  radiation  and  this  radiation  is  constantly  escaping  into 
infinity.  Perhaps  somewhere  in  space  radiation  may  be  changed  back 
into  matter.  Perhaps  the  universe  is  engaged  in  a  reversible  cycle, 
instead  of  an  irreversible  one,  as  is  commonly  supposed. 

As  an  illustration  of  what  Darrow  calls  an  "adventurous  excursion" 
of  an  observer  we  may  take  the  Dirac  theory  of  the  positron.  Dirac 
is  a  brilliant  young  Englishman,  a  mathematician  who  has  demon- 
strated a  high  degree  of  daring  and  originality  in  his  handling  of 
theoretical  physics. 

His  theory  of  the  positron  starts  out  with  two  peculiar  assumptions. 
First,  a  particle  may  have  a  negative  kinetic  energy.  Second,  all 
space  is  filled  with  particles  of  negative  kinetic  energy.  There  is  a 
distribution  of  electrons  of  infinite  density  everywhere  in  the  world. 
A  perfect  vacuum  is  a  region  where  all  the  states  of  positive  energy 
are  unoccupied  and  all  those  of  negative  energy  are  occupied. 

When  an  electron,  by  some  means  or  other,  gets  knocked  out  of 
this  state  of  negative  energy  into  a  state  of  positive  energy,  it  is 
observed  as  an  ordinary  electron;  the  hole  which  was  left  is  a 
positron.  This  hole  may  wander  around  for  a  short  time,  but  there 
are  so  many  more  electrons  in  the  universe  than  holes  that  it  is  not 
long  before  some  electron  drops  into  the  hole  and  both  hole  and 
electron  disappear  from  the  view  of  normal  people.  The  very  short 
life  of  the  positron  is  thus  explained,  as  is  also  the  phenomenon  of 
pair  production  and  the  conversion  of  matter  into  radiation. 

I  have  given  this  hasty  outline  of  the  theory,  not  that  I  expect 
anyone  to  understand  it — it  is  hardly  to  be  expected  that  negative 
energy  can  be  understood — ^but  because  it  illustrates  the  lengths  to 
which  a  theorist  has  to  go  in  creating  physical  explanation  in  this 
field.  In  the  microscopic  range  of  sizes  a  quite  perfect  explanation 
of  things  is  given  by  a  specialized  type  of  mathematics  called  wave 
mechanics.  It  is  only  when  this  mathematical  symbolism  is  explained 
in  terms   of  physical  symbolism  that  we  call  it  an   adventurous 


180         ANNUAL  REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

excursion.  Dirac  showed  great  courage  in  even  trying  to  give  a 
physical  picture  of  his  mathematical  theory.  The  fact  is  that  in 
the  microscopic  field  things  may  behave  in  a  -way  entirely  foreign  to 
the  way  in  which  we  have  always  seen  large  objects  behave,  hence  they 
cannot  be  explained  in  the  old  familiar  ways. 

There  is  in  most  people  a  strong  tendency  to  label  as  "bunk"  that 
which  is  not  understood.  This  tendency  is,  on  the  whole,  a  healthy 
one.  Skepticism  is  preferable  to  credulity  if  one  is  thinking  in  terms 
of  the  struggle  for  existence.  The  radio  listeners  who  believe  all  the 
remarkable  statements  made  about  cough  syrups,  breakfast  foods, 
cigarettes,  etc.,  must  certainly  be  struggling  very  hard  for  existence. 
However,  skepticism  based  upon  a  lack  of  understanding  is  a  danger- 
ous attitude  of  mind.  Prof.  P.  W.  Bridgman  of  Harvard  has  this  to 
say  in  his  book,  "The  Logic  of  Modern  Physics" : 

It  is  diflScult  to  conceive  anything  more  scientifically  bigoted  than  to  postulate 
that  all  possible  experience  conforms  to  the  same  type  as  that  with  which  we 
are  already  familiar,  and  therefore  to  demand  that  explanations  use  only  elements 
familiar  in  everyday  experience.  Such  an  attitude  bespeaks  an  unimaginative- 
ness,  a  mental  obtuseness  and  obstinacy  which  might  be  expected  to  have 
exhausted  their  pragmatic  justification  at  a  lower  plane  of  mental  activity. 

The  explanation  of  microscopic  phenomena,  then,  utilizes  concepts 
which  are  not  familiar  to  everyday  experience.  For  that  reason  the 
microscopic  tends  to  undermine  any  smug  complacency  we  may  have 
regarding  our  knowledge  of  nature  and  the  universe.  Take,  for 
example,  the  Heisenberg  uncertainty  principle.  This  principle  states 
that  we  can  never  know  accurately  both  the  position  and  the  velocity 
of  a  small  particle.  It  is  easy  to  see  why  this  is  true.  We  can  see  the 
small  particle  because  light  has  bounced  off  of  it  into  our  eye.  We  see 
it  in  the  direction  from  which  the  light  bounced. 

But  the  light,  in  bouncing  from  the  particle,  must  have  given  it  a 
push  so  that  either  its  position  or  its  velocity  will  have  been  changed 
by  the  mere  fact  that  light  must  be  used  to  observe  it.  By  the  time  the 
light  photon  gets  to  the  eye  of  the  observer  the  particle  will  not  be  at 
exactly  the  spot  from  which  the  photon  appeared  to  bounce. 

This  uncertainty  principle  has  been  given  an  exact  mathematical 
formulation.  It  turns  out  that  if  the  position  of  an  electron  is  known 
to  within  0.004  inch  then  the  speed  of  its  motion  is  uncertain  to  within 
about  3  feet  per  second — the  speed  of  a  slow  walk. 

The  tendency,  at  first,  is  to  consider  this  as  rather  a  superficial 
principle.  I  can  easily  imagine  a  particle  to  have  both  position  and 
momentum  simultaneously;  why  bother  so  much  about  a  mechanism 
for  determining  them  ?  However,  a  thorough  study  of  the  situation, 
with  an  analysis  of  every  conceivable  means  afforded  by  nature  for 
making  determinations,  impresses  one  with  a  feeling  that  here  is  a 


STRUCTURE   OF   THE    UNIVERSE — HEAPS  181 

conspiracy  of  nature  to  prevent  man  from  acquiring  too  much  detailed 
information.  A  conspiracy  of  nature  is  a  law  of  nature;  we  cannot 
pass  it  over  as  being  of  no  importance.  It  is  as  if  nature  had  erected 
a  wall  of  impenetrability  around  the  smallest  particles  and  forced  us 
to  see  them  only  partially,  as  if  through  the  cracks  in  the  wall. 

It  appears,  therefore,  that  we  are  asking  a  meaningless  question 
when  we  ask  just  where  an  electron  is  when  it  has  a  certain  definite 
momentum.  No  possible  operation  can  be  thought  of  by  which  an 
answer  to  this  question  can  be  obtained  without  violating  a  law  of 
nature.  The  conclusion  is  that  the  electron  cannot  have  an  exact 
velocity  and  an  exact  momentum  simultaneously.  There  is  an  essen- 
tial fuzziness  in  the  very  foundations  of  nature  herself.  Time  and 
space  are  a  little  peculiar  in  the  microscopic  region,  most  certainly. 

Someone  has  said  that  "the  infinite,  whether  the  infinitely  large, 
or  the  infinitely  small,  seems  to  carry  disaster  in  its  wake."  I  do 
not  think  the  word  disaster  is  happily  chosen  in  this  connection. 
It  is  true  that  the  two  infinities  at  either  end  of  our  linear  lay-out 
have  shattered  the  beautiful,  crystal-clear  mechanical  system  which 
described  the  universe  during  most  of  the  nineteenth  century — when 
the  luminiferous  ether  was  as  definitely  material  as  a  piece  of  iron, 
and  when  a  scientist  could  say  that  practically  all  pioneer  research 
in  physics  was  over  and  nothing  remained  except  to  measure  things 
with  increasing  accuracy.  This  complacent  attitude  is  fortunately 
gone  forever,  and  the  two  infinities  have  had  a  great  deal  to  do  with 
its  disappearance.  The  new  problems  presented,  the  paradoxes,  the 
uncertainties,  all  combine  to  give  us  a  picture  of  modern  science 
once  more  struggling,  once  more  growing.  It  seems  better  to  change 
the  quotation  to  read,  "The  infinite,  whether  the  infinitely  large  or 
the  infinitely  small,  seems  to  have  carried  renaissance  in  its  wake." 

In  summing  up  the  subject  we  may  say  that  the  small  part  of  the 
universe,  open  to  everyday  experience,  has  given  us  a  simple  concep- 
tion of  nature,  a  simple  body  of  laws,  which  seems  unable  to  cope 
with  problems  either  in  the  region  of  the  supernebulae  or  in  the 
region  of  the  extremely  small  particles. 

In  the  latter  field  we  have  found  that,  properly  speaking,  descrip- 
tions of  phenomena  must  be  mainly  mathematical.  Such  descrip- 
tions are  quite  adequate  at  present,  and  we  feel  that  the  main  prob- 
lems of  explanation  are  well  in  hand.  But  we  must  be  careful  not 
to  expect  the  same  type  of  explanation  that  is  used  for  objects  of 
ordinary  size,  and  we  must  remember  that  here  there  is  a  certain 
indefiniteness  of  behavior.  We  do  not  say  that  a  small  particle  can 
never  get  over  a  high  hill  when  it  does  not  have  enough  energy  to 
carry  it  to  the  top.    We  say  that  the  probability  of  its  getting  over  is 


182         ANNUAL  REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

small.    It  actually  has  a  small  probability  of  doing  the  job  with  an 
insuflBcient  amount  of  energy  I 

In  the  region  of  the  supernebulae  we  are  at  present  up  against  a 
paradox.  We  are  at  liberty  to  suppose  that  space  is  of  a  peculiarly 
curved  character,  or  that  it  goes  on  to  infinity ;  that  the  supernebulae 
are  flying  away  with  enormous  velocities,  or  that  some  unknown 
principle  of  nature  is  deceiving  us.  We  may  be  affected  by  a  feeling 
of  futility  because  of  this  state  of  affairs,  and  even  have  a  sympathetic 
feeling  for  St.  Ambrose,  who  in  A.  D.  389  wrote : 

To  discuss  the  nature  of  the  earth  does  not  help  us  in  our  hope  of  the  life  to 
come.  It  is  enough  to  know  that  Scripture  states  that  He  hung  up  the  earth 
on  nothing.  Why  argue  whether  He  hung  it  up  in  air  or  on  water?  The 
majesty  of  God  constrains  it  by  the  law  of  His  will. 

The  spirit  of  modern  science  is  not  in  agreement  with  St.  Ambrose, 
and  is  not  to  be  discouraged  by  apparent  contradictions.  This  spirit 
demands  continual  arguing  and  speculating  as  to  how  the  universe  is 
hung  up.  Certainly  we  will  always  see  as  through  a  glass  darkly, 
but  just  as  certainly  we  will  always  keep  on  trying  to  polish  the 
glass. 


INDUSTRIAL  SCIENCE  LOOKS  AHEAD 


By  Bkiqadiee  Genebai.  David  Sabnoff 
President,  Radio  Corporation  of  America 


Industrial  science  at  war  is  shaping  a  new  world.  While  the  bat- 
tle lines  of  the  United  Nations  encircle  the  Fortress  Europe  and  the 
gigantic  pincers  of  victory  tighten  on  the  enemy  in  the  Pacific,  civi- 
lization advances  ever  closer  to  the  postwar  horizon.  With  victory 
win  come  the  day  when  the  scientific  instruments  and  processes  of 
war  will  turn  abruptly  to  peace.  Machines  and  tools,  as  well  as 
industrial  and  economic  thinking,  will  be  converted  quickly  from  the 
demands  of  war  to  the  needs  of  peace.  Industry  will  be  called  upon 
to  relieve  the  strains  of  war  with  utmost  speed  by  ministering  anew 
to  human  welfare,  health,  and  comfort.  Postwar  planners  are  now 
at  work  in  many  fields  of  industrial  endeavor. 

It  is  not  new  for  American  industry  to  be  surveying  and  planning 
for  the  future.  That  process  is  always  at  work  here,  whether  the 
world  is  at  peace  or  at  war.  Only  by  advanced  thinking,  research, 
engineering,  and  continual  pioneering,  can  industrial  science  put 
new  ideas  into  action.  By  doing  this,  industry  serves  its  workers 
and  the  people,  and  thereby  wins  the  right  to  survive. 

We  have  but  to  consider  some  of  the  outstanding  wartime  develop- 
ments of  industrial  science  to  realize  their  widespread  applications 
in  all  fields,  from  automobiles  to  giant  turbines  and  diesel  engines, 
from  cameras  to  facsimile  and  television.  Endlessly  these  advances 
extend  into  every  realm  of  our  daily  lives.  Among  the  promises  of 
better  living  we  are  told  of  new  plastics,  light  metals,  synthetic  tex- 
tiles, high-octane  gasoline,  artificial  rubber,  luminescent  lighting,  air- 
conditioning,  dehydration  of  foodstuffs,  and  many  other  innovations. 
We  even  hear  of  glass  flatirons  and  plastic  lenses.  We  are  promissd 
revolutionary  changes  in  homes,  aircraft,  communications,  ships, 
railroads,  automobiles,  highways,  clothing,  and  foods.  In  myrind 
ways  the  wartime  inventions  in  electricity,  metallurgy,  chemistry,  and 
physics  will  open  new  gateways  for  industrial  science  to  enter  and 
enrich  our  everyday  life. 

^  Address  delivered  before  the  Lancaster  Chapter  of  the  American  Association  for  the 
Advancement  of  Science.     Reprinted  by  permission  from  Science,  vol.  98,  Nov.  19,  1943. 

183 
619830—45 13 


184         ANNUAL  KEPOET   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

As  for  the  great,  modern  art  of  radio,  I  can  promise  you  that  as 
a  service  to  mankind  everywhere  it  will  keep  pace  with  the  march  of 
science  and  industry  in  every  other  field. 

Today  is  the  anniversary  of  a  historic  event  that  provides  us  with 
a  timely  opportunity  to  review  the  remarkable  advances  of  radio 
within  a  quarter  century,  to  reflect  upon  its  vital  role  in  the  war,  and 
to  look  into  its  future. 

Twenty-five  years  ago  this  morning,  news  flashed  across  the  hemi- 
spheres that  the  first  World  War  had  ended.  In  retrospect  that  day 
appears  as  a  fleeting  moment.  History  lifted  her  pen  and  paused  to 
dot  the  "i"  of  an  empty  victory  that  proved  to  be  only  the  prelude 
to  a  global  war  unprecedented  in  fury,  extent,  and  destruction. 

In  that  autumn  of  1918,  Germany's  pleas  for  peace  had  revealed  the 
jjlight  of  the  German  people.  Germany  was  cracking.  American 
radio  was  entrusted  to  transmit  to  a  defeated  nation  President 
Wilson's  Fourteen  Points  as  a  basis  for  the  restoration  of  peace,  and 
for  a  general  armistice  on  land,  on  water,  and  in  the  air.  Eadio  opera- 
tors stood  by  for  the  answer.  It  came  on  the  midnight  air  of  November 
11,  when  silence  in  the  "ether"  over  the  Atlantic  was  interrupted  by  a 
flash  from  Europe.  At  2 :  45  a.  m.  New  York  time,  the  news  broke. 
The  State  Department  in  Washington  announced  the  Armistice  had 
been  signed  at  midnight,  and  hostilities  would  cease  at  6  o'clock  in  the 
morning — 11  a.  m.  in  France. 

There  was  no  radio  broadcasting  to  spread  the  welcome  word — "It's 
over,  over  there !" 

Under  the  banner  headline  "Peace,"  Americans  read  the  news  at 
their  breakfast  tables.  The  world  was  only  a  reading  world  at  that 
time.  It  had  not  yet  learned  to  listen.  News  spread  slowly  in  1918. 
Although  powerful  radio  alternators  relayed  these  tidings  around 
the  world  to  ships  on  the  Seven  Seas,  homes  were  not  yet  radio 
equipped.  Many  days  passed  before  news  of  the  Armistice  filtered 
into  remote  hamlets  and  farms.  War  correspondents  were  scribes, 
not  eyewitness  broadcasters;  they  had  the  pen  but  no  microphone. 
Today  news  travels  at  the  speed  of  light,  in  every  language  to  every 
corner  of  the  earth. 

In  those  days  there  were  no  globe-encircling  short  waves,  no  high- 
power  vacuum  tubes,  no  universal  receiving  sets.  The  radiophone 
was  just  learning  to  talk.  The  electron  tube  had  not  yet  revealed 
its  power  and  its  unlimited  possibilities. 

The  radio  of  that  day  gave  everything  it  had  to  win  the  war.  Re- 
search men  and  engineers  rushed  new  devices  into  service  to  main- 
tain contacts  with  the  battle  fleet,  with  the  convoys  and  the  American 
Expeditionary  Force  in  France.  Although  ships  in  the  mid-Atlantic 
could  not  maintain  direct  contact  with  American  and  European  shores. 


INDUSTRIAL    SCIENCE — SARNOFF  185 

the  long  waves  of  powerful  land  stations  swept  across  the  sea  and 
linked  America  with  its  Allies.  War  bulletins  moved  through  the  air 
at  the  rate  of  30  to  40  words  a  minute.  Today,  short  waves  and  high- 
speed automatic  machines  handle  news  at  the  rate  of  more  than  600 
words  a  minute.  In  the  First  World  War,  American  newspapers  had 
to  wait  for  ships  to  arrive  with  the  historic  pictures  of  Pershing  and 
the  A.  E.  F.  in  France.  Now  radiophoto  service  can  deliver  pictures 
of  Eisenhower  and  his  forces  in  Italy  and  MacArthur  and  his  troops 
in  the  South  Pacific  a  few  minutes  after  the  camera  snaps  them. 

Today,  largely  because  of  radio,  New  York  is  the  communication 
center  of  the  world.  In  1918,  it  was  London.  During  the  first  World 
War  the  United  States  found  itself  at  the  mercy  of  foreign  communi- 
cations. America  learned  the  lesson  then,  that  radio  was  the  nerve 
system  of  war  as  well  as  of  peace.  Immediate  steps  were  taken  to 
safeguard  the  future,  to  give  the  United  States  supremacy  in  world- 
wide communications  and  to  make  sure  that  never  again  would  this  Ke- 
public  be  dependent  upon  the  wave  lengths,  cables,  or  wires  operated 
and  controlled  by  other  nations. 

As  a  result  of  this  determination,  the  direct  radiotelegraph  circuits 
of  RCA  now  reach  51  countries  in  Central  and  South  America,  the 
West  Indies,  Europe,  Asia,  Africa,  and  Australasia.  Radiophoto  cir- 
cuits operate  between  New  York  and  London,  Stockholm,  Berne,  Mos- 
cow, Cairo,  and  Buenos  Aires,  while  the  terminal  at  San  Francisco 
serves  Honolulu  and  Melbourne. 

In  this  war,  radio  is  everywhere — with  soldier,  sailor,  marine, 
and  airman.  Modern  warfare  has  put  radio  instruments  into  every 
bomber  and  fighter  plane,  into  every  mechanized  unit,  and  into  every 
ship.  There  were  no  walkie-talkies  or  handy-talkies  in  No-Man's 
Land,  at  Verdun  or  at  the  Mame.  The  "cease  firing"  order  signed 
by  Foch  was  shouted  and  carried  by  runners  along  the  trenches.  The 
radio  equipment  of  that  day  was  too  massive  and  too  heavy  for  more 
than  a  limited  use  in  airplanes.  Now  compact,  eflScient  radio  goes 
aloft  with  all  planes ;  wave  lengths  are  their  life  lints.  Coordinating 
great  aerial  squadrons,  radio  guides  the  bombers  and  swarms  of 
fighters  over  the  targets,  and  safely  back  to  the  airports.  The  para- 
trooper leaps  from  the  skies  with  a  miniature  radio  transmitter — no 
larger  than  a  cracker  box — strapped  to  his  belt.  The  artillery, 
through  its  radio,  knows  at  all  times  what  the  infantry  wants,  wlien 
it  wants  it,  and  exactly  where  it  wants  it. 

These  historic  comparisons  dramatize  the  great  advances  made  by 
radio  in  a  quarter  of  a  century.  Industrial  science  and  private  enter- 
prise, free  and  unfettered,  took  the  war-born  electron  tubes,  the  radio- 
telephone, and  the  short  waves,  and  adapted  them  to  peaceful 
pursuits.     Clues  to  what  might  be  accomplished  in  peace  were,  how- 


186  ANNUAL   REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

ever,  in  the  air  during  those  final  months  of  the  first  World  War. 
When  a  sub-chaser  dashed  out  to  sea  from  a  port  in  Maine,  its  radio 
operator  moved  a  portable  phonograph  near  to  his  radiophone  micro- 
phone to  broadcast  a  popular  wartime  tune,  "I  May  Be  Gone  for  a 
Long,  Long  Time."  From  the  Navy  station  at  New  Brunswick,  N.  J., 
the  "Star  Spangled  Banner"  was  broadcast  up  and  down  the  coast. 
These  were  forerunners  of  the  day  when  radio  music  from  hundreds 
of  stations  would  encircle  the  globe. 

War  had  revealed  that  new  instruments  could  be  made  available 
for  mass  communication.  The  time  was  opportune  and  industrial 
science  was  prepared  to  answer  the  challenge.  Soon  after  the  Ar- 
mistice, America  became  aflame  with  a  new  national  pastime — that  of 
listening-in.  The  vast  industry  of  broadcasting  came  into  being.  Its 
achievements  as  a  service  to  America  and  to  all  the  world  during  the 
past  quarter  of  a  century  are  an  epoch-making  and  dramatic  story 
of  American  ingenuity  and  enterprise  at  its  best. 

In  no  other  nation  has  radio  developed  as  it  has  in  the  United 
States.  Nowhere  else  are  people  better  informed.  Today  this 
country  is  served  by  more  than  900  broadcasting  stations  and  4  na- 
tional networks.  There  are  60,000,000  receiving  sets  in  our  land. 
The  owner  of  every  set  is  free  to  listen  to  any  wave  length  from  any 
country.    American  radio  dials  are  symbols  of  freedom. 

The  scientists,  who  worked  out  inventions  and  harnessed  the  wave 
lengths  to  equip  America  with  this  unsurpassed  radio  system,  realized 
only  vaguely  that  their  achievements  might  be  used  in  a  second  World 
War.  Theirs  were  the  tasks  of  peace.  They  worked  to  make  a  sym- 
phony orchestra  sound  with  perfection  hundreds  and  thousands  of 
miles  distant  from  its  source  and  enable  the  human  voice  to  ring  true 
on  the  other  side  of  the  globe. 

They  extended  the  influence  of  news,  education,  and  religion  to  all 
parts  of  the  earth.  They  made  the  world  an  open-air  theater  in 
which  countless  millions  of  people  could  enjoy  free  entertainment. 

Thus,  scientists  made  American  radio  the  Voice  of  Freedom,  so 
interwoven  with  our  daily  lives  that  we  have  come  to  think  of  radio 
as  an  achievement  only  of  the  twentieth  century.  It  is,  however,  a 
child  of  the  ages.  Modern  radio  came  into  existence  through  a  long 
process  of  evolution.  The  long  corridors  of  time  through  which  man 
has  conducted  research  and  experiments  extend  far  into  the  past. 
They  lead  back  to  ancient  Greece.  There  the  first  electric  sparks, 
called  electrum,  kindled  a  new  science  and  unleashed  a  new  force — 
electricity. 

While  the  men  of  science  were  seeking  to  explain  the  mystery  of 
these  sparks,  the  philosophers  of  Greece  forsaw  that  if  democratic 
government  were  to  remain  effective,  the  range  of  the  human  voice 


INDUSTRIAL    SCIENCE — SARNOFF  187 

would  have  to  be  greatly  extended.  Aristotle  argued  that  the  best 
of  states  might  well  outgrow  geographical  boundaries  with  popula- 
tions reaching  such  size  that  well-ordered  and  efficient  government 
could  not  function.  He  said  that  a  democratic  government  required 
that  the  citizens  keep  in  touch  with  one  another;  that  their  leaders 
know  each  other  and  that  they  study  at  first  hand  their  common  poli- 
tical problems  and  the  policies  necessary  to  meet  them.  But  Aristotle 
warned  that  it  would  be  impossible  to  accomplish  this  in  the  overgrown 
state,  "for  who  could  be  the  leader  of  the  people  in  such  a  State,  or 
who  the  town-crier,  unless  he  have  the  voice  of  a  Stentor?"  It 
would  seem  that  Aristotle  even  forecast  the  need  for  television,  be- 
cause he  believed  that  the  people  needed  to  see  their  leaders,  as  well 
as  hear  them  at  long  range. 

Two  thousand  years  later  we  have  seen  this  come  to  pass,  for  science 
has  provided  government  and  its  leaders  with  radio.  The  entire  Na- 
tion has  become  an  open  forum.  The  leader  of  the  modern  state  is 
heard  at  one  time  by  more  people  than  Aristotle  and  Socrates  reached 
in  their  life  time.  Electricity  has  made  the  microphone  the  voice  of 
the  Stentor;  our  leaders  talk  to  the  people,  and  at  the  same  instant 
they  are  heard  around  the  world. 

We  of  this  generation  have  seen  men  of  evil  intent  stopped  by  the 
very  tools  of  science  they  perverted  ruthlessly  to  extend  their  power. 
We  have  watched  science  halt  the  tyrant  and  dictator  as  the  stentorian 
voice  of  the  United  Nations  cried  out  in  defense  of  freedom,  democracy, 
and  justice. 

When  this  war  ends,  we  shall  be  on  the  threshold  of  a  new  era 
in  radio — an  era  in  which  man  will  see,  as  well  as  hear,  distant  events. 
The  first  two  decades  of  the  century  belonged  to  wireless  telegraphy. 
The  second  two  decades  featured  sound  broadcasting;  the  third  two 
decades  promise  television.  It  is  not  too  bold  to  predict  that  the  fourth 
two  decades  will  introduce  international  television  with  pictures  in 
color. 

It  is  even  possible  that  in  the  two  final  decades,  we  may  complete 
the  century  with  power  transmission  by  radio,  and  its  use  in  the 
operation  of  vehicles,  automobiles,  ships,  railroads,  and  airplanes. 
Wlien  completed,  the  story  of  these  first  hundred  years  of  radio  will 
make  fascinating  reading.  Even  a  Jules  Verne  could  not  tell  us  all 
that  lies  ahead  in  this  magic  realm  of  radio-electronics. 

The  science  of  radio  is  no  longer  confined  to  communications. 
Among  revolutionary  accomplishments  in  other  lines,  we  have  the 
electron  microscope,  one  of  the  most  important  new  scientific  tools  of 
the  twentieth  century.  Developed  in  EGA  Laboratories,  and  based 
upon  television  techniques,  this  instrument  has  a  high  wartime  prior- 
ity rating  for  use  in  scientific,  medical,  and  industrial  research.    For 


188         ANNUAL  REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

the  first  time  it  has  made  it  possible  for  us  to  see  and  identify  mole- 
cules, and  to  photograph  the  influenza  virus.  It  has  revealed,  in  in- 
finite detail,  the  true  structures  of  libers,  crystals,  and  pigments.  The 
submicroscopic  world  is  now  opened  wide  for  exploration.  Bacteria, 
tissues,  and  minute  particles  of  matter  have  been  brought  within 
range  of  man's  eye,  for  the  electron  microscope,  many  times  more 
powerful  than  the  strongest  optical  microscope,  permits  magnifica- 
tions up  to  100,000  diameters.  A  needle  on  such  a  scale  of  magnifica- 
tion would  appear  as  huge  as  the  Washington  Monument ;  a  blood  cor- 
puscle as  large  as  the  wheel  of  an  automobile  and  a  football  field 
five  times  the  size  of  the  United  States. 

Wartime  industrial  research  and  engineering  have  rushed  into  use 
still  another  branch  of  radio — the  art  of  utilizing  high-frequency 
radio  waves  for  heating.  It  violates  no  military  secret  to  report  that 
in  this  new  field  of  radiothermics,  a  laminated  airplane  propeller  can 
be  processed  in  minutes  compared  with  hours  required  by  ordinary 
heat  and  pressure  methods.  In  many  cases  where  uniform  heat  under 
accurate  control  is  necessary  in  industrial  processes,  radiothermics 
offers  great  promise  in  efficiency  and  time  saving.  The  wide  scope 
of  its  application  ranges  from  case-hardening  steel  to  dehydrating 
foods,  from  gluing  prefabricated  houses  to  seaming  thermoplastic 
materials  by  means  of  a  "radio  sewing  machine."  These  accomplish- 
ments are  all  based  upon  the  simple  fact  that  microwaves,  in  penetrat- 
ing an  object,  encounter  resistance  and  create  heat. 

Farther  afield  from  communications,  research  men  are  exploring 
supersonic  vibrations,  far  above  the  range  of  the  human  ear.  The  use 
of  these  ultrasonics  in  chemistry  may  open  a  field  in  which  high- 
intensity  sound  accelerates  chemical  reactions.  Experiments  also 
indicate  important  possibilities  in  many  other  fields  including  under- 
water communication,  emulsification  of  liquids,  and  precipitation  of 
dust  from  the  air. 

We  attribute  all  these  lines  of  progress  to  the  science  of  electronics. 
The  heart  of  that  science  is  the  radio  tube.  Millions  and  millions  of 
radio-electron  tubes  are  on  duty  around  the  world.  They  are  being 
manufactured  in  the  United  States  at  the  rate  of  400,000  a  day.  The 
communities  in  which  they  are  made  are  on  the  front  line  of  pro- 
duction. The  great  importance  of  each  radio  tube  that  moves  off  the 
production  lines  can  only  be  envisaged  by  considering  the  many  func- 
tions it  performs  in  helping  to  win  the  war.  The  delicate  finger  of 
the  worker  who  makes  the  tubes  has  a  task  as  vital  as  the  finger  of  a 
soldier  on  the  trigger  of  a  rifle. 

Likewise,  radio-electron  tubes  are  as  important  in  peace  as  in  war. 
They  are  the  master  keys  to  revolutionary  advances  in  radio.  They 
have  registered  the  sound  of  footprints  in  the  past;  they  are  the 


INDUSTRIAL   SCIENCE — SARNOFF  189 

pulse  of  the  present  and  the  "eye"  of  television  that  sees  far  into  the 
future. 

The  day  may  come  when  every  person  will  have  his  own  little  radio 
station  tucked  away  in  his  pocket,  to  hear  and  to  communicate  with 
his  home  or  his  office  as  he  walks  or  rides  along  the  street. 

We  have  much  to  learn  about  the  microwaves,  in  which  is  wrapped 
up  this  new  world  of  individualized  radio.  Tiny  electron  tubes  may 
make  it  possible  to  design  radio  receivers  and  transmitters  no  larger 
than  a  fountain  pen,  a  cigarette  case,  a  billfold,  or  a  lady's  powder 
box.  Some  day  people  may  carry  television  screens  on  their  wrists 
as  they  now  carry  watches.  As  the  useful  spectrum  of  radio  ap- 
proaches the  frontiers  of  light,  the  apparatus  will  become  simpler 
and  more  compact. 

Today  science  is  leading  us  out  of  a  world  in  which  radio  has  been 
blind.  Tomorrow  we  shall  have  radio  sight.  By  this  I  do  not  mean 
that  we  shall  look  only  at  pictures  in  motion  that  travel  through  the 
air.  Radiovision  will  have  many  uses.  It  will  serve  wherever  sight 
is  needed.  For  instance,  it  will  be  used  to  prevent  collisions  on  high- 
ways and  railroads,  on  sea  lanes  and  on  the  airways  of  the  world. 
Radio  will  be  the  new  eye  of  transportation  and  commerce.  Appli- 
cations of  radio  optics  are  unlimited.  With  radio  ear  and  eye  to 
guide  them,  the  great  stratoliners  will  be  superhuman  in  their  in- 
stincts of  hearing  and  seeing  as  they  speed  through  space  with 
passengers  and  freight.  Radio,  which  made  the  world  a  whispering 
gallery,  will  turn  it  into  a  world  of  mirrors. 

Radio's  great  responsibilties  do  not  stop  there.  A  formidable  task 
lies  ahead  for  communications  in  the  restoration  of  peace,  in  the  re- 
construction of  the  world,  in  the  reestablishment  of  international 
trade. 

If  American  industrial  science  is  to  play  its  destined  role  in  the  re- 
construction period,  government  should  not  unduly  restrict  private 
enterprise  or  enter  into  competition  with  industry.  On  the  other 
hand,  it  is  of  no  avail  for  industry  merely  to  point  to  the  dangers  of 
governmental  restraints.  Industry  must  give  evidence  of  leadership 
by  presenting  practical  alternatives. 

The  day  of  pioneering  in  America  has  not  ended.  Trail  blazing 
now  calls  for  joint  effort  by  government,  labor,  and  industry.  Their 
authority,  experience,  and  vision  must  fuse  harmoniously  to  achieve 
success.  The  same  spirit  of  give-and-take  must  prevail  in  industrial 
statesmanship  as  in  national  and  international  statesmanship.  There 
must  be  but  one  goal — the  welfare  of  the  people  and  the  Nation. 

Industrial  statesmanship  can  accomplish  more  than  political  states- 
manship in  solving  the  postwar  problems  of  employment,  mass  pro- 
duction, prosperity,  and  the  continued  uplift  of  the  American  standard 


190         ANNUAL   REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

of  living.  Industry  can  be  the  great  motive  power  in  the  solution  of 
these  problems.  The  future  of  every  American  home  and  family 
depends  upon  it.  Therefore,  it  is  imperative  that  after  victory  is 
achieved  on  the  battlefields,  American  industry  devote  the  same  all- 
out  efforts  to  the  peace  that  it  devoted  to  the  war.  There  can  be  no 
let-down.  The  problems  of  peace  will  be  of  great  magnitude.  After 
the  devastation  of  war,  mankind  will  be  called  upon  to  win  the  peace 
and  to  make  that  peace  secure  with  happiness  for  all  people.  If  in- 
dustrial statesmanship  fails  in  this  great  opportunity,  then  the  ap- 
proach to  the  postwar  problems  necessarily  will  be  political  instead 
of  economic. 

America's  cultivation  of  science  has  proved  the  Nation's  salvation 
in  modern  warfare.  It  must  not  be  otherwise  in  peace.  Pioneering 
and  research  create  wealth  and  employment. 

In  considering  opportunities  for  employment  after  the  war  we  must 
lift  our  sights  to  the  skies.  Man,  long  confined  in  his  activities  to 
the  surface  of  the  earth  and  beneath  the  ground,  now  finds  that  the 
air  is  a  new  dimension,  offering  new  adventures  and  pioneering  by 
a  new  generation.  The  air  is  a  universal  chemical  and  physical  lab- 
oratory in  which  essential  elements  for  life  on  earth  are  created. 
Nature  herself  makes  unlimited  use  of  celestial  space  for  trans- 
mission of  light  and  heat  from  the  sun.  Only  in  recent  years  has 
man  learned  to  use  the  air.  Only  now  is  he  beginning  to  discover 
its  tremendous  potentialities.  Literally  out  of  thin  air,  chemists  are 
creating  new  products,  physicists  are  building  new  services,  while 
man  is  talking  on  unseen  waves  and  flying  on  invisible  beams. 

On  the  surface  of  the  earth,  ships  and  railroads,  automobiles  and 
industrial  machines  have  created  millions  of  jobs.  Underground 
coal,  oil,  and  minerals  provide  emploj^ment  for  other  millions.  Above 
the  earth  aviation  and  radio,  electronics  and  television  can  open  the 
way  for  new  opportunities  in  re-employment  of  war  workers  and  for 
the  millions  of  men  and  women  who  will  return  from  service. 

It  is  estimated  that  10,000,000  jobs  which  did  not  exist  in  1940  must 
be  found  to  solve  the  postwar  problem  of  employment.  One  great 
hope  in  helping  to  meet  this  unprecedented  challenge  will  be  found  in 
the  fertile  and  unexplored  frontiers  of  space.  Science,  offering  new 
incentives,  is  beckoning  capital  to  venture  into  the  open  skies.  We 
are  challenged  to  look  upward  to  our  future. 

Horace  Greeley,  if  here  today,  might  say,  "Go  up,  young  man,  go 
up  and  grow  up  in  space."  There,  lies  the  unfathomed  "West"  of  this 
century,  with  no  last  frontier;  there,  lies  a  vast  wilderness  rich  in 
resources,  opportunities,  and  adventure.  The  "Forty-niners"  of  the 
present  decade  will  be  prospectors  in  research.  They  will  travel 
through  the  air  to  stake  their  claims  to  fame,  fortune,  and  freedom. 


INDUSTRIAL   SCIENCE — SARNOFF  191 

To  assure  the  full  attainment  of  these  results,  private  industry  and 
the  Government  must  play  their  parts  with  the  utmost  honesty  of 
purpose,  encouraging  individual  and  collective  initiative.  The  na- 
tional growth  of  the  United  States  and  its  contributions  through 
research  and  invention,  are  historic  proof  that  traditional  American 
cooperation  between  industry  and  government  promotes  the  best 
public  interest. 

The  role  of  government  in  its  relationship  to  labor  and  industry 
should  be  that  of  an  umpire.  A  wise  government  does  not  seek  to 
favor  either  management  or  labor.     It  must  be  impartial,  not  partisan. 

When  the  war  ends,  and  we  enter  the  immediate  period  of  transi- 
tion, the  Government  in  fairness  to  both  labor  and  industry  nmst 
readjust  its  rigid  wartime  controls.  The  emergency  regulations  nec- 
essary in  wartime,  but  not  necessary  in  peacetime,  should  be  reduced 
as  speedily  as  practicable.  Elimination  of  wartime  restrictions  will 
enable  manufacturers  to  produce  and  supply  the  goods  needed  by  the 
Nation,  to  maintain  employment,  and  to  adapt  new  developments  in 
industrial  science  for  the  benefit  of  all  people. 

America  must  be  practical.  Science  and  industry  must  have 
American  independence  if  they  are  to  succeed  in  the  gigantic  task  of 
reconversion,  re-employment,  and  world  rehabilitation. 

Never  again  can  the  United  States  be  isolated  and  secure  within 
its  own  shores.  In  the  fact  that  no  spot  on  the  globe  is  farther  than 
60  hours'  flying  time  from  any  local  airport,  is  seen  the  truth  that 
nations  must  live  together  as  good  neighbors.  Shriveled  by  radio 
and  aviation,  the  new  world  is  a  single  neighborhood.  That  is  not  a 
theoretical  concept.     It  is  a  fact. 

Today  man  can  travel  by  train  from  Chicago  to  New  York  in  17 
hours ;  he  can  fly  in  5  hours.  He  saves  12  hours,  but  it  is  of  no  avail 
if  he  does  not  use  that  time  constructively.  If  people  achieve  more 
leisure,  what  are  they  to  do  with  the  newly  found  hours  of  freedom  ? 
This  is  one  of  the  paramount  problems  that  faces  the  postwar  world. 
Recreation  and  entertainment  are  vital  to  a  happy  life.  But  to  be 
content  man  must  also  work.  Mere  idleness  does  not  produce  hap- 
piness or  progress.  Life  is  measured  by  time;  it  is  too  fleeting  and 
precious  to  waste. 

Entertainment  can  be  as  refreshing  as  sleep.  The  brain  to  gain 
new  ideas  and  to  think  clearly  also  must  have  diversion.  In  leisure 
some  of  the  greatest  dreams  of  all  time  have  been  born  and  have 
grown  into  revolutionary  ideas  and  inventions.  The  complete  con- 
ception of  the  telegraph  flashed  into  the  mind  of  Morse  while  on  an 
ocean  voyage.  The  idea  of  wireless  flashed  into  Marconi's  mind 
while  vacationing  in  the  Alps.  Great  ideas  in  science,  art,  and  litera- 
tiu'e  seldom  come  directly  to  the  workbench;  they  are  released  at 


192         ANNUAL   REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

unsuspecting  moments  when  the  subconscious  mind  has  opportunity 
to  come  into  its  own. 

In  broadcasting  we  have  an  outstanding  example  of  an  art  that  is 
measured  by  time  and  linked  with  opportunity.  The  listener  may 
use  the  hours  to  good  advantage,  or  he  may  waste  them.  It  is  the 
use  to  which  he  puts  his  radio  set  and  his  freedom  in  selection  of  pro- 
grams that  reveals  the  inherent  value  of  broadcasting.  The  program 
is  the  essence.  If  it  brings  laughter,  if  it  stimulates  thinking,  or  rests 
the  tired  mind,  or  keeps  the  listener  informed  and  in  touch  with 
his  fellowmen,  then  radio  is  an  antidote  for  idleness  and  loneliness. 

Science  is  a  mighty  ally  of  freedom — its  advance  has  brought  much 
release  from  drudgery  and  from  want.  However,  we  must  progress 
still  further.  For  better  machines  are  not  all  that  is  needed  to  make 
a  better  life.  We  shall  have  a  better  world  only  to  the  extent  that  our 
social  thinking  and  our  social  progress  keep  pace  with  the  advance 
of  physical  science. 

We  are  approaching  the  days  in  this  struggle  when  the  basic  chal- 
lenge of  the  postwar  years  will  become  sharper  and  clearer.  It  is  a 
challenge  that  will  ring  out  to  people  in  all  walks  of  life,  to  brains 
and  initiative,  to  cooperation  of  government  and  industry,  to  labor 
and  management,  to  religion  and  education.  The  answer  will  be 
found  in  the  minds  and  hearts  of  men  and  women  intent  upon  preserv- 
ing civilization  and  a  world  at  peace. 

In  this  month  of  Thanksgiving,  let  us  be  thankful  that  America  and 
her  Allies  have  the  strength  and  determination  to  hold  high  the  eternal 
torch  of  freedom.  May  the  victory  be  a  victory  of  lasting  peace,  so 
that  out  of  the  bombed  and  shell-torn  earth  will  come  a  happier  to- 
morrow for  all  mankind. 


THE  NEW  MICROSCOPES 


By  R.  B.  Seidel,  M.  D.,  and  M.  Elizabeth  Winter 
Philadelphia,  Pa. 


[With  5  plates] 


It  is,  to  speak  conservatively,  of  extreme  interest  to  review  the 
recent  progress  made  by  the  scientist  in  his  endeavor  to  penetrate  the 
unseen  world  of  the  minute  and  disease-causing  organisms,  in  particu- 
lar a  world  of  viruses — suspected,  yet  lying  just  beyond  the  scope  of 
human  vision  and  the  power  of  the  microscope  to  reveal ;  for  the  lab- 
oratory research  worker,  the  doctor,  the  technician  long  have  been 
familiar  with  the  effects  of  these  unseen  enemies  they  have  been  called 
upon  to  treat  and  to  cope  with  in  man,  animal,  and  plant,  and  while 
their  knowledge  of  the  infinitesimal  has  been  growing  steadily,  they 
were,  until  very  recently,  unable  to  make  the  slight  step  "beyond" 
which  would  enable  them  to  "see."  But  today,  science  is  exploring — 
looking  for  the  first  time  upon  totally  new  worlds  through  the  eyes  of 
totally  new  types  of  microscopes,  microscopes  new  in  principle  of 
construction  and  in  principle  of  illumination. 

THE  ELECTRON  MICROSCOPE 

One  of  these  new  instruments,  the  electron  microscope,  has  received 
considerable  attention  and  is  now  being  used  extensively  in  both  in- 
dustrial and  medical  research.  Based  on  the  principles  of  geometric 
electron  optics,  this  microscope  utilizes  electrons  as  a  source  of  illumi- 
nation instead  of  the  light  source  of  the  ordinary  light  microscope. 

Electrons,  practically  speaking,  are  the  smallest,  lightest  particles  of 
matter  and  electricity.  Like  light,  they  behave  like  corpuscles  guided 
by  waves.  Unlike  light,  however,  they  travel  in  a  straight  line  in  a 
vacuum  where,  subject  to  the  action  of  electric  and  magnetic  fields, 
their  behavior  coincides  with  the  laws  and  principles  set  down  by  Sir 
William  Hamilton  who,  more  than  a  century  ago,  demonstrated  the 
existence  of  a  close  analogy  between  the  path  of  a  light  ray  through 
refracting  media  and  that  of  a  particle  through  conservative  fields  of 
force. 

We  know  that  these  negatively  charged  particles,  the  electrons,  re- 
volving about  in  their  various  orbits  in  the  atom,  serve  to  maintain  the 


*  Reprinted  by  permission  from  the  Journal  of  the  Franltlin  Institute,  vol.  237,  No.  2, 
February  1944. 

193 


194         ANNUAL  REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

balance  of  the  atom  while  the  nucleus  exerts  the  "positive"  force  which 
holds  it  together;  and  we  also  know  that  when  this  balance  is  upset, 
due  to  gain  or  loss  of  electrons,  we  think  of  the  atom  as  "charged," 
since  it  is  this  circumstance  which  causes  the  tiny  particle  to  attract  or 
repel  other  electrons  according  to  the  state  of  its  unbalance.  And 
science  has  succeeded  in  unbalancing  the  atoms  to  such  an  appreciable 
extent  that  the  negative  electricity  may  be  withdrawn  and  harnessed 
for  use  in  such  instruments  as  the  electron  microscopes. 

The  fact  has  long  been  established  that  atoms  are  in  a  constant 
state  of  vibration  in  a  heated  body  and  that  the  greater  the  heat  of  the 
body,  the  greater  the  agitation  of  the  atoms.  According  to  the  electron 
theory  of  metals,  electrons  circulate  about  a  three-dimensional  network, 
or  lattice,  of  positive  ions,  some  of  the  electrons  being  comparatively 
free,  that  is  to  say,  the  attractions  of  the  ions  are  practically  canceled 
by  the  repulsions  of  the  other  electrons.  It  does  not  necessarily  follow, 
however,  that  the  same  electrons  consistently  remain  free.  They  may 
be  controlled  by  the  ions  eventually,  but  regardless  of  this,  there  is 
always  a  fixed  number  of  them  that  are  free.  Moreover,  there  is  a 
critical  value  of  speed  above  which  the  electrons  are  able  to  rise  in 
metals  and  thus  escape  from  their  restraining  positive  charges,  though 
at  ordinary  temperatures  the  proportion  of  them  moving  rapidly 
enough  to  do  this  is  relatively  small.  However,  as  the  heat  applied 
to  the  metal  is  increased,  not  only  is  the  thermal  agitation  of  the 
electrons  increased  also,  but  the  proportion  among  them  possessing 
sufficiently  high  speeds  to  enable  them  to  leave  the  metal. 

Thus  is  heat  applied  to  the  electron  source  of  the  electron  micro- 
scope which,  in  the  case  of  most  instruments  of  this  kind,  is  a  tungsten 
filament  surrounded  by  a  guard  cylinder.  After  leaving  the  filament, 
or  cathode,  the  electrons  enter  an  electric  field  wherein  are  large 
accumulations  of  charge  which  serve  to  speed  up  steadily  the  motion 
of  these  freely  moving  particles.  Since  the  electrons  travel  in  vacua, 
none  of  the  kinetic  energy  gained  in  crossing  the  field  is  lost,  the  total 
kinetic  energy,  or  energy  of  motion,  gained  in  passing  through  this 
region  being  proportional  to  the  voltage  applied.  We  may  deduce, 
therefore,  that  since  increase  of  charge  in  an  electric  field  means  a 
proportional  increase  of  kinetic  energy  of  these  electrons,  the  higher 
the  voltage  applied,  the  greater  the  speed  of  the  electrons — all  of 
which  has  been  calculated  mathematically  and  confirmed  experi- 
mentally. 

After  traversing  the  electric  field  and  passing  through  the  anode, 
the  electrons  are  concentrated  on  the  specimen  under  examination  by 
the  first  of  three  magnetic  fields  which  are  created  by  currents  flowing 
through  coils  enclosed  in  soft  iron  shields,  molded  so  as  to  concentrate 


NEW    MICROSCOPES — SEIDEL  AND   WINTER 


195 


the  magnetic  fields  on  a  short  section  of  the  microscope's  axis.  Wliereas 
in  the  ordinary  light  microscope  glass  lenses  serve  as  the  refractive 
media  through  which  light  rays  are  deflected,  in  the  electron  microscope 
it  is  these  magnetic  fields  of  rotational  symmetry  which  are  the  refrac- 
tive media  and  serve  as  the  "lenses"  which  deflect  the  beams  of 


ELECTRON 
SOURCE 


MAGNETIC 
CONDENSER 


MAGNETIC 
OBJECTIVE 


INTERMEDIATE 

IMAGE 
PROJECTOR 


„/ 


i\ 


LIGHT  SOURCE 


CONDENSER 
LENS 


OBJECTIVE 
LENS 


7\ 
La 


PROJECTOR 
LENS 

(EYE   PIECE) 


SECOND  STAGE 
MAGNIFIED  IMAGE 


LA 


OBSERVA' 
SCREEN 

(PHOTOGRAPHIC    PIATE) 


FiGXJBE  1. — Comparison  of  a  simplified  cross  section  of  an  electron  microscope 
(left)  with  that  of  an  ordinary  light  microscope. 

electrons.  The  first  of  these,  the  condenser  lens  coil,  corresponding  to 
the  substage  condenser  of  the  ordinary  light  microscope,  concentrates 
the  beam  of  electrons  upon  the  specimen.  The  convergence  of  the 
beam  falling  on  the  specimen  is  controlled  by  varying  the  current 
through  this  condenser  lens.  Now,  having  passed  through  the  speci- 
men, the  objective  coil,  similar  in  effect  to  the  objective  lens,  focuses 
the  electrons,  and  an  intermediate  image  enlarged  about  100  diameters 


196         ANNUAL  REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

is  formed.  Finally,  the  projection  coil,  corresponding  to  the  projec- 
tion lens  or  ocular,  produces  a  further  magnified  image  on  a  large 
fluorescent  screen.  In  some  of  the  electron  microscopes,  there  is  a 
periscope-like  attachment  by  means  of  which  it  is  possible  to  locate 
and  adjust  for  study  the  most  interesting  portion  of  the  specimen,  or 
that  which  it  is  desired  should  be  examined,  before  the  projection  lens 
coil  forms  the  final  magnified  image  upon  the  screen,  since  it  is  some- 
times difficult  to  accomplish  this  at  high  magnification.  Also,  if  it 
is  desired  that  a  photographic  record  be  made,  the  screen  can  be 
removed  and  a  photographic  plate  substituted. 

The  specimen  itself  is  supported  on  a  thin  nitrocellulose  membrane 
less  than  one-millionth  of  an  inch  thick,  and  clamped  in  the  tip  of  a 
cartridge  which  is  inserted  between  the  pole  pieces  of  the  objective  coil. 
The  membrane  is  suspended  across  the  opening  of  a  fine-mesh  screen, 
and  a  plate,  serving  as  the  movable  stage,  supports  the  cartridge.  The 
image  is  projected  onto  the  screen  according  to  the  density  and  atomic 
weight  of  the  specimen.  In  other  words,  whereas  in  the  ordinary  light 
microscope  the  image  is  seen  because  of  refraction  of  the  specimen  or 
differences  in  absorption,  in  the  electron  microscope  the  image  is  seen 
through  scattering  of  the  electrons,  and  since  electrons  travel  in  a 
straight  line  in  a  vacuum,  it  stands  to  reason  that  even  a  fairly  thin 
specimen  will  prove  sufficient  to  deflect  such  particles.  Electrons 
which  strike  a  thick  or  solid  portion  of  the  specimen  will,  of  course, 
not  continue  on  in  a  straight  line  to  the  screen  but  will  be  either  com- 
pletely absorbed  by  the  specimen  or  scattered  too  far  out  of  the  beam, 
thus  failing  to  enter  the  narrow  aperture  of  the  objective,  so  that  that 
portion  of  the  screen  corresponding  to  the  thick  portion  of  the  specimen 
will  remain  dark.  However,  those  electrons  which  are  able  to  escape 
complete  absorption  or  too  great  deflection,  because  they  do  not  happen 
to  come  in  contact  with  too  solid  a  portion  of  the  specimen  and  either 
pass  along  on  all  sides  of  it  or  penetrate  the  thinner  portions  where  it 
is  possible  they  may  encounter  only  a  single  heavy  nucleus  for  consider- 
able scattering  (the  angle  of  deflection  being  proportional  to  the 
square  root  of  the  thickness) ,  continue  on  to  the  screen  where  they  im- 
pinge and  cause  the  chemically  treated  screen  to  fluoresce,  thus  provid- 
ing a  study  in  light  and  shadow.  If  the  atoms  of  a  particular  sub- 
stance are  heavy,  they  will  also  deflect  more  electrons  than  if  they  were 
light.  It  may  be  readily  seen,  therefore,  that  the  thinner  the  specimen 
and  its  mounting,  or  the  greater  the  variations  in  density  of  the  speci- 
men, the  more  internal  structure  and  detail  which  may  be  seen,  since 
too  great  density  tends  to  absorb  or  interrupt  the  straight-line  progress 
of  too  many  of  the  electrons. 

Focusing  of  the  image  is  accomplished  by  varying  the  strength 
of  the  fields  and  thereby  altering  the  focal  length  of  the  "lens"  coils  at 


NEW    MICROSCOPES — SEIDEL  AND   WINTER  197 

will,  SO  that  the  need  of  changing  the  specimen's  position  in  relation 
to  a  fixed  optical  system,  as  would  be  the  case  with  an  ordinary  light 
microscope,  is  avoided.  Thus,  magnification  in  an  electron  micro- 
scope can  be  continuously  varied. 

Some  specimens  may  be  mounted  directly  on  the  fine-mesh  screen 
while  others  may  be  embedded  in  collodion,  sealed  between  films  of 
collodion,  or  suspended  in  a  gelatin  film,  itself  supported  on  collodion 
film.  The  supporting  films  beside  being  very  thin  must  be  homo- 
geneous lest  an  artifact  be  created.  For  the  most  part,  no  staining 
of  bacteriological  specimens  is  done  since  usually  they  exhibit  suffi- 
ciently high  contrast  in  density  to  reveal  readily  flagella  and  other  de- 
tail without  any  preparation  except  that  of  suspending  the  specimen  in 
distilled  water  or  other  liquid  and  allowing  a  drop  of  the  suspension 
to  dry  on  the  film  surface,  which  method  is  also  utilized  for  specimens 
of  colloidal  particles,  pigments,  and  other  chemical  preparations.  At 
times,  however,  as  Dr.  L.  Marton,  of  Stanford  University,  has  men- 
tioned in  his  article  on  the  electron  microscope  (written  for  The  Jour- 
nal of  Bacteriology,  March  1941,  when  he  was  associated  with  the 
R.  C.  A.  Research  Laboratories) ,  virus  particles  may  show  decided  low 
contrast.  One  method  which  Dr.  Marton  mentioned  for  overcoming 
this  is  to  obtain  a  number  of  electron  micrographs  at  various  focuses 
and  simply  select  the  best  one  for  study.  Or  the  virus  may  be  per- 
mitted to  absorb  colloidal  gold  which  would  result  in  an  image  of  high 
contrast.  Dr.  Marton  points  out  that  there  may  be  future  need  for  a 
staining  in  density  and  that  already  osmic  acid  has  been  tried  and  used 
for  this  purpose. 

In  this  microscope,  voltages  of  between  30,000  and  60,000  are  used. 
It  has  been  previously  stated  that  the  higher  the  voltage,  the  greater 
the  speed  of  the  electrons.  This  might  now  be  augmented  to  read, 
the  higher  the  voltage,  the  greater  the  speed  of  electrons;  hence,  the 
shorter  the  wave  length.  An  explanation  of  this  may  be  approached 
through  a  brief  discussion  of  short-wave  diffraction  as  considered  by 
Dr.  Karl  K.  Darrow,  of  Bell  Laboratories,  in  his  book,  "The  Renais- 
sance of  Physics."  In  order  to  obtain  convenient  angles  of  refraction 
with  the  ordinary  diffraction  grating,  it  is  necessary  that  the  wave 
lengths  of  light  be  smaller,  but  not  many  times  smaller,  than  the  spac- 
ing between  the  wires  or  grooves.  Naturally,  a  limit  of  measurement 
is  reached  in  the  region  of  ultraviolet  light  since  it  is  impossible  to 
lessen  further  the  spacing  of  these  gratings.  However,  this  limitation 
was  overcome  when  von  Laue  conceived  the  idea  of  substituting  a 
crystal  for  an  artificial  grating  since  the  atoms  in  a  crystal  are  a 
thousand  times  more  closely  set  together  than  are  the  wires  or  grooves 
of  a  grating  and  are  arranged  in  precise  regular  order  or  "lattices," 
and,  like  gratings,  are  unable  to  diffract  waves  which  are  longer  than 


198         ANNUAL  REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

the  spacings  between  their  atoms.  Von  Laue  suggested  that  if  a  beam 
of  light  were  directed  across  a  crystal  and  made  to  strike  a  photo- 
graphic plate,  there  would  appear  a  spray  of  narrow  rays  each  com- 
posed of  a  single  wave  train  instead  of  the  broad  fanlike  arrange- 
ment of  the  grating,  and  a  pattern  of  starlike  spots  where  the  rays 
come  in  contact  with  the  plate  instead  of  the  dark  irregular  blot 
when  a  grating  is  used.  Of  course,  the  rays  are  disposed  according 
to  the  spacings  of  the  atoms  in  the  lattice  and  according  to  the  char- 
acter of  the  lattice.  Von  Laue  confirmed  this  idea  for  waves  short 
enough  to  be  so  diffracted  and  then  advanced  the  theory  that  this 
principle  might  hold  true  for  X-rays  as  well,  which  theory  was  almost 
immediately  confirmed  by  Friedrich  and  Knipping.  Shortly  after 
Schroedinger  began  to  develop  De  Broglie's  wave  theory  of  electrons, 
Elsasser  conceived  the  idea  that  possibly  these  tiny  particles  might 
also  be  diffracted  by  crystals,  and  Doctors  Davisson  and  Germer,  of  the 
Bell  Telephone  Research  Laboratories,  using  as  part  of  their  appara- 
tus an  electron  gun,  set  out  to  test  and  to  prove  this  theory.  Due  to 
their  experiments  and  those  of  G.  P.  Thomson,  it  was  established 
beyond  a  doubt  that  electron  beams  are  diffracted  just  as  are  X-ray 
beams.  However,  it  was  also  demonstrated  in  the  course  of  these  ex- 
periments that  electrons  of  slow  speeds  and  feeble  kinetic  energies  are 
unable  to  penetrate  the  crystals.  It  was  Thomson  who  utilized  faster 
electrons  and  demonstrated  that  not  only  are  electrons  diffracted  like 
X-rays,  but  like  X-rays  also  they  make  an  imprint  upon  a  photographic 
plate  at  increased  speeds.  These  three  men,  together  with  others,  then 
measured  the  wave  lengths  which  they  compared  with  the  momenta 
of  these  electrons  by  their  diffraction.  To  these  experiments  and 
measurements  were  then  applied  the  following  rules  of  correlation: 
"Energy  {E)  is  proportional  to  frequency  (v),  and  momentum  {p)  is 
inversely  proportional  to  wavelength  (lambda),  the  same  constant  {h) 
appearing  in  both  relations.  (Frequency  is  interpreted  as  the  velocity 
(F)  of  the  waves  divided  by  their  wavelength.)"  These  rules  can  be 
applied  mathematically  to  the  electron  microscope  to  illustrate  better 
the  principles  of  its  operation.  In  making  use  of  the  first  rule,  how- 
ever, it  is  necessary  to  substitute  "voltage"  for  "frequency,"  and  in  so 
doing,  therefore,  the  rules  of  correlation  explain  the  increase  of  energy 
in  relation  to  the  increase  of  voltage  as  well  as  the  increase  of  speed  of 
electrons  in  relation  to  the  decrease  or  shortening  of  wave  length  when 
we  say  the  higher  the  voltage,  the  greater  the  speed ;  hence,  the  shorter 
the  wave  length  of  electrons.  It  is  interesting  to  note  in  passing  that 
a  150-volt  electron  has  a  wave  length  of  one  Angstrom  unit,  this  being 
more  than  10-'  times  smaller  than  the  wave  length  of  visible  or 
ultraviolet  light. 

Because  the  wave  lengths  utilized  in  an  electron  microscope  are  so 
much  shorter  than  those  employed  in  an  ordinary  light  microscope, 


NEW    MICROSCOPES — SEIDEL  AND   WINTER  199 

it  is  possible  to  obtain  greatly  increased  resolution  and  magnification. 
As  a  matter  of  fact,  resolution  up  to  20,000  or  25,000  diameters  may  be 
realized,  and  increased  magnifications  beyond  this  point  up  to  100,000, 
even  200,000  diameters,  can  be  obtained,  such  magnifications,  however, 
constituting  enlargement  of  the  image.  (Definitions  of  "resolution" 
and  "magnification"  discussed  under  "The  Ordinary  Microscope.") 
This  high  magnification  is  greatly  desirable  since  otherwise  the  eye 
would  be  unable  to  distinguish  the  fine  detail  of  internal  structure  at 
a  resolution  of  the  order  of  25,000.  As  a  result  of  this  increase  in  reso- 
lution and  magnification  over  that  of  the  ordinary  light  microscope 
which  is  between  1,600  and  2,500  diameters  and  in  the  ultramicroscope 
between  2,500  and  5,000  diameters,  many  surface  cells  and  much  intri- 
cate internal  structure  hitherto  unsuspected,  or  at  least  undetected  by 
ordinary  microscopes,  have  been  revealed.    To  cite  a  few  examples : 

The  streptococcal  cells  appear,  not  as  individual  cells,  that  is,  sepa- 
rate and  apart  from  one  another,  but  as  chainlike  groups,  the  cells  in 
each  chain  being  bound  together  apparently  by  the  strong  rigid  mem- 
brane or  outer  cellular  wall  which  extends  over  a  number  of  these  cells 
and  which  is  so  plainly  evident  under  the  electron  microscope.  Sub- 
jected to  sonic  vibration,  these  cells  suffer  a  loss  of  protoplasmic  mate- 
rial from  their  interior,  causing  them  to  become  mere  "ghost"  cells, 
which  makes  them  more  transparent  to  electron  beams.  That  there 
exists  considerable  difference  between  the  surface  structure  and  in- 
ternal composition  of  these  cells  has  also  been  determined  and 
demonstrated. 

Using  the  electron  microscope.  Dr.  Harry  E.  Morton,  of  the  depart- 
ment of  bacteriology  of  the  University  of  Pennsylvania  Medical 
School,  and  Dr.  Thomas  F.  Anderson,  of  R.  C.  A.  Research  Labora- 
tories were  able  to  demonstrate  that  in  at  least  one  instance  where 
chemical  reaction  is  induced  by  bacteria  this  reaction  takes  place 
"inside"  the  cells.  The  fact  that  diphtheria  bacilli  reduce  potassium 
tellurite  to  metallic  tellurium  has  been  known  for  some  time,  but 
whether  this  reaction  occurred  inside  the  cell  or  on  the  cell  surface 
or  both  had  never  been  definitely  shown  until  the  electron  microscope 
was  made  available.  Then,  obtaining  unstained  preparations  of 
C orynehacterium  di-phtheriae  grown  on  blood  infusion  agar,  Drs. 
Morton  and  Anderson  demonstrated  that  the  typical  polar  granules 
appear  as  dense  spherical  masses,  or  possibly  plates,  of  a  very  black 
color  and  that  in  unstained  preparations  of  this  same  Corynebacterium 
diphtherias  grown  on  potassium  tellurite  chocolate  agar,  not  only  the 
polar  granules  are  in  evidence  but  also  the  tiny  needlelike  crystals 
inside  the  cell  which  disappear  along  with  the  black  color  of  the  cell 
masses  when  a  drop  of  bromine  water  is  added  to  1  cc.  of  a  suspension 

619830 — 45 14 


200         ANNUAL  REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

of  the  cells  on  potassium  tellurite  chocolate  agar.  From  this  the 
experimenters  were  able  to  deduce  that  tellurium  metal  occurs  in  the 
form  of  needles  and  is  the  cause  of  the  black  color,  and  that  this  reac- 
tion occurs  within  the  cells  since  the  crystals  have  never  been  observed 
to  lie  totally  outside  the  cell  wall,  although  at  times  there  is  some 
distortion  of  the  wall. 

The  electron  microscope  also  affords  such  study  and  observation 
as  that  carried  out  by  Dr.  W.  M.  Stanley,  of  the  Rockefeller  Institute 
of  Medical  Research,  and  Dr.  Thomas  F.  Anderson  in  their  recent 
investigation  of  plant  viruses.  By  means  of  electron  micrographs, 
they  were  able  to  judge  the  exact  manner  and  extent  of  attack  made 
on  the  tobacco  mosaic  virus  by  the  protein  antibodies  in  the  blood 
stream  of  rabbits  in  which  an  artificial  immunity  to  the  virus  had  been 
produced. 

Structures  like  that  of  the  spirochete  of  Weil's  disease,  typhoid 
flagella,  unusual  internal  structure  of  pertussis  organisms,  tubercle 
bacilli,  the  isolation  and  recognition  of  the  influenza  virus,  the  spores 
of  trychophyton  mentagrophytes,  Spirochaeta  pallida  with  its  accom- 
panying flagellar  appendages,  and  colloidal  particles  are  but  a  few 
of  the  interesting  revelations  of  the  electron  microscope  for  medical 
science.  Industrial  science,  too,  has  found  this  new  research  tool  of 
great  value  in  the  study  of  metals,  alloys,  and  plastics,  as  well  as  in 
the  study  of  size,  shape,  and  distribution  of  particles  in  chemical  com- 
pounds and  elements. 

The  electron  microscope  herein  described  is  that  manufactured  by 
the  Radio  Corporation  of  America.  There  are,  of  course,  variations 
in  construction  of  the  different  instruments  of  this  kind  but  all  types 
are  built  along  similar  lines  and  upon  the  same  general  principles. 
In  the  electron  microscope  there  is  some  aberration  plus  the  additional 
disadvantages  of  having  the  specimen  in  a  vacuum,  not  to  mention  the 
probable  protoplasmic  changes  induced  by  the  terrific  bombardment 
of  electrons,  and  finally,  what  is  perhaps  the  greatest  disadvantage 
insofar  as  medical  science  is  concerned — that  of  being  unable  to  view 
living  organisms.  Nevertheless,  the  disadvantages  of  the  microscope 
are  far  overshadowed  by  its  increased  resolving  and  magnification 
powers  which  have  combined  to  make  it  an  invaluable  research  tool. 

RESOLUTION  AND  MAGNIFICATION  OF  ORDINARY  MICROSCOPE 

We  have  stated  that  the  resolving  power  of  the  ordinary  light 
microscope  is  restricted  to  between  1,600  and  2,500  diameters  and 
that  of  the  ordinary  ultramicroscope  to  between  2,500  and  5,000 
diameters,  resolution  in  any  microscope  being  the  ability  of  the  in- 
strument to  reveal  the  most  minute  of  component  parts  of  a  specimen 
so  that  each  may  be  seen  as  a  distinct  and  separate  image.    For  in- 


NEW    MICROSCOPES — SEIDEL   AND   WINTER  201 

stance,  let  us  suppose  an  object  is  examined  through  which  run  two 
very  fine  parallel  lines  closely  set  together.  If  the  two  lines  are  visible 
under  the  microscope  and  are  revealed  as  two  separate  images,  then, 
apparently,  no  limit  of  resolution  has  been  reached;  but  if  the  two 
lines  are  merged  or  revealed  as  only  one,  and  upon  further  magnifica- 
tion the  image  merely  becomes  enlarged  without  separation  of  the 
lines,  then  a  limit  of  resolution  apparently  has  been  reached  and  ad- 
ditional magnification  would  constitute  only  enlargement.  Assum- 
ing now  that  the  object  is  a  point  object  in  which  case  the  images  of 
the  points  would  be  diffraction  disks,  the  disks  should  likewise  be 
sufficiently  resolved  so  that  each  may  be  distinguished  as  a  single 
image.  If,  when  these  disks  are  seen  to  overlap,  additional  magnifica- 
tion fails  to  extend  the  distance  between  them,  their  size  simply  in- 
creasing in  proportion  to  the  increase  of  magnification,  or,  if  they  are 
all  but  completely  merged  and  the  image  becomes  just  a  spurious  disk 
of  light,  it  is  evident  that  a  definite  limit  of  resolution  has  been  at- 
tained and  that  further  magnification  would  be  useless.  Resolution, 
in  a  broad  sense,  then,  is  the  ability  of  the  microscope  to  bring  out  or 
reveal  internal  structure  and  detail  of  a  specimen,  the  shortest  dis- 
tance it  is  possible  to  separate  two  component  parts,  according  to 
Abbe,  being  not  less  than  the  wave  length  of  light  by  which  the 
specimen  is  illuminated  divided  by  the  numerical  aperture  of  the 
objective  lens  plus  the  numerical  aperture  of  the  condenser  lens,  or 
about  one-third  the  wave  length  of  light  utilized. 

The  several  factors  which  are  generally  acknowledged  to  be  re- 
sponsible for  the  limitation  of  resolving  power  are  interrelated.  Now 
when  light  passes  from  one  medium  into  another  of  different  density — 
in  the  instance  which  we  are  considering  that  of  light  refracted  by  the 
specimen  and  passing  from  air  into  glass — the  light  rays  are  deviated 
from  their  straight-line  course;  that  is  to  say,  when  they  come  to 
within  a  very  short  distance  of  this  denser  medium,  they  are  acted  upon 
by  a  very  powerful  force  in  such  a  manner  that  they  execute  a  short, 
rapidly  curving  motion,  or  an  angle,  and  are  pulled  into  the  medium  of 
greater  density.  Wlien  the  rays  of  light  undergo  such  a  force,  the 
momentum  of  the  corpuscles  is  increased  and  the  speed  of  the  waves 
decreased,  resulting,  of  course,  in  a  shortening  of  the  wave  lengths. 
Here,  again,  we  may  make  use  of  the  second  of  the  rules  of  correlation — 
"Momentum  (of  corpuscles)  varies  inversely  as  wavelength  (of 
waves)."  Once  well  inside  the  new  medium,  however,  the  light  rays 
straighten  themselves  out  again  (unless  the  medium  is  so  constructed 
that  it  possesses  gradation  of  density,  in  which  case  they  follow  a  curved 
path).  They  do  this  in  spite  of  the  fact  that  the  same  forces  are  still 
acting  upon  them,  although  now  these  forces  issue  from  all  sides  of 
them  and  so  cancel  each  other  out,  the  momentum  of  the  photons  or 


202  ANNUAL   REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

light  corpuscles  continuing  to  increase  while  the  speed  of  the  waves  is 
proportionately  retarded.  If  the  light  is  refracted  normally  to  the 
surface,  however,  it  does  not  bend,  but  tends  to  cause  a  shortening  of 
tile  optical  path  although  the  wave  length  is  shortened  regardless.  It 
is  only  w^hen  it  is  refracted  obliquely  to  the  surface  that  the  light  is 
bent,  the  greater  the  obliquity  of  the  incident  ray  and  the  denser 
the  medium,  the  greater  the  bending  of  the  angle  of  the  cone  of  light 
and  the  shorter  the  wave  length.  It  might  therefore  seem  desirable  to 
obtain  as  great  an  angle  of  refraction  as  possible.  However,  shorten- 
ing of  the  wave  length  is  not  in  exact  proportion  to  the  amount  of 
bending  except  in  the  case  of  the  diffraction  grating.  And  regardless 
of  how  great  a  change  there  is  in  its  angle,  the  numerical  aperture  of 
the  light,  or  angular  aperture  as  it  is  more  properly  called,  remains 
constant. 

In  order,  then,  that  the  cone  of  light  be  large  enough  to  supply  the 
aperture  of  the  objective  with  sufficient  light  to  produce  an  accurate, 
bright,  and  enlarged  image  of  the  specimen,  it  is  first  necessary  that 
the  specimen  be  refracting  or  emitting  light  of  an  adequate  quantity, 
since  both  magnification  and  resolution  are  largely  dependent  upon  the 
amount  of  light  which  the  objective  utilizes  and  receives  into  the  tube 
of  the  microscope  and  since  such  light  as  the  objective  does  receive 
should  be  only  that  emitted  by  the  specimen.  It  is  obvious,  therefore, 
that  it  is  of  primary  importance  for  the  specimen  itself  to  be  amply 
illuminated.  This  would  seem  to  depend  entirely  on  the  actual  light 
source,  yet  no  matter  how  powerful  a  light  source  is  employed,  it  is  of 
little  avail  unless  the  condenser  is  of  sufficient  quality  and  aperture 
dimensions  to  accommodate  the  light  which  it  receives  from  the  source. 
If,  for  instance,  the  numerical  aperture  of  the  objective  is  1.25,  the 
width  of  the  cone  of  light  emanating  from  the  specimen  shotild  com- 
pletely fill  this  aperture  in  order  for  the  fullest  powers  of  the  micro- 
scope to  be  realized.  Now,  since  the  condenser  supplies  the  light  to  the 
specimen,  it  stands  to  reason  that  it,  also,  should  have  a  numerical 
aperture  of  at  least  1.25.  However,  if  the  condenser  and  specimen 
slide  are  separated  by  air,  the  condenser  can  provide  light  of  only 
1.00  N.  A.  to  the  specimen  since,  according  to  a  law  of  optics,  no  aper- 
ture greater  than  1.00  N.  A.  (this  being  the  refractive  index  of  air), 
can  pass  from  a  denser  medium  into  air.  To  remedy  this  situation, 
an  immersion  fluid  is  placed  between  the  top  of  the  condenser  and  the 
lower  side  of  the  specimen  slide  as  well  as  between  the  specimen  and 
the  objective  lens. 

Since  no  optical  medium  has  an  index  of  refraction  greater  than 
3  and  no  immersion  fluid  an  index  of  refraction  greater  than  1.7,  to 
increase  resolving  power  further,  then,  might  it  not  be  feasible  to 
widen  the  apertures  of  the  objective  and  condenser  lenses,  thus  afford- 


NEW    MICROSCOPES — SEIDEL   AND   WINTER  203 

ing  additional  illumination  for  utilization  by  both  specimen  and  objec- 
tive? This  idea  would  be  entirely  practical  except  for  the  fact  that 
such  enlargement  of  the  lenses  would  increase  aberration,  both  spher- 
ical and  chromatic,  and  apparently  present-day  lenses  are  now  as  highly 
corrected  as  it  is  possible  for  human  ingenuity  and  skillful  workman- 
ship to  make  them.  Spherical  aberration,  caused  by  the  paraxial  rays 
coming  to  a  focus  at  the  center  of  the  lens  before  those  rays  near  the 
principal  axis,  is  corrected  by  using  concave  and  convex  lenses  of 
different  material  and,  consequently,  of  different  refractive  index.  In 
this  manner  spherical  aberration  of  a  convex  lens,  for  instance,  can  be 
overcome,  without  its  converging  action  being  altered,  by  adding  to 
the  optical  system  a  concave  lens  in  which  there  is  an  equal  and  oppo- 
site aberration.  Chromatic  aberration,  occurring  when  more  than 
one  wave  length  of  light  is  used  to  illuminate  the  specimen,  is  due  to  the 
fact  that  the  shortest  waves  of  the  spectrum  are  refracted  most  and 
the  longest  waves  least,  thus  causing  the  blue-violet  waves  to  come  to 
a  focus  ahead  of  the  red  waves  and  resulting  in  a  series  of  colored  foci 
all  along  the  axis.  Now  since,  as  we  have  said,  the  shortening  of  the 
different  groups  of  wave  lengths  is  not  in  exact  proportion  to  their 
bending  and  since  this  circumstance  varies  according  to  the  substance 
the  light  rays  pass  through,  it  is  possible  to  combine  lenses  or  lens 
systems  in  such  a  way  that  white  light  may  be  obtained.  For  instance, 
a  small  concave  flint-glass  prism  produces  the  same  amount  of  dis- 
persion as  a  large  convex  crown-glass  prism.  Thus,  if  these  two  prisms 
are  placed  with  their  edges  opposite,  the  crown  glass  will  bring  together 
the  spectrum  produced  by  the  flint  glass  and  white  light  will  be  the 
result.  However,  the  rays  of  white  light  will  not  extend  parallel  with 
the  original  direction  but  will  bend  toward  the  base  of  the  crown  glass 
since  the  mean  refraction  of  the  crown  glass  is  greater  than  that  of  the 
flint  glass.  Achromatic  objectives,  corrected  spherically  for  one  color, 
chromatically  for  two ;  semiapochromatic  objectives,  possessing  moder- 
ate refractive  indices  and  very  small  dispersion,  in  which  a  lens  of 
fluorite  is  substituted  for  one  of  the  glass  lenses;  apochromatic  objec- 
tives, corrected  spherically  for  two  colors,  chromatically  for  three ;  and 
also  certain  monochromatic  lenses  for  use  with  light  of  one  wave 
length  only  are  available  for  overcoming,  at  least  in  part,  one  of  the 
conditions  which  tends  to  interfere  with  better  resolution.  Con- 
densers, also,  can  be  corrected  for  both  spherical  and  chromatic  aber- 
ration and  must  be  achromatic-aplanatic  if  the  light  which  enters  the 
objective  is  to  come  only  from  the  specimen,  for  condensers  with  spher- 
ical and  chromatic  aberration  are  unable  to  direct  their  entire  cone  of 
light  upon  the  specimen. 

In  addition  to  being  as  highly  corrected  as  possible  and  possessing  a 
large  numerical  aperture,  an  objective  should  also  be  capable  of  ade- 


204         ANNUAL   REPORT   SMITHSONIAN   INSTITUTION,    1944 

quately  magnifying  the  image,  being  aided  in  this  by  the  ocular  which 
also  serves  at  times  to  compensate  for  the  defects  in  chromatic  magnifi- 
cation which  cannot  be  managed  conveniently  by  high-power  objec- 
tives, the  magnification  of  the  final  image  being  the  product  of  the 
magnification  of  the  objective  multiplied  by  the  magnification  of  the 
ocular.  An  amplifier  is  sometimes  inserted  between  the  objective  and 
ocular  which  causes  the  rays  of  light  from  the  objective  to  diverge  to 
a  greater  extent,  thus  doubling  the  size  of  the  image.  Magnification 
may  also  be  improved  by  increasing  the  tube  length,  by  increasing  the 
distance  from  which  the  image  is  projected,  and  by  altering  the  posi- 
tions of  the  various  lenses  in  an  adjustable  objective.  In  general,  the 
greater  the  magnification,  the  smaller  will  be  the  specimen  field,  but, 
as  has  been  stressed,  high  powers  of  magnification  should  always  be 
accompanied  by  equally  high  powers  of  resolution. 

As  we  have  seen,  resolution  in  the  ordinary  light  microscope  is 
definitely  restricted  by  a  number  of  interrelated  elements.  Even  when 
monochromatic  light  is  employed,  there  is  always  present  some  spheri- 
cal aberration  with  which  to  contend.  True,  better  visibility  of  speci- 
mens is  provided  by  dark-field  microscopy  in  which  the  specimen  is 
viewed  by  the  high  contrast  of  its  own  scattered  or  reflected  light 
against  a  dark  field,  although  in  this  type  of  illumination  objects  in 
the  field  must  be  well  separated.  Much  fine  detail  and  brilliant  color 
of  specimens  can  be  observed  by  means  of  the  polarization  of  light. 
Further,  it  is  possible  to  illuminate  the  specimen  with  shorter  and 
shorter  wave  lengths  of  light,  the  shorter  the  wave  length  of  light  used, 
the  more  of  the  fine  detail  of  the  specimen  which  can  be  seen,  but  a 
limit  is  reached  here,  also,  for  ordinary  glass  lenses  are  not  transparent 
to  ultraviolet  rays.  However,  in  the  ultraviolet  microscope,  having  a 
resolution  twice  that  of  the  instruments  using  "visible  light,"  the  con- 
denser, objective,  and  ocular  are  all  made  of  quartz  and,  by  substituting 
the  photographic  plate  for  direct  observation,  many  excellent  micro- 
graphs of  numerous  varieties  of  organisms  and  cellular  structures  can 
be  made.  But  when  viewed  directly,  nothing  of  the  nature  or  struc- 
ture of  the  specimen  can  be  ascertained ;  only  the  light  scattered  by  the 
specimen  is  distinguishable,  the  size  of  the  specimen  being  roughly 
estimated  by  the  amount  of  light  refracted. 

These  seemingly  unsurmountable  obstacles  of  the  ordinary  micro- 
scopes would  appear  to  indicate  that  Abbe's  law  and  the  contention  of 
physicists  that  "any  object  which  is  smaller  than  one-half  the  wave 
length  of  light  by  which  it  is  illuminated  cannot  be  seen  in  its  true  form 
or  detail"  are  destined  to  remain  undefied. 

REDUCTION  IN  THEORETICAL  LIMIT  OF  RESOLUTION  DEMONSTRATED 

But  Dr.  Francis  F.  Lucas,  of  the  Bell  Telephone  Research  Labora- 
tories, and  Drs.  Louis  Caryl  Graton  and  E.  C.  Dane,  Jr.,  of  the  depart- 


NEW    MICROSCOPES — SEIDEL  AND   WINTER  205 

ment  of  geology,  Harvard  University,  have  very  convincingly  demon- 
strated a  reduction  in  these  theoretical  limits  of  resolution  and  visibility 
with  their  instruments,  designed  for  use  in  the  visible  light  region  of 
the  spectrum. 

The  Graton-Dane  microscope  is  mounted  on  a  360-kg.  steel  founda- 
tion bed  which,  in  turn,  is  supported  by  six  rubber-in-sheer  marine- 
engine  mountings — this  for  the  purpose  of  eliminating  all  vibration 
and  insuring  stability  of  parts,  two  factors  upon  which  both  men  have 
laid  great  stress.  Any  type  source,  such  as  the  carbon  arc,  metallic  arc, 
incandescent  filament,  Point-0-Lite,  mercury  vapor,  or  any  of  the 
special  forms  of  monochromators,  can  be  used  for  illuminating  the 
specimen  with  direct  and  dark-field  transmitted,  vertical  and  oblique 
reflected,  or  polarized  light.  The  image  beam  itself  follows  a  straight- 
line  path  in  passing  from  the  objective,  the  objective  ranging  anywhere 
from  the  shortest  to  the  greatest  in  working  distance,  through  the  tube 
to  the  ocular,  as  few  lenses  as  possible  being  placed  in  its  way.  The 
spiral-cut  rack  and  pinion  which  moves  the  stage  and  substage  assem- 
bly in  longitudinal  tracks  or  guides  can  be  operated  by  hand  or  by  an 
electric  motor  and  is  independent  of  the  fine  adjustment,  also  motor- 
driven,  which  moves  only  the  objective  and  the  carriage  carrying  the 
objective.  Whereas  manual  operation  of  the  fine  adjustment  which  is 
100  times  more  sensitive  than  that  of  the  ordinary  instruments  neces- 
sitates 500  turns  of  the  knob  to  move  the  objective  a  distance  of  but 
1  millimeter  (an  adjustment  calculated  to  require  a  time  period  of 
25  minutes) ,  by  means  of  the  motor  it  is  possible  to  move  the  objective 
at  the  rate  of  0.01  nmi.  per  second  or  0.004  mm.  per  second,  depending 
upon  which  of  the  two  speeds  is  desired,  rapid  motion  being  used  when 
the  image  appears  considerably  out  of  focus  and  decreased  speed  being 
used  when  the  image  seems  to  be  reaching  a  point  of  perfection.^ 

Kesolution  up  to  6,000  diameters  and  magnification  up  to  50,000 
diameters  have  been  achieved  with  this  high-precision  microscope 
which  photographs  or  enables  observation  of  both  opaque  and  trans- 
parent preparations;  in  fact,  polishing  scratches  measuring  in  width 
but  one-tenth  the  wave  length  of  light  used  have  been  clearly  distin- 

'  The  mechanism  governing  the  fine  adjustment  was  completely  redesigned  after  It  was 
discovered  that  changes  in  the  lubricant,  used  for  gear  threads  and  carriage  bearings, 
seriously  affected  the  precision  of  the  instrument.  Using  a  principle  suggested  to  him  by 
R.  W.  Vose,  formerly  of  the  Harvard  Engineering  School,  Dr.  Dane  built  and  assembled 
a  new  fine-adjustment  drive  so  designed  that,  as  Dr.  Graton  describes  it,  "all  that  part 
of  the  mechanism  which  actuates  the  slowest,  and  therefore  the  most  sensitive,  part 
of  the  motion  operates  not  through  gears  or  screws,  but  through  the  diCTerential  flexing  of  a 
train  of  spring-bronze  strips,  which  have  the  double  advantage  of  avoiding  all  chance  for 
play  or  bacltlash  and  of  needing  no  lubrication  whatever.  Interferometer  tests  with  the 
new  element  in  place  give  practically  ideal  readings  as  compared  with  the  theoretical : 
the  deviations  are  very  much  smaller  than  those  recorded  in  our  original  paper,  page  372. 
The  operation  of  the  fine-focusing  mechanism  selectively  by  hand  knob  or  by  motor-drive, 
and  the  slowness  of  motion,  and  hence  the  precise  control  over  focus  are  the  same  in  the 
new  design  as  in  the  old." 


206  ANNUAL   REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

guislied.  It  is  the  opinion  of  both  Dr.  Graton  and  Dr.  Dane  that 
some  present-day  lenses  are  really  capable  of  better  resolution  than 
claimed  for  them  by  their  manufacturers,  it  having  been  their  experi- 
ence to  use  objectives  exhibiting  superior  qualities  of  resolution  over 
those  of  identical  medium  and  numerical  aperture,  proving  that  not 
only  have  already  available  lenses  surpassed  their  theoretical  limits  of 
resolution,  indicating  that  it  might  be  possible  to  design  objectives 
with  still  greater  numerical  apertures,  but  that  the  accepted  theory 
regarding  this  resolution  is  sadly  in  need  of  revision.  Dr.  Lucas's 
microscope  utilizing  an  objective  with  a  numerical  aperture  of  1.60,  for 
instance,  in  combination  with  monobromnaphalene  immersion  fluid, 
also  yields  resolution  up  to  6,000  diameters  being,  like  the  Graton- 
Dane  scope,  a  high-precision  instrument  constructed  with  the  idea  of 
maintaining  absolute  stability  of  parts.  Dr.  Lucas  also  has  expressed 
doubt  as  to  the  complete  validity  of  the  generally  accepted  theory  of 
resolution. 

In  working  with  a  high-precision  ultraviolet  microcamera,  into 
which  a  tricolor  filter  system  has  been  incorporated,  which  he  has  just 
recently  perfected.  Dr.  Lucas  is  able  to  obtain  a  minimum  magnifica- 
tion of  30,000  diameters  and  a  maximum  magnification  of  60,000  diam- 
eters. With  this  instrument  it  is  possible  to  view  living  cells  and 
organisms,  no  staining  or  killing  of  organisms  being  necessary,  and 
Dr.  Lucas  has  succeeded  in  obtaining  excellent  photomicrographs 
(both  still  and  motion  pictures).  Of  special  significance  to  industry, 
for  instance,  is  the  ability  of  this  scope  to  demonstrate  the  size,  shape, 
and  reactions  in  motion  and  affinity  of  the  tiny  particles  of  which 
rubber  is  composed  under  varying  conditions  of  temperature,  etc., 
while  its  ability  to  reveal  living  rat  and  mouse  sarcoma  and  carcinoma 
cells  and  to  demonstrate  the  development  and  behavior  of  the  syphilitic 
organism  is  of  far  more  than  average  interest  to  medical  science. 

England's  Dr.  J.  E.  Barnard  has  succeeded  in  obtaining  resolution 
up  to  7,500  diameters  with  his  ultra-dark-field  scope  in  which  he  uses  a 
combined  illuminator.  In  this,  an  outer  system  of  glass  acts  as  the 
immersion  dark-field  illuminator  while  the  inner  immersion  system  of 
quartz  makes  possible  the  passage  of  a  transmitted  beam  of  light 
through  the  specimen.  Both  condensers  have  the  same  focus,  one  for 
visible  light,  the  other  for  ultraviolet  radiation,  and  both  can  be 
stopped  out  at  will.  When,  for  instance,  bacteria  are  being  observed, 
immersion  contact  is  made  between  the  condenser  and  quartz  slide, 
the  dark-field  illuminator  being  used,  thus  revealing  the  bacteria  with 
visible  light.  When  the  dark-field  illuminator  is  closed,  however,  a 
beam  of  ultraviolet  light  may  be  directed  up  through  the  quartz  con- 
denser and  focused  on  the  bacteria.  The  object-glass,  of  course,  has 
to  be  adjusted  since  it  does  not  possess  the  same  focus  for  ultraviolet 


NEW    MICROSCOPES — SEIDEL  AND   WINTER  207 

that  it  does  for  visible  light.  Staining  of  specimens  is  thus  unneces- 
sary, making  it  possible  to  secure  photomicrographs  of  living  minute 
organisms. 

In  addition  to  these  four  microscopes,  a  fourth,  belonging  to  the 
Canadian  Department  of  Mines  and  located  at  Ottawa,  and  almost 
identical  in  principle  and  construction  to  that  of  Drs,  Dane  and 
Graton,  has  demonstrated  ability  to  attain  equally  high  resolution. 
This,  like  the  scopes  of  Drs.  Dane,  Graton,  and  Lucas,  is  fitted 
with  a  tube  for  visual  observation  although  intended  mainly  for 
microphotographical  work  in  the  field  of  metallurgy.  It  is  Dr. 
Graton's  belief,  however,  that  his  instrument  and  that  of  Dr.  Dane 
might  also  be  adaptable  to  the  purposes  of  biological  research.  Re- 
ferring, in  the  description  of  their  "Precision,  All  Purpose  Micro- 
camera"  (Journ.  Opt.  Soc.  Amer.),  to  the  necessity  or  "desirability"  of 
"reexamining  the  classical  conception  of  the  limit  of  useful  magnifi- 
cation," Drs.  Dane  and  Graton  have  this  to  say : 

So  long  as  the  makers  accepted  the  conventional  limit  as  valid  and  had  already 
attained  it,  there  was  little  incentive  toward  progress.  But  with  that  limit 
apparently  surpassed,  there  is  no  present  linowledge  as  to  how  far  ahead  the 
true  limit  may  lie.  If  present-day  objectives  do  substantially  better  than  the 
"limit"  for  which  they  were  designed,  is  it  not  reasonable  to  suppose  that  effort 
to  do  better  still  may  conceivably  be  rewarded? 

To  such  an  inquiry  there  can  be  but  one  logical  answer — an  agree- 
ment which,  while  perhaps  not  concurred  in  by  all,  must,  for  those 
stimulated  to  more  intense  interest  and  effort  by  the  possibilities  of 
uncovering  new  facts,  pose  further  questions ;  for,  if  the  improvement 
of  one  part  results  in  the  improved  performance  of  the  whole,  is  it  not 
also  reasonable  to  suppose  that  additional  changes  of  additional  parts, 
yes,  even  changes  with  respect  to  principle  and  method  might  likewise 
bear  fruit? 

THE  UNIVERSAL  MICROSCOPE 

It  is  not  only  a  reasonable  supposition,  but  already,  in  one  instance, 
a  very  successful  and  highly  commendable  achievement  on  the  part  of 
Dr.  Royal  Raymond  Rife  of  San  Diego,  Calif.,  who,  for  many  years, 
has  built  and  worked  with  light  microscopes  which  far  surpass  the 
theoretical  limitations  of  the  ordinary  variety  of  instrument,  all  the 
Rife  scopes  possessing  superior  ability  to  attain  high  magnification 
with  accompanying  high  resolution.  The  largest  and  most  powerful 
of  these,  the  universal  microscope,  developed  in  1933,  consists  of  5,682 
parts  and  is  so  called  because  of  its  adaptability  in  all  fields  of  micro- 
scopical work,  being  fully  equipped  with  separate  substage  condenser 
units  for  transmitted  and  monochromatic  beam,  dark-field,  polarized, 
and  slit-ultra  illumination,  including  also  a  special  device  for  crystal- 
lography.   The  entire  optical  system  of  lenses  and  prisms  as  well  as 


208         ANNUAL  REPORT  SMITHSONIAN   INSTITUTION,    1944 

the  illuminating  units  are  made  of  block-crystal  quartz,  quartz  being 
especially  transparent  to  ultraviolet  radiations. 

The  illuminating  unit  used  for  examining  the  filterable  forms  of 
disease  organisms  contains  14  lenses  and  prisms,  3  of  which  are  in  the 
high-intensity  incandescent  lamp,  4  in  the  Risley  prism,  and  7  in  the 
achromatic  condenser  which,  incidentally,  has  a  numerical  aperture 
of  1.40.  Between  the  source  of  light  and  the  specimen  are  subtended 
two  circular,  wedge-shaped,  block-crystal  quartz  prisms  for  the  pur- 
pose of  polarizing  the  light  passing  through  the  specimen,  polarization 
being  the  practical  application  of  the  theory  that  light  waves  vibrate  in 
all  planes  perpendicular  to  the  direction  in  which  they  are  propagated. 
Therefore,  when  light  comes  into  contact  with  a  polarizing  prism,  it 
is  divided  or  split  into  two  beams,  one  of  which  is  refracted  to  such  an 
extent  that  it  is  reflected  to  the  side  of  the  prism  without,  of  course, 
passing  through  the  prism  while  the  second  ray,  bent  considerably  less, 
is  thus  enabled  to  pass  through  the  prism  to  illuminate  the  specimen. 
When  the  quartz  prisms  on  the  universal  microscope,  which  may  be 
rotated  with  vernier  control  through  360°,  are  rotated  in  opposite 
directions,  they  serve  to  bend  the  transmitted  beams  of  light  at  variable 
angles  of  incidence  while,  at  the  same  time,  a  spectrum  is  projected 
up  into  the  axis  of  the  microscope,  or  rather  a  small  portion  of  a  spec- 
trum since  only  a  part  of  a  band  of  color  is  visible  at  any  one  time. 
However,  it  is  possible  to  proceed  in  this  way  from  one  end  of  the  spec- 
trum to  the  other,  going  all  the  way  from  the  infrared  to  the  ultra- 
violet. Now,  when  that  portion  of  the  spectrum  is  reached  in  which 
both  the  organism  and  the  color  band  vibrate  in  exact  accord,  one  with 
the  other,  a  definite  characteristic  spectrum  is  emitted  by  the  organism. 
In  the  case  of  the  filter-passing  form  of  the  Bacillus  typhosus^  for 
instance,  a  blue  spectrum  is  emitted  and  the  plane  of  polarization 
deviated  plus  4.8°.  The  predominating  chemical  constituents  of  the 
organism  are  next  ascertained  after  which  the  quartz  prisms  are  ad- 
justed or  set,  by  means  of  vernier  control,  to  minus  4.8°  (again  in  the 
case  of  the  filter-passing  form  of  the  Bacillus  typhosus)  so  that  the 
opposite  angle  of  refraction  may  be  obtained.  A  monochromatic 
beam  of  light,  corresponding  exactly  to  the  frequency  of  the  organism 
(for  Dr.  Rife  has  found  that  each  disease  organism  responds  to  and 
has  a  definite  and  distinct  wave  length,  a  fact  confirmed  by  British 
medical  research  workers)  is  then  sent  up  through  the  specimen  and 
the  direct  transmitted  light,  thus  enabling  the  observer  to  view  the 
organism  stained  in  its  true  chemical  color  and  revealing  its  own 
individual  structure  in  a  field  which  is  brilliant  with  light. 

The  objectives  used  on  the  universal  microscope  are  a  1.12  dry  lens, 
a  1.16  water  immersion,  a  1.18  oil  immersion,  and  a  1.25  oil  immersion. 
The  rays  of  light  refracted  by  the  specimen  enter  the  objective  and  are 


NEW    MICROSCOPES — SEIDEL  AND   WINTER  209 

then  carried  up  the  tube  in  parallel  rays  through  21  light  bends  to  the 
ocular,  a  tolerance  of  less  than  one  wave  length  of  visible  light  only 
being  permitted  in  the  core  beam,  or  chief  ray,  of  illumination.  Now, 
instead  of  the  liglit  rays  starting  up  the  tube  in  a  parallel  fashion, 
tending  to  converge  as  they  rise  higher  and  JBnally  crossing  each  other, 
arriving  at  the  ocular  separated  by  considerable  distance  as  would  be 
the  case  with  an  ordinary  microscope,  in  the  universal  tube  the  rays 
also  start  their  rise  parallel  to  each  other  but,  just  as  they  are  about  t» 
cross,  a  specially  designed  quartz  prism  is  inserted  which  serves  to 
pull  them  out  parallel  again,  another  prism  being  inserted  each  time 
the  rays  are  about  ready  to  cross.  These  prisms,  inserted  in  the  tube, 
which  are  adjusted  and  held  in  alignment  by  micrometer  screws  of  100 
threads  to  the  inch  in  special  tracks  made  of  magnelium  (magnelium 
having  the  closest  coefficient  of  expansion  of  any  metal  to  quartz),  are 
separated  by  a  distance  of  only  30  millimeters.  Thus,  the  greatest 
distance  that  the  image  in  the  universal  is  projected  through  any  one 
media,  either  quartz  or  air,  is  30  millimeters  instead  of  the  160,  180, 
or  190  millimeters  as  in  the  empty  or  air-filled  tube  of  an  ordinary 
microscope,  the  total  distance  which  the  light  rays  travel  zigzag  fashion 
through  the  universal  tube  being  449  millimeters,  although  the  physical 
length  of  the  tube  itself  is  229  millimeters.  It  will  be  recalled  that  if 
one  pierces  a  black  strip  ©f  paper  or  cardboard  with  the  point  of  a 
needle  and  then  brings  the  card  up  close  to  the  eye  so  that  the  hole  is 
in  the  optic  axis,  a  small  brilliantly  lighted  object  will  appear  larger 
and  clearer,  revealing  more  fine  detail,  than  if  it  were  viewed  from  the 
same  distance  without  the  assistance  of  the  card.  This  is  explained 
by  the  fact  that  the  beam  of  light  passing  through  the  card  is  very- 
narrow,  the  rays  entering  the  eye,  therefore,  being  practically  parallel, 
whereas  without  the  card  the  beam  of  light  is  much  wider  and  the 
diffusion  circles  much  larger.  It  is  tliis  principle  of  parallel  rays  in 
the  universal  microscope  and  the  resultant  shortening  of  projection 
distance  between  any  two  blocks  or  prisms  plus  the  fact  that  objectives 
can  thus  be  substituted  for  oculars,  these  "oculars"  being  three  matched 
pairs  of  10-millimeter,  7-millimeter,  and  4-millimeter  objectives  in 
short  mounts,  which  make  possible  not  only  the  unusually  high  mag- 
nification and  resolution  but  which  serve  to  eliminate  all  distortion  as 
well  as  all  chromatic  and  spherical  aberration. 

Quartz  slides  with  especially  thin  quartz  cover  glasses  are  used  when 
a  tissue  section  or  culture  slant  is  examined,  the  tissue  section  itself  also 
being  very  thin.  An  additional  observational  tube  and  ocular  which 
yield  a  magnification  of  1,800  diameters  are  provided  so  that  that  por- 
tion of  the  specimen  which  it  is  desired  should  be  examined  may  be 
located  and  so  that  the  observer  can  adjust  himself  more  readily  when 
viewing  a  section  at  a  high  magnification. 


210  ANNUAL   REPORT   SMITHSONIAN   INSTITUTION,    1944 

The  universal  stage  is  a  double  rotating  stage  graduated  through 
360°  in  quarter-minute  arc  divisions,  the  upper  segment  carrying 
the  mechanical  stage  having  a  movement  of  40°,  the  body  assembly 
which  can  be  moved  horizontally  over  the  condenser  also  having  an 
angular  tilt  of  40°  plus  or  minus.  Heavily  constructed  joints  and 
screw  adjustments  maintain  rigidity  of  the  microscope  which  weighs 
200  pounds  and  stands  24  inches  high,  the  bases  of  the  scope  being 
nickel  cast-steel  plates,  accurately  surfaced,  and  equipped  with  three 
leveling  screws  and  two  spirit  levels  set  at  angles  of  90°.  The  coarse 
adjustment,  a  block  thread  screw  with  40  threads  to  the  inch,  slides 
in  a  1^^  dovetail  which  gibs  directly  onto  the  pillar  post.  The  weight 
of  the  quadruple  nosepiece  and  the  objective  system  is  taken  care  of 
by  the  intermediate  adjustment  at  the  top  of  the  body  tube.  The 
stage,  in  conjunction  with  a  hydraulic  lift,  acts  as  a  lever  in  operating 
the  fine  adjustment.  A  6-gauge  screw  having  100  threads  to  the  inch 
is  worked  through  a  gland  into  a  hollow,  glycerine-filled  post,  the 
glycerine  being  displaced  and  replaced  at  will  as  the  screw  is  turned 
clockwise  or  anticlockwise,  allowing  a  5-to-l  ratio  on  the  lead  screw. 
This,  accordingly,  assures  complete  absence  of  drag  and  inertia.  The 
fine  adjustment  being  700  times  more  sensitive  than  that  of  ordinary 
microscopes,  the  length  of  time  required  to  focus  the  universal  ranges 
up  to  11/^  hours  which,  while  on  first  consideration,  may  seem  a  dis- 
advantage, is  after  all  but  a  slight  inconvenience  when  compared 
with  the  many  years  of  research  and  the  hundreds  of  thousands  of 
dollars  spent  and  being  spent  in  an  effort  to  isolate  and  to  look  upon 
disease-causing  organisms  in  their  true  form. 

Working  together  back  in  1931  and  using  one  of  the  smaller  Kife 
microscopes  having  a  magnification  and  resolution  of  17,000  diameters. 
Dr.  Rife  and  Dr.  Arthur  Isaac  Kendall,  of  the  department  of  bac- 
teriology of  Northwestern  University  Medical  School,  were  able  to 
observe  and  demonstrate  the  presence  of  the  filter-passing  forms  of 
Bacillus  typhosus.  An  agar  slant  culture  of  the  Rawlings  strain  of 
Bacillus  typhosus  was  first  prepared  by  Dr.  Kendall  and  inoculated 
into  6  cc.  of  "Kendall"  K  Medium,  a  medium  rich  in  protein  but  poor 
in  peptone  and  consisting  of  100  mg.  of  dried  hog  intestine  and  6  cc. 
of  tyrode  solution  (containing  neither  glucose  nor  glycerine)  which 
mixture  is  shaken  well  so  as  to  moisten  the  dried  intestine  powder 
and  then  sterilized  in  the  autoclave,  15  pounds  for  15  minutes,  altera- 
tions of  the  medium  being  frequently  necessary  depending  upon  the 
requirements  for  different  organisms.  Now,  after  a  period  of  18  hours 
in  this  K  Medium,  the  culture  was  passed  through  a  Berkefeld  "N" 
filter,  a  drop  of  the  filtrate  being  added  to  another  6  cc.  of  K  Medium 
and  incubated  at  37°  C.  Forty-eight  hours  later  this  same  process 
was  repeated,  the  "N"  filter  again  being  used,  after  which  it  was  noted 


NEW    MICROSCOPES — SEIDEL  AND   WINTER  211 

that  the  culture  no  longer  responded  to  peptone  medium,  growing  now 
only  in  the  protein  medium.  When  again,  within  24  hours,  the  culture 
was  passed  through  a  filter — the  finest  Berkefeld  "W"  filter,  a  drop 
of  the  filtrate  was  once  more  added  to  6  cc.  of  K  Medium  and  incubated 
at  37°  C,  a  period  of  3  days  elapsing  before  the  culture  was  transferred 
to  K  Medium  and  yet  another  3  days  before  a  new  culture  was  pre- 
pared. Then,  viewed  under  an  ordinary  microscope,  these  cultures 
were  observed  to  be  turbid  and  to  reveal  no  bacilli  whatsoever.  Wlien 
viewed  by  means  of  dark-field  illumination  and  oil-immersion  lens, 
however,  the  presence  of  small,  actively  motile  granules  was  estab- 
lished, although  nothing  at  all  of  their  individual  structure  could  be 
ascertained.  Another  period  of  4  days  was  allowed  to  elapse  before 
these  cultures  were  transferred  to  K  Medium  and  incubated  at  37°  C. 
for  24  hours  when  they  were  then  examined  under  the  Rife  microscope 
where,  as  was  mentioned  earlier,  the  filterable  typhoid  bacilli,  emitting 
a  blue  spectrum,  caused  the  plane  of  polarization  to  be  deviated  plus 
4.8°.  Then  when  the  opposite  angle  of  refraction  was  obtained  by 
means  of  adjusting  the  polarizing  prisms  to  minus  4.8°  and  the  cultures 
illuminated  by  a  monochromatic  beam  coordinated  in  frequency  with 
the  chemical  constituents  of  the  typhoid  bacillus,  small,  oval,  actively 
motile,  bright  turquoise-blue  bodies  were  observed  at  a  magnification 
of  5,000  diameters,  in  high  contrast  to  the  colorless  and  motionless 
debris  of  the  medium.  These  observations  were  repeated  eight  times, 
the  complete  absence  of  these  bodies  in  uninoculated  control  K  Media 
also  being  noted. 

To  further  confirm  their  findings,  Drs.  Rife  and  Kendall  next 
examined  18-hour-old  cultures  which  had  been  inoculated  into  K 
Medium  and  incubated  at  37°  C,  since  it  is  just  at  this  stage  of  growth 
in  this  medium  and  at  this  temperature  that  the  cultures  become 
filterable.  And,  just  as  had  been  anticipated,  ordinary  dark-field  ex- 
amination revealed  unchanged,  long,  actively  motile  bacilli;  bacilli 
having  granules  within  their  substance;  and  free-swimming,  actively 
motile  granules;  while  under  the  Rife  microscope  were  demonstrated 
the  same  long,  unchanged,  almost  colorless  bacilli ;  bacilli,  practically 
colorless,  inside  and  at  one  end  of  which  was  a  turquoise-blue  granule 
resembling  the  filterable  forms  of  the  typhoid  bacillus ;  and  free-swim- 
ming, small,  oval,  actively  motile,  turquoise-blue  granules.  By  trans- 
planting the  cultures  of  the  filter-passing  organisms  or  virus  into  a 
broth,  they  were  seen  to  change  over  again  into  their  original  rodlike 
forms. 

At  the  same  time  that  these  findings  of  Drs.  Rife  and  Kendall  were 
confirmed  by  Dr.  Edward  C.  Rosenow,  of  the  Mayo  Foundation,  the 
magnification  with  accompanying  resolution  of  8,000  diameters  of  the 
Rife  microscope,  operated  by  Dr.  Rife,  was  checked  against  a  dark- 


212  ANNUAL  REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

field  oil-immersion  scope  operated  by  Dr.  Kendall  and  an  ordinary 
2-mm.  oil-immersion  objective,  X  10  ocular,  Zeiss  scope  operated  by 
Dr.  Kosenow  at  a  magnification  of  900  diameters.  Examinations  of 
gram-  and  safranin-stained  films  of  cultures  of  Bacillus  typhosus^ 
gram-  and  safranin-stained  films  of  cultures  of  the  streptococcus  from 
poliomyelitis,  and  stained  films  of  blood  and  of  the  sediment  of  the 
spinal  fluid  from  a  case  of  acute  poliomyelitis  were  made  with  the 
result  that  bacilli,  streptococci,  erythrocytes,  polymorphonuclear 
leukocytes,  and  lymphocytes  measuring  nine  times  the  diameter  of  the 
same  specimens  observed  under  the  Zeiss  scope  at  a  magnification  and 
resolution  of  900  diameters,  were  revealed  with  unusual  clarity.  Seen 
under  the  dark-field  microscope  were  moving  bodies  presumed  to  be 
the  filterable  turquoise-blue  bodies  of  the  typhoid  bacillus  which,  as 
Dr.  Kosenow  has  declared  in  his  report  (Observations  on  filter-passing 
forms  of  Eherthella  typhi — Bacillus  typhosus — and  of  the  streptococ- 
cus from  poliomyelitis,  Proc.  Staff  Meetings  Mayo  Clinic,  July  13, 
1932) ,  were  so  "unmistakably  demonstrated"  with  the  Rife  microscope, 
while  under  the  Zeiss  scope  stained  and  hanging-drop  preparations  of 
clouded  filtrate  cultures  were  found  to  be  uniformly  negative.  With 
the  Rife  microscope  also  were  demonstrated  brownish-gray  cocci  and 
diplococci  in  hanging-drop  preparations  of  the  filtrates  of  strepto- 
coccus from  poliomyelitis.  These  cocci  and  diplococci,  similar  in  size 
and  shape  to  those  seen  in  the  cultures  although  of  more  uniform  in- 
tensity, and  characteristic  of  the  medium  in  which  they  had  been 
cultivated,  were  surrounded  by  a  clear  halo  about  twice  the  width  of 
that  at  the  margins  of  the  debris  and  of  the  Bacillus  typhosus.  Stained 
films  of  filtrates  and  filtrate  sediments  examined  under  the  Zeiss  micro- 
scope, and  hanging-drop,  dark-field  preparations  revealed  no  organ- 
isms, however.  Brownish-gray  cocci  and  diplococci  of  the  exact  same 
size  and  density  as  those  observed  in  the  filtrates  of  the  streptococcus 
cultures  were  also  revealed  in  hanging-drop  preparations  of  the  virus 
of  poliomyelitis  under  the  Rife  microscope,  while  no  organisms  at  all 
could  be  seen  in  either  the  stained  films  of  filtrates  and  filtrate  sedi- 
ments examined  with  the  Zeiss  scope  or  in  hanging-drop  prepara- 
tions examined  by  means  of  the  dark-field.  Again  using  the  Rife 
microscope  at  a  magnification  of  8,000  diameters,  numerous  nonmotile 
cocci  and  diplococci  of  a  bright-to-pale  pink  in  color  were  seen  in 
hanging-drop  preparations  of  filtrates  of  Herpes  encephalitic  virus. 
Although  these  were  observed  to  be  comparatively  smaller  than  the 
cocci  and  diplococci  of  the  streptococcus  and  poliomyelitic  viruses, 
they  were  shown  to  be  of  fairly  even  density,  size,  and  form  and  sur- 
rounded by  a  halo.  Again,  both  the  dark-field  and  Zeiss  scopes  failed  to 
reveal  any  organisms,  and  none  of  the  three  microscopes  disclosed  the 


NEW    MICROSCOPES — SEIDEL  AND   WINTER  213 

presence  of  such  diplococci  in  hanging-drop  preparations  of  the  filtrate 
of  a  normal  rabbit  brain.  Dr.  Rosenow  has  since  revealed  these  organ- 
isms with  the  ordinary  microscope  at  a  magnification  of  1,000  diam- 
eters by  means  of  his  special  staining  method  and  with  the  electron 
microscope  at  a  magnification  of  12,000  diameters.  Dr.  Rosenow  has 
expressed  the  opinion  that  the  inability  to  see  these  and  other  similarly 
revealed  organisms  is  due,  not  necessarily  to  the  minuteness  of  the 
organisms,  but  rather  to  the  fact  that  they  are  of  a  nonstaining,  hyaline 
structure.  Results  with  the  Rife  microscopes,  he  thinks,  are  due  to 
the  "ingenious  methods  employed  rather  than  to  excessively  high 
magnification."  He  has  declared  also,  in  the  report  mentioned  pre- 
viously, that  "Examination  under  the  Rife  microscope  of  specimens 
containing  objects  visible  with  the  ordinary  microscope,  leaves  no 
doubt  of  the  accurate  visualization  of  objects  or  particulate  matter  by 
direct  observation  at  the  extremely  high  magnification  obtained  with 
this  instrument." 

Exceedingly  high  powers  of  magnification  with  accompanying  high 
powers  of  resolution  may  be  realized  with  all  of  the  Rife  microscopes, 
one  of  which,  having  magnification  and  resolution  up  to  18,000  diam- 
eters, is  now  being  used  at  the  British  School  of  Tropical  Medicine  in 
England.  In  a  recent  demonstration  of  another  of  the  smaller  Rife 
scopes  (May  16,  1942)  before  a  group  of  doctors  including  Dr.  J.  H. 
Renner,  of  Santa  Barbara,  Calif.;  Dr.  Roger  A.  Schmidt,  of  San 
Francisco,  Calif.;  Dr.  Lois  Bronson  Slade,  of  Alameda,  Calif.;  Dr. 
Lucile  B.  Larkin,  of  Bellingham,  Wash. ;  Dr.  E.  F.  Larkin,  of  Belling- 
ham.  Wash. ;  and  Dr.  W.  J.  Gier,  of  San  Diego,  Calif.,  a  Zeiss  ruled 
grading  was  examined,  first  under  an  ordinary  commercial  micro- 
scope equipped  with  a  1.8  high  dry  lens  and  X  10  ocular,  and  then 
under  the  Rife  microscope.  Whereas  50  lines  were  revealed  with  the 
commercial  instrument  and  considerable  aberration,  both  chromatic 
and  spherical  noted,  only  5  lines  were  seen  with  the  Rife  scope,  these 
5  lines  being  so  highly  magnified  that  they  occupied  the  entire  field, 
without  any  aberration  whatsoever  being  apparent.  Dr.  Renner,  in  a 
discussion  of  his  observations,  stated  that  "The  entire  field  to  its  very 
edges  and  across  the  center  had  a  uniform  clearness  that  was  not  true 
in  the  conventional  instrument."  Following  the  examination  of  the 
grading,  an  ordinary  unstained  blood  film  was  observed  under  the  same 
two  microscopes.  In  this  instance,  100  cells  were  seen  to  spread 
throughout  the  field  of  the  commercial  instrument  while  but  10  cells 
filled  the  field  of  the  Rife  scope. 

The  universal  microscope,  of  course,  is  the  most  powerful  Rife 
scope,  possessing  a  resolution  of  31,000  diameters  and  magnification 
of  60,000  diameters.    With  this  it  is  possible  to  view  the  interior  of  the 


214  ANNUAL  REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

"pin-point"  cells,  those  cells  situated  between  the  normal  tissue  cells 
and  just  visible  under  the  ordinary  microscope,  and  to  observe  the 
smaller  cells  which  compose  the  interior  of  these  pin-point  cells. 
When  one  of  these  smaller  cells  is  magnified,  still  smaller  cells  are  seen 
within  its  structure.  And  when  one  of  the  still  smaller  cells,  in  its  turn, 
is  magnified,  it,  too,  is  seen  to  be  composed  of  smaller  cells.  Each 
of  the  16  times  this  process  of  magnification  and  resolution  can  be 
repeated,  it  is  demonstrated  that  there  are  smaller  cells  within  the 
smaller  cells,  a  fact  which  amply  testifies  as  to  the  magnification  and 
resolving  power  obtainable  with  the  universal  microscope. 

More  than  20,000  laboratory  cultures  of  carcinoma  were  grown 
and  studied  over  a  period  of  7  years  by  Dr.  Eife  and  his  assistants 
in  what,  at  the  time,  appeared  to  be  a  fruitless  effort  to  isolate  the 
filter-passing  form,  or  virus,  which  Dr.  Rife  believed  to  be  present  in 
this  condition.  Then,  in  1932,  the  reactions  in  -growth  of  bacterial 
cultures  to  light  from  the  rare  gasses  was  observed,  indicating  a  new 
approach  to  the  problem.  Accordingly,  blocks  of  tissue  one-half 
centimeter  square,  taken  from  an  imulcerated  breast  carcinoma,  were 
placed  in  triple-sterilized  K  Medium  and  these  cultures  incubated  at 
37°  C.  When  no  results  were  forthcoming,  the  culture  tubes  were 
placed  in  a  circular  glass  loop  filled  with  argon  gas  to  a  pressure  of 
14  millimeters,  and  a  current  of  5,000  volts  applied  for  24  hours,  after 
which  the  tubes  were  placed  in  a  2-inch  water  vacuum  and  incubated 
at  37°  C.  for  24  hours.  Using  a  specially  designed  1.12  dry  lens,  equal 
in  amplitude  of  magnification  to  the  2-mm.  apochromatic  oil-immer- 
sion lens,  the  cultures  were  then  examined  under  the  universal  micro- 
scope, at  a  magnification  of  10,000  diameters,  where  very  much  ani- 
mated, purplish-red,  filterable  forms,  measuring  less  than  one-twen- 
tieth of  a  micron  in  dimension,  were  observed.  Carried  through  14 
transplants  from  K  Medium  to  K  Medium,  this  B.  X.  virus  remained 
constant;  inoculated  into  426  Albino  rats,  tumors  "with  all  the  true 
pathology  of  neoplastic  tissue"  were  developed.  Experiments  con- 
ducted in  the  Rife  Laboratories  have  established  the  fact  that  these 
characteristic  diplococci  are  found  in  the  blood  monocytes  in  92  per- 
cent of  all  cases  of  neoplastic  diseases.  It  has  also  been  demonstrated 
that  the  virus  of  cancer,  like  the  viruses  of  other  diseases,  can  be  easily 
changed  from  one  form  to  another  by  means  of  altering  the  media  upon 
which  it  is  grown.  With  the  first  change  in  media,  the  B.  X.  virus 
becomes  considerably  enlarged  although  its  purplish-red  color  remains 
unchanged.  Observation  of  the  organism  with  an  ordinary  microscope 
is  made  possible  by  a  second  alteration  of  the  media.  A  third  change 
is  undergone  upon  asparagus  base  media  where  the  B.  X.  virus  is 
transformed  from  its  filterable  state  into  cryptomyces  pleomorphia 


NEW    MICROSCOPES — SEIDEL  AND   WINTER  215 

fungi,  these  fungi  being  identical  morphologically  both  macroscopi- 
cally  and  microscopically  to  that  of  the  orchid  and  of  the  mushroom. 
And  yet  a  fourth  change  may  be  said  to  take  place  when  this  crypto- 
myces  pleomorphia,  permitted  to  stand  as  a  stock  culture  for  the  period 
of  metastasis,  becomes  the  well-known  mahogany-colored  Bacillus 
coll. 

It  is  Dr.  Rife's  belief  that  all  micro-organisms  fall  into  1  of  not 
more  than  10  individual  groups  (Dr.  Rosenow  has  stated  that  some  of 
the  viruses  belong  to  the  group  of  the  streptococcus),  and  that  any 
alteration  of  artificial  media  or  slight  metabolic  variation  in  tissues 
will  induce  an  organism  of  one  group  to  change  over  into  any  other 
organism  included  in  that  same  group,  it  being  possible,  incidentally, 
to  carry  such  changes  in  media  or  tissues  to  the  point  where  the  or- 
ganisms fail  to  respond  to  standard  laboratory  methods  of  diagnosis. 
These  changes  can  be  made  to  take  place  in  as  short  a  period  of  time 
as  48  hours.  For  instance,  by  altering  the  media — 4  parts  per  million 
per  volume — the  pure  culture  of  mahogany-colored  Bacillus  coli  be- 
comes the  turquoise-blue  Bacillus  typhosus.  Viruses  or  primordial 
cells  of  organisms  which  would  ordinarily  require  an  8-week  incuba- 
tion period  to  attain  their  filterable  state,  have  been  shown  to  produce 
disease  within  3  days'  time,  proving  Dr.  Rife's  contention  that  the 
incubation  period  of  a  micro-organism  is  really  only  a  cycle  of  rever- 
sion.   He  states : 

In  reality,  it  is  not  the  bacteria  themselves  that  produce  the  disease,  but  we 
believe  it  is  the  chemical  constituents  of  these  micro-organisms  enacting  upon 
the  unbalanced  cell  metabolism  of  the  human  body  that  in  actuality  produce  the 
disease.  We  also  believe  if  the  metabolism  of  the  human  body  is  perfectly  bal- 
anced or  poised,  it  is  susceptible  to  no  disease. 

In  other  words,  the  human  body  itself  is  chemical  in  nature,  being 
comprised  of  many  chemical  elements  which  provide  the  media  upon 
which  the  wealth  of  bacteria  normally  present  in  the  human  system 
feed.  These  bacteria  are  able  to  reproduce.  They,  too,  are  composed 
of  chemicals.  Therefore,  if  the  media  upon  which  they  feed,  in  this 
instance  the  chemicals  or  some  portion  of  the  chemicals  of  the  human 
body,  become  changed  from  the  normal,  it  stands  to  reason  that  these 
same  bacteria,  or  at  least  certain  numbers  of  them,  will  also  undergo 
a  change  chemically  since  they  are  now  feeding  upon  media  which 
are  not  normal  to  them,  perhaps  being  supplied  with  too  much  or  too 
little  of  what  they  need  to  maintain  a  normal  existence.  They  change, 
passing  usually  through  several  stages  of  growth,  emerging  finally  as 
some  entirely  new  entity — as  different  morphologically  as  are  the 
caterpillar  and  the  butterfly  (to  use  an  illustration  given  us).  The 
majority  of  the  viruses  have  been  definitely  revealed  as  living  organ- 
isms, foreign  organisms  it  is  true,  but  which  once  were  normal  inhab- 

619830 — 45 15 


216         ANNUAL  REPORT  SMITHSONIAN   INSTITUTION,    1944 

itants  of  the  human  body — living  entities  of  a  chemical  nature  or 
composition. 

Under  the  universal  microscope  disease  organisms  such  as  those  of 
tuberculosis,  cancer,  sarcoma,  streptococcus,  typhoid,  staphylococcus, 
leprosy,  hoof  and  mouth  disease,  and  others  may  be  observed  to  suc- 
cumb when  exposed  to  certain  lethal  frequencies,  coordinated  with  the 
particular  frequencies  peculiar  to  each  individual  organism,  and  di- 
rected upon  them  by  rays  covering  a  wide  range  of  waves.  By  means 
of  a  camera  attachment  and  a  motion-picture  camera  not  built  into 
the  instrument,  many  "still"  micrographs  as  well  as  hundreds  of  feet 
of  motion-picture  film  bear  witness  to  the  complete  life  cycles  of 
numerous  organisms.  It  should  be  emphasized,  perhaps,  that  invari- 
ably the  same  organisms  refract  the  same  colors  when  stained  by 
means  of  the  monochromatic  beam  of  illumination  on  the  universal 
microscope,  regardless  of  the  media  upon  which  they  are  grown.  The 
virus  of  the  Bacillus  typhosus  is  always  a  turquoise  blue,  the  Bacillus 
coli  always  mahogany  colored,  the  Mycobacteriuon  leprae  always  a 
ruby  shade,  the  filter-passing  form  or  virus  of  tuberculosis  always  an 
emerald  green,  the  virus  of  cancer  always  a  purplish  red,  and  so  on. 
Thus,  with  the  aid  of  this  microscope,  it  is  possible  to  reveal  the 
typhoid  organism,  for  instance,  in  the  blood  of  a  suspected  typhoid 
patient  4  and  5  days  before  a  Widal  is  positive.  When  it  is  desired 
to  observe  the  flagella  of  the  typhoid  organism,  Hg  salts  are  used 
as  the  medium  to  see  at  a  magnification  of  10,000  diameters. 

In  the  light  of  the  amazing  results  obtainable  with  this  universal 
microscope  and  its  smaller  brother  scopes,  there  can  be  no  doubt  of 
the  ability  of  these  instruments  to  actually  reveal  any  and  all  micro- 
organisms according  to  their  individual  structure  and  chemical  con- 
stituents. 

With  the  aid  of  its  new  eyes — the  new  microscopes,  all  of  which  are 
continually  being  improved — science  has  at  last  penetrated  beyond 
the  boundary  of  accepted  theory  and  into  the  world  of  the  viruses  with 
the  result  that  we  can  look  forward  to  discovering  new  treatments 
and  methods  of  combating  the  deadly  organisms — for  science  does 
not  rest. 

To  Dr.  Karl  K.  Darrow,  Dr.  John  A.  Kolmer,  Dr.  William  P.  Lang, 
Dr.  L.  Marton,  Dr.  J.  H.  Eenner,  Dr.  Royal  R.  Rife,  Dr.  Edward  C. 
Rosenow,  Dr.  Arthur  W.  Yale,  and  Dr.  V.  K.  Zworykin,  we  wish  to 
express  our  appreciation  for  the  help  and  information  so  kindly  given 
us  and  to  express  our  gratitude,  also,  for  the  interest  shown  in  this 
effort  of  bringing  to  the  attention  of  more  of  the  medical  profession 
the  possibilities  offered  by  the  new  microscopes. 


NEW    MICROSCOPES — SEIDEL  AND  WINTER  217 

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ZwoEYKiN,  V.  K.,  HnxiER,  J.,  and  Vance,  A.  W. 

1941.  An  electron  microscope  for  practical  laboratory  service.     Electr.  Eng., 

vol.  60,  pp.  157-162. 
1941a.  Preliminary  report  on  the  development  of  a  300-kilovolt  magnetic  elec- 
tron microscope.    Journ.  Appl.  Phys.,  vol.  12,  No.  10,  pp.  738-742, 
October. 
ZwoEYKiN,  V.  K.,  and  RAMBBajG,  E.  G. 

1941.     Surface  studies  with  the  electron  microscope.     Journ.  Appl.  Phys., 
vol.  12,  No.  9,  pp.  692-695,  September. 


Smithsonian  Report.  1944. — Seidel  and  Winter 


Plate  l 


R.  C.  A.  Type  B  Electron  Microscope  Beside  a  Laboratory  Model  or  i  he 
Desk  Type  Electron  Microscope. 


Smithsonian  Report.  1944. — Seidel  and  Winter 


PLATE  2 


1.  General  View  of  Graton-Dane  Precision,  All-purpose  Microcamera. 


i 

4^ ' '^liSl -fin^r         '^^^10 

> 

-•-^ 

\^^ 

2.  Close-Range  View  of  Graton-Dane  Precision.  All-purpose 
Microcamera. 


Smithsonian  Report,  1944. — Seidel  and  Winter 


PLATE   3 


Chlorophyl  Cells  (Algae)  (The  Universal  Microscope). 
17.000  X  on  35-iiim.  film. 


Smithsonian  Report,   l'*44.      Seidel  and  Winter 


PLATE   4 


% 


BH 


Tetanus  Spores  (The  Universal  Microscope). 

25,000  X  on  35-mm.  film,  enlarged  227,000  X. 


Smithsonian  Report,  1944.— Seidel  and  Winter 


PLATE  5 


Typhoid  Bacillus  (The  universal  Microscope). 
2.3,000  X  on  35-mm.  film,  enlarged  300,000  X. 


RADIO  ACOUSTIC  RANGING  (R.  A.  R.) 


By  CoMMANDEB  K.  T.  Adams 
United  States  Coast  and  Geodetic  Survey 


[With  1  plate] 


Ilydrographic  surveying  consists  essentially  in  measuring  water 
depths  from  a  survey  vessel  and  locating  those  depths  in  geographic 
position  or  with  reference  to  the  adjacent  land  features.  The  method 
almost  universally  used  for  fixing  hydrographic  surveys  within  sight 
of  land  is  by  measuring  two  sextant  angles  to  three  appropriately 
located  visible  control  stations.  This  is  the  well-known  three-point 
problem.  In  hydrographic  surveying  such  a  position  determination 
is  called  a  three-point  fix.  The  method  is  sometimes  used  beyond  sight 
of  land,  where  the  depths  of  the  water  permit,  by  utilizing  systems  of 
anchored  buoys  for  control  stations. 

Beyond  the  limit  of  visibility  of  shore  objects  and  where  buoys  can- 
not be  used,  hydrographic  surveys  were  formerly  controlled  either 
by  dead  reckoning  or  by  celestial  observations.  At  considerable  dis- 
tances from  the  coast  and  in  deep  oceanic  areas,  such  methods  sufficed, 
even  though  both  are  notably  inaccurate  as  compared  with  the  three- 
point  fix  method.  However,  there  was  serious  need  for  a  more  accurate 
method  for  use  in  coastal  waters  just  beyond  the  range  of  the  three- 
point  fix  method.  Radio  acoustic  ranging  (R.  A.  R.)  was  developed 
for  use  in  such  areas. 

HISTORY  OF  R.  A.  R. 

Subaqueous  sound  was  first  used  in  navigation  to  determine  the 
direction  of  an  underwater  sound  source  by  means  of  two  hydrophones 
(subaqueous  sound  receivers)  installed  on  a  ship,  one  on  each  side  near 
the  ship's  bow.  A  patent  was  granted  for  this  device  in  1894.  Prob- 
ably the  first  practical  use  of  subaqueous  sound  to  determine  hori- 
zontal distances  at  sea  was  by  means  of  a  submarine  bell  suspended 
below  a  lightship.  Such  bells  were  in  general  use  by  the  United 
States  Lighthouse  Service  in  1906.  Other  experiments  were  made  in 
connection  with  the  use  of  subaqueous  sound  in  navigation,  but  the 
rapid  development  of  radio  direction  finding  fulfilled  the  need  for 
position  determination  in  navigation.    The  sinking  of  the  Titanic  in 

221 


222  ANNUAL   REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

1912  emphasized  the  need  for  a  means  to  detect  icebergs  in  the  track 
of  a  vessel  and  led  to  experiments  in  the  use  of  subaqueous  sound  for 
this  purpose.  The  instruments  and  methods  developed,  however,  found 
their  greatest  application  in  measuring  depths  of  water  by  subaqueous 
sound,  resulting  in  modern  echo  sounding. 

During  World  War  I  the  transmission  of  sound  in  sea  water  was 
intensively  studied  by  the  world's  foremost  scientists  in  combatting 
the  submarine  menace.  As  a  result,  instrumental  equipment  for  trans- 
mitting and  receiving  subaqueous  sound  was  perfected,  as  well  as 
instruments  specifically  designed  for  the  measurement  of  sound  travel. 
After  World  War  I,  the  Coast  and  Geodetic  Survey  became  interested 
in  the  possible  use  of  the  method  to  control  hydrographic  surveys.  In 
collaboration  with  the  War  Department  and  the  Bureau  of  Standards, 
experiments  were  conducted  in  the  further  development  of  the  method 
and  in  the  redesign  of  instrumental  equipment.  The  method  was  first 
actually  used  in  hydrographic  surveying  on  the  ship  Guide  off  the 
coast  of  southern  California  in  early  1924.  It  was  an  immediate 
success,  although  many  details  of  procedure  had  to  be  perfected  before 
it  could  be  used  with  assurance. 

THEORY 

In  radio  acoustic  ranging  the  position  of  a  subaqueous  sound  source 
is  determined  with  reference  to  two  or  more  appropriately  located 
sound  receivers  whose  positions  are  known.  Such  a  use  of  sound 
has  also  been  called  "phonotelemetry."  Angles  are  not  utilized  in 
this  procedure — the  unknown  position  is  determined  by  measuring 
the  travel  times  of  the  sound  from  its  source  to  the  sound  receivers. 
If  the  effective  horizontal  velocity  of  sound  in  sea  water  is  known,  the 
distances  from  the  sound  source  to  the  receiving  stations  may  be 
determined  by  multiplying  the  travel  times  by  the  velocity,  and 
from  the  distances  the  position  of  the  sound  source  may  be  found. 

There  are  several  ways  in  which  the  travel  time  of  subaqueous 
sound  can  be  used  to  determine  the  position  of  an  unknown  point: 

{a)  Three  or  more  appropriately  located  receiving  units  may  be 
interconnected  electrically  or  by  radio  and  the  times  of  arrival  of  the 
subaqueous  sound  at  the  several  stations  may  be  recorded  at  a  central 
station.  Knowing  the  velocity  of  sound,  the  differences  between  the 
arrival  times  may  be  used  to  derive  the  position  of  the  source  of  the 
sound.  This  is  known  as  the  "differential  method"  and  it  is  in 
general  military  use  to  determine  the  positions  of  enemy  gun 
emplacements. 

(6)  The  subaqueous  sound  impulse  may  be  s3mchronized  at  the 
source  with  a  radio  signal.  If  the  elapsed  times  between  the  receipt 
of  the  radio  signal  and  the  receipt  of  the  subaqueous  sound  are 


RADIO   ACOUSTIC   RANGING ADAMS 


223 


observed  at  two  or  more  receiving  stations  at  known  positions,  these 
time  intervals  may  be  used  to  determine  the  position  of  the  sound 
source. 

(c)  All  operations  may  be  controlled  and  all  measurements  made 
at  the  sound  source.  A  subaqueous  sound  signal  is  made  near  a 
survey  vessel  and  its  time  recorded.  The  instants  of  arrival  of  the 
subaqueous  sound  at  two  or  more  receiving  stations  are  then  signaled 


PiGUBK  1. — Radio  acoustic  ranging.  In  hydrographic  surveying  the  ship's  position 
is  determined  by  subaqueous  sound  travel  to  sono-radio  buoys  anchored  at 
known  positions.  A,  the  bomber  throws  a  small  TNT  bomb  overboard  from  the 
moving  ship.  B,  the  bomb  explodes  and  the  resulting  sound  wave  travels 
toward  the  sono-radio  buoys  (g  and  h)  via  paths  (C — C)  and  toward  the 
hydrophone  (e)  in  the  bottom  of  the  ship  via  the  path  (D — D).  The  sound 
wave  (F)  travels  in  all  directions  at  a  velocity  of  about  1.5  km.  per  sec. 
Instantly  on  arrival  at  a  sono-radio  buoy  (g)  a  radio  signal  (R)  is  transmitted 
which  is  received  at  the  ship.  In  the  figure  the  sound  wave  has  not  yet  arrived 
at  sono-radio  buoy  (h) . 

automatically  by  radio,  and  received  and  recorded  on  board  the 
survey  ship.  From  these  data,  the  elapsed  time  between  the  origin 
of  the  sound  and  its  receipt  at  each  station  is  known  and  the  position 
of  the  survey  ship  may  be  determined. 

This  is  the  method  used  by  the  Coast  and  Geodetic  Survey,  and 
is  considered  the  most  practicable  for  use  in  hydrographic  surveying 
because  all  operations  are  controlled  from  the  survey  ship  and  all 


224         ANNUAL  REPORT  SMITHSONIAN   INSTITUTION,    1944 

data  are  recorded  thereon  and  become  available  to  the  hydrographer 
in  the  shortest  possible  time.  This  method  avoids  errors  made  in 
transmission,  which  are  always  possible  where  the  data  are  received 
elsewhere  and  radioed  to  the  vessel. 

R.  A.  R.  OPERATION 

To  determine  a  position  by  R.  A.  R.,  the  following  data  must  be 
known :  The  receiving  stations  (that  is,  the  hydrophones)  must  be 
established  at  known  positions.  The  travel  times  of  the  subaqueous 
sound  from  its  origin  to  its  receipt  at  each  receiving  station  must 
be  measured  with  an  accuracy  of  about  0.01  second.  The  effective 
horizontal  velocity  of  sound  must  be  known.  (The  travel  path  of  the 
sound  is  not  necessarily  a  straight  line,  as  is  explained  later,  but  to 
determine  horizontal  distances  by  R.  A.  R.,  it  is  obvious  that  the 
velocity  of  sound  that  is  required  is  the  horizontal  distance  divided 
by  the  travel  time.) 

A  sheet  with  a  projection  is  prepared  on  which  the  positions  of  the 
receiving  stations  are  plotted.  The  measured  travel  times  are  multi- 
plied by  the  effective  horizontal  velocity  of  sound  to  obtain  the  hori- 
zontal distances  between  the  sound  source  and  the  receiving  stations. 
The  position  of  the  sound  source  is  then  at  the  intersection  of  the  arcs 
drawn  from  the  stations  with  the  computed  distances  as  radii. 

The  following  description  illustrates  briefly  how  R.  A.  R.  is  used  by 
the  Coast  and  Geodetic  Survey :  A  subaqueous  sound  is  produced  by 
the  explosion  of  a  TNT  (trinitrotoluene)  bomb  thrown  overboard 
from  the  survey  ship  while  under  way.  A  hydrophone  (subaqueous 
receiving  unit)  in  the  hull  of  the  ship,  and  a  radio  receiver  on  the  ship 
are  connected  to  a  chronograph.  The  receiving  station  consists  of  a 
submerged  hydrophone  connected  to  a  radio  transmitter  which  oper- 
ates automatically  when  the  hydrophone  is  actuated  by  a  subaqueous 
sound. 

In  addition  to  the  ordinary  survey  personnel,  certain  specialists  are 
required  in  R.  A.  R.  One  officer  is  in  direct  charge  of  all  operations ; 
he  plots  the  ship's  positions  as  determined  from  the  R.  A.  R.  data. 
A  chronograph  attendant  is  in  charge  of  the  chronograph  and  oversees 
its  functioning  during  the  time  from  the  bomb  explosion  to  the  receipt 
of  the  radio  signals.  A  radio  technician  is  in  charge  of  the  instru- 
mental equipment  on  the  survey  ship ;  he  attends  to  the  proper  tuning 
of  the  radio  receiver  and  assists  the  chronograph  attendant  in  identify- 
ing the  radio  signals  from  the  receiving  stations.  An  explosives  expert, 
called  a  bomber,  is  in  charge  of  the  explosives  and  the  preparation  of 
the  bombs ;  he  lights  the  bomb  and  throws  it  overboard  when  instructed 
to  do  so  by  the  chronograph  attendant. 


RADIO   ACOUSTIC   RANGING-^ADAMS  225 

One  minute  before  an  R.  A.  R.  position  is  desired,  an  electric  bell 
signals  the  bomber  to  get  a  bomb  ready.  The  bell  signal  also  indicates 
the  size  of  bomb  wanted.  A  detonator  and  fuse  are  inserted  in  the  bomb 
and  the  fuse  is  lighted  a  few  seconds  before  the  time  for  the  position. 
When  the  fuse  is  burning,  the  bomb  is  thrown  overboard  from  the 
ship's  quarter  and  a  bell  is  rung  as  it  strikes  the  water.  This  is  the 
oflficial  time  of  the  position.  (The  time  of  the  explosion,  which  comes 
7  or  8  seconds  later,  is  not  the  time  of  the  position,  because  by  that 
time  the  ship  is  some  little  distance  away  from  the  place  of  the  explo- 
sion.) The  electric  bell  is  heard  by  the  officer  in  charge  and  by  the 
chronograph  attendant.  The  time  and  log  are  read  and  recorded  and 
a  sounding  is  taken.  Any  changes  in  course  or  speed  are  made  at  this 
time.  At  the  sound  of  the  bell,  the  chronograph  attendant  starts  the 
chronograph  and  connects  it  with  the  ship's  hydrophone.  When  the 
bomb  explodes,  the  sound  is  received  through  the  hydrophone  and  reg- 
isters automatically  on  the  chronograph  tape.  After  the  explosion  has 
registered  on  the  chronograph  tape,  the  chronograph  is  switched  from 
the  hydrophone  to  the  ship's  radio  receiver.  The  sound  of  the  bomb 
explosion  travels  through  the  water  in  every  direction  and  eventually 
reaches  the  several  receiving  stations.  At  the  instant  the  sound  arrives 
at  each  receiving  station  hydrophone,  the  radio  transmitter  connected 
to  it  automatically  sends  a  radio  signal,  which  is  received  on  the  ship's 
radio  receiver  and  registers  on  the  chronograph.  During  this  time, 
which  may  be  from  a  few  seconds  to  more  than  100  seconds,  a  mark  is 
being  made  each  second  (or  each  tenth  second)  on  the  chronograph 
tape.  As  the  radio  returns  are  registered,  the  chronograph  attendant 
identifies  them,  and  when  the  last  one  has  been  received,  the  time 
intervals,  in  seconds  and  hundredths  of  seconds,  from  the  explosion  to 
its  receipt  at  the  several  receiving  stations  are  taken  from  the  tape. 
Each  radio  return  and  its  corresponding  distance  must  be  correctly 
identified  with  reference  to  the  station  from  which  it  was  received. 
The  time  intervals  are  then  reported  by  the  chronograph  attendant  to 
the  officer  in  charge  who  determines  from  them  the  position  of  the  sur- 
vey ship  at  the  time  the  bomb  struck  the  water.  Tliis  entire  operation 
takes  on  the  average  about  4  or  5  minutes. 

R.  A.  R.  RECEIVING  STATIONS 

Three  different  types  of  receiving  stations  have  been  used  by  the 
Coast  and  Geodetic  Survey.  In  their  chronological  development  they 
are:  Shore  station,  ship  station,  and  sono-radio  buoy.  Ship  stations 
are  no  longer  used ;  shore  stations  are  sometimes  used ;  but  sono-radio 
buoys  are  used  in  most  R.  A.  R.  surveys. 

Shore  stations, — R.  A.  R.  was  first  used  by  the  Coast  and  Geodetic 
Survey  on  the  Pacific  coast  of  the  United  States.    Here  comparatively 


226         ANNUAL  REPORT   SMITHSONIAN   INSTITUTION,    1944 

deep  water  generally  extends  reasonably  close  to  the  shore  and,  as  is 
now  known,  the  temperature  conditions  of  the  water  are  favorable  for 
horizontal  transmission  of  sound.  Shore  stations  were  used  at  this 
time.  A  shore  station  consists  of  a  conventional  radio  receiving  and 
transmitting  station  installed  on  shore,  connected  by  electric  cable  with 
a  submerged  hydrophone  placed  offshore  in  an  appropriate  depth  of 
water  where  it  is  not  shielded  by  shoals.  The  hydrophone  is  attached 
to  an  anchor,  but  is  buoyed  to  float  at  a  selected  depth  below  the  water 
surface. 

Each  shore  station  is  manned  by  one  or  more  radio  technicians.  The 
principal  advantage  of  shore  stations  is  that  the  radio  technician  can 
keep  the  apparatus  in  repair,  the  batteries  charged,  and  the  station 
operating  at  maximum  efficiency  at  all  times.  Surf  or  other  uncontrol- 
lable conditions  may  actuate  the  hydrophone  if  it  is  too  sensitive. 
The  radio  technician  can  vary  the  sensitivity  of  the  apparatus  for  the 
best  reception.  He  can  also  listen  to  the  sound  of  the  bomb  explosion 
when  it  is  received  and  can  measure  its  amplitude.  A  knowledge  of  the 
strength  of  the  received  sound  is  valuable  to  the  officer  in  charge  in 
weighting  the  results  and  in  determining  the  size  of  bombs  to  use. 

Shore  stations  are  more  expensive  to  establish  and  maintain  than 
sono-radio  buoys,  but  their  efficiency  is  greater.  Laying  the  cable 
from  the  hydrophone  through  the  surf  to  the  radio  station  is  the  most 
difficult  part  of  the  establishment  of  a  shore  station,  and  sometimes 
weather  may  prevent  it  for  several  weeks  at  a  time.  And  unless  the 
area  in  the  vicinity  of  the  hydrophone  has  been  thoroughly  sounded, 
one  has  no  assurance  that  intervening  shoals  or  irregular  types  of 
bottom  will  not  interfere  with  the  receipt  of  the  sound. 

Ship  stations. — When  K.  A.  R.  was  first  used  on  the  Atlantic  coast 
of  the  United  States,  it  was  soon  found  that  shore  stations  would  not 
function  satisfactorily.  The  Continental  Shelf  on  this  coast  generally 
extends  many  miles  seaward,  and  the  depths  of  water  on  it  are  com- 
paratively shallow.  Moreover,  the  temperature  conditions  of  the  water 
are  not  so  favorable  for  the  transmission  of  sound  as  they  are  on  the 
Pacific  coast.  To  overcome  these  difficulties,  small  ships  were  anchored 
offshore  at  known  positions  and  used  as  floating  R.  A.  R.  stations.  The 
receiving  stations  could  then  be  placed  in  deeper  water,  thus  shortening 
the  distance  through  which  the  sound  had  to  travel.  The  shore  appa- 
ratus was  placed  on  the  ship,  and  the  hydrophone  was  anchored,  as  at 
a  shore  station,  a  short  distance  from  the  ship  so  that  ship  noises  would 
not  interfere.  These  ship  stations  were  then  operated  just  as  shore 
stations.  They  had  all  the  important  advantages  of  shore  stations  and 
in  addition  they  were  mobile.  Their  maintenance,  however,  was  ex- 
ceedingly costly,  and  as  the  ships  were  small,  they  frequently  had  to 


RADIO    ACOUSTIC   RANGING — ^ADAMS  227 

leave  their  stations  in  bad  weather  or  be  exposed  to  damage  by  storm. 
Ship  stations  are  no  longer  used  by  the  Coast  and  Geodetic  Survey. 

Sono-radio  huoys. — Soon  after  ship  stations  had  been  used  success- 
fully, the  idea  was  conceived  of  using  a  buoy  in  which  was  housed  a 
fully  automatic  unit  for  receiving  the  sound  impulse  and  transmitting 
the  radio  signal — hence  the  name  sono-radio  buoy. 

Two  types  of  structures  have  been  used  for  sono-radio  buoys :  One 
type  in  which  a  steel  drum  is  held  in  a  wooden  framework,  and  the 
other  a  specially  designed  all-metal  type.  The  latter  requires  more 
special  fittings  and  parts  than  the  former,  but  both  are  about  equally 
successful.  These  buoys  are  constructed  on  the  ship  by  the  ship's 
personnel,  using  readily  available  materials. 

From  its  long  experience  with  the  use  of  buoys  as  water  signals,  the 
Coast  and  Geodetic  Survey  has  evolved  a  more  or  less  standard  type 
of  wooden  structure  which  has  been  used  in  the  construction  of  sono- 
radio  buoys.  Such  a  buoy  consists  of  a  50-gallon  steel  drum  with  a 
counterweight  to  hold  it  upright  and  a  superstructure  extending  about 
16  feet  above  the  water,  the  batteries,  the  radio  transmitter,  and  the 
necessary  electric  circuits  being  placed  in  the  drum.  A  vertical  an- 
tenna is  supported  on  the  superstructure  and  the  hydrophone  is  sus- 
pended from  the  counterweight  at  a  depth  of  about  7  fathoms. 

The  electric  apparatus  in  the  sono-radio  buoy  was  designed  espe- 
cially for  automatic  use  in  R.  A.  R.  The  principal  parts  of  the  equip- 
ment are  the  audio  amplifier,  the  keying  circuit,  the  radio  trans- 
mitter, and  the  hydrophone.  All  parts  must  be  especially  constructed 
and  are  generally  made  by  the  radio  technicians  on  the  survey  ship. 
The  apparatus  used  in  all  sono-radio  buoys  is  very  similar,  although 
minor  differences  have  been  incorporated  depending  on  the  conditions 
encountered.  Sono-radio  buoys  can  be  used  from  1  to  3  months  with- 
out attention. 

The  frequency  of  the  sound  of  a  bomb  explosion  is  below  300  cycles. 
The  electric  apparatus  is  designed  to  receive  and  amplify  sounds  in 
this  frequency  range.  The  amplifier  must  be  stable  and  any  time  lag 
in  it  must  be  small  and  relatively  constant.  The  purpose  of  the  keying 
circuit  is  to  cause  the  radio  transmitter  to  operate  automatically  when 
the  bomb  signal  actuates  the  hydrophone.  '\t  is  designed  so  that  un- 
wanted sounds  of  comparatively  low  intensity  will  not  operate  the 
radio  transmitter,  but  that  when  the  sound  of  a  bomb  is  received  the 
transmitter  operates  instantly  at  nearly  full  power. 

Extra  circuits  are  sometimes  incorporated  in  sono-radio  buoys  for 
the  purpose  of  shortening  the  transmitted  radio  signal.  Wlien  radio 
returns  are  being  received  from  several  sono-radio  buoys,  it  is  obvious 
that  an  early  return  which  is  prolonged  unduly  may  blanket  subse- 
quent returns  coming  immediately  afterward  from  other  sono-radio 


228         ANNUAL  REPORT   SMITHSONIAN   INSTITUTION,    1944 

buoys.  Due  to  reverberation,  multiple  reflections,  and  other  causes,  a 
radio  signal  in  such  cases  may  be  prolonged  as  much  as  7  seconds. 
Moreover,  defects  occurring  in  the  electric  circuits  or  unwanted  noises 
may  tend  to  make  a  particular  sono-radio  buoy  transmit  almost  con- 
stantly. The  so-called  shortening  circuit  limits  the  length  of  radio 
transmission  to  a  half  second  or  less,  after  which  the  sono-radio  buoy 
is  rendered  inactive  for  a  period  of  3  to  5  seconds.  There  are  certam 
disadvantages  in  using  these  circuits.  When  all  the  radio  signals 
transmitted  are  of  equal  length,  signals  caused  by  bombs  cannot  be 
distinguished  from  other  signals,  as,  for  example,  those  caused  by 
water  noises.  Moreover,  if  a  sono-radio  buoy  is  actuated  by  an  extra- 
neous cause  just  before  the  bomb  signal  arrives,  the  silencing  circuit 
prevents  the  bomb  signal  from  operating  it.  Shortening-and-silencing 
circuits,  therefore,  are  not  used  where  prolonged  signals  are  not  par- 
ticularly bothersome. 

To  obtain  constancy  of  radio  frequency,  a  quartz  crystal  is  incorpo- 
rated in  the  transmitter.  Several  radio  frequencies  between  2492  and 
4160  kilocycles  are  authorized  for  use  in  sono-radio  buoys,  but  those 
most  frequently  used  are  4135  and  4160  kilocycles.  Using  these  latter 
frequencies,  the  minimum  radio  frequency  power  required  for  satis- 
factory results  under  normal  operating  conditions  is  about  3  watts, 
although  up  to  26  watts  has  been  used. 

A  hydrophone  is  a  subaqueous  sound-detecting  device.  It  is  used  in 
R.  A.  R.  to  receive  the  sound  energy  from  a  distant  underwater  bomb 
explosion  and  to  convert  it  to  electric  energy.  Most  hydrophones  con- 
sist of  a  watertight  housing  containing  an  electromagnetic,  piezoelec- 
tric, or  other  electroacoustic  device,  which  is  coupled  to  the  housing  in 
such  a  way  that  the  sound  impinging  on  the  housing,  or  on  its  dia- 
phragm, is  transmitted  mechanically  to  the  electroacoustic  device, 
which  in  turn  converts  this  mechanical  energy  into  electric  energy. 

As  sound  passes  through  an  elastic  medium,  such  as  water,  there  is 
an  alternate  condensation  and  rarefaction  of  the  medium  at  a  given 
point,  resulting  in  a  corresponding  increase  and  decrease  of  the  pres- 
sure at  this  point.  In  addition,  at  any  point  the  particles  of  the  me- 
dium undergo  regional  displacement  forward  and  backward  along  the 
direction  of  sound  propagation.  Hydrophones  are  operated  by  this 
pressure  variation  and  particle  displacement.  Several  different  types 
of  hydrophones  have  been  designed  especially  for  use  in  R.  A.  R.  The 
hydrophone  itself  does  not  have  to  be  extremely  sensitive,  but  the 
hydrophone  and  the  audio  amplifier  must  be  designed  so  that  together 
they  will  have  the  required  sensitivity.  A  hydrophone  must  respond 
well  to  the  frequency  of  a  sound  caused  by  a  subaqueous  explosion. 
The  hydrophone  must  not  be  directive  to  a  marked  degree,  for  in  hy- 
drographic  surveying  the  sound  which  is  to  actuate  it  may  come  from 


RADIO   ACOUSTIC  RANGING — ADAMS    '  229 

almost  any  direction.  The  hydrophone  or  the  case  in  which  it  is  housed 
must  be  watertight.  The  most  frequent  cause  of  hydrophone  failure  is 
leakage.  A  hydrophone  becomes  inoperative  if  the  armature  of  the 
electromagnetic  unit  is  forced  against  one  of  the  pole  pieces  and  held 
there.  This  may  result  if  a  bomb  explodes  too  close  to  the  hydrophone 
or  if  anything  strikes  the  hydrophone  while  the  sono-radio  buoy  is 
being  placed  on  its  station. 

Before  a  sono-radio  buoy  is  put  on  station,  the  gain  of  its  audio 
amplifier  must  be  adjusted  for  sensitivity.  If  the  gain  is  too  low,  the 
unit  will  be  insensitive  and  returns  will  not  be  received  from  bomb 
explosions  more  than  a  short  distance  away.  If  the  gain  is  too  high, 
the  unit  will  be  actuated  by  the  action  of  the  waves,  nearby  water 
noises,  or  by  the  movement  of  the  buoy  itself.  In  the  latter  case,  the 
buoy  transmits  continuously,  and  the  receipt  of  a  bomb  explosion 
cannot  be  detected.  Furthermore,  the  continuous  radio  signals  inter- 
fere with  the  receipt  of  signals  from  other  sono-radio  buoys  which  are 
operating  satisfactorily.  It  is  obvious  that  a  sono-radio  buoy  placed 
on  station  to  operate  automatically  for  several  weeks  at  a  time  must  not 
be  adjusted  for  operation  in  perfect  conditions,  for  then  survey  opera- 
tions would  often  be  interrupted  by  weather  conditions.  This  explains 
one  of  the  principal  advantages  of  a  shore  station.  The  latter  being 
attended,  its  sensitivity  can  be  adjusted  at  all  times  for  best  operation. 

Abnormal  performance  of  a  sono-radio  buoy  is  usually  disclosed  in 
one  of  two  ways — either  it  is  too  insensitive  to  bomb  explosions  or  there 
is  an  excess  of  stray  signals. 

SHIP  EQUIPMENT 

The  special  equipment  used  on  the  survey  ship  for  R.  A.  E..  is  com- 
paratively simple  and  easily  understood.  It  consists  of  a  hydrophone 
in  the  ship's  bottom,  a  radio  receiver,  a  chronograph  and  amplifier,  and 
a  break-circuit  chronometer.  Except  for  the  chronograph  amplifier, 
standard  commercial  products  are  used  in  each  case.  Their  coordinate 
functions  from  the  time  a  bomb  explodes  until  the  radio  signals  from 
the  R.  A.  R.  stations  have  been  recorded  on  the  chronograph  are  as 
follows : 

The  bomb  explosion  is  received  on  the  hydrophone,  after  which  the 
signal  is  amplified  sufficiently  to  operate  the  stylus  of  a  chronograph 
which  makes  a  mark  on  a  moving  tape.  The  stylus  circuit  is  then 
immediately  connected  to  the  radio  receiver.  Signals  from  the  R.  A.  R. 
stations  are  received  and  marked  on  the  tape  by  the  same  stylus. 
Another  stylus  operated  from  a  break-circuit  chronometer  marks  regu- 
lar time  intervals  on  the  tape  during  this  entire  period.  Then  the  time 
intervals  from  the  explosion  of  the  bomb  to  the  reception  of  the  radio 
signals  may  be  measured  on  the  tape. 


230 


ANNUAL   REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 


The  hydrophone,  through  which  the  sound  of  the  bomb  explosion  is 
received,  is  installed  in  a  water-filled  tank  which  is  fastened  to  the 
inner  side  of  the  hull  of  the  ship.  It  must  be  located  where  ship  noises 
will  affect  it  least. 

Any  good  commercial  communication  radio  receiver  may  be  used  so 
long  as  it  will  cover  the  necessary  range  of  frequencies. 

The  chronograph  amplifier  is  especially  built  by  the  ship's  radio 
technicians.    Its  purpose  is  to  amplify  the  impulse  from  the  hydro- 


FiGUBE  2. — Ship  equipment  for  radio  acoustic  ranging.  A  bomber  (a)  throws 
a  small  TNT  bomb  overboard  from  the  moving  survey  ship.  The  sound  wave 
produced  by  the  subaqueous  explosion  travels  (CCC)  to  a  hydrophone  (d)  in 
the  bottom  of  the  ship.  The  hydrophone  converts  sound  energy  to  electric 
energy,  which  is  led  (EEE)  to  an  amplifier  which  operates  a  chronograph  (f). 
The  bomb  explosion  is  registered  on  a  paper  tape  at  G.  The  sound  wave  of  the 
explosion  travels  to  R.  A.  R.  stations  which  it  actuates  and  which  instantly 
send  radio  signals  (HHH)  which  are  received  (JJJ)  and  amplified  and  regis- 
tered on  the  same  chronograph  (f).  The  returns  from  three  stations  are  shown 
at  K,  L,  and  M.  Knowing  the  velocity  of  sound  in  sea  water,  the  time  intervals 
on  the  tape  can  be  converted  into  distances. 

phone  caused  by  the  bomb  explosion  and  also  the  output  of  the  radio 
receiver.  The  amplification  must  be  sufficient  to  actuate  the  stylus  in 
the  chronograph. 

A  chronograph  is  a  graphic-recording  time-measuring  device.  It  is 
connected  to  a  break-circuit  chronometer,  which  provides  the  time 
record.  A  narrow  wax-coated  paper  runs  through  the  chronograph 
beneath  two  sharp  styluses  electromagnetically  operated.  The  tape 
moves  at  the  rate  of  about  2  centimeters  a  second.    One  stylus  is  con- 


RADIO    ACOUSTIC   RANGING — ^ADAMS  231 

nected  with  the  chronometer  and  makes  a  mark  on  the  tape  once  a 
second.  Another  stylus  is  connected  with  the  chronograph  amplifier 
and  is  actuated  by  the  reception  of  the  bomb  signal  and  later  by  the 
reception  of  the  radio  signals.  This  record  permits  the  scaling  of  the 
time  intervals  to  the  nearest  0.01  second  by  interpolation. 

A  different  instrument,  called  the  Dorsey  chronograph,  designed 
and  built  by  the  Coast  and  Geodetic  Survey,  is  also  used  for  the  same 
purpose.  It  incorporates  electric  time  measurement,  starting  with  a 
piezoelectric  crystal,  and  provides  much  more  constant  and  correct 
time  than  a  break-circuit  chronometer.  The  tape  in  this  chronograph 
runs  at  a  speed  of  about  5  centimeters  a  second,  and  a  mark  is  made  each 
tenth  second  and  the  seconds  are  numbered.  The  instrument  is  also 
automatic  in  that  the  electric  bell  signal  signifying  that  the  bomb  has 
struck  the  water  starts  the  tape  moving  and  the  timing  stylus  begins 
marking  tenth  seconds.  When  the  hydrophone  is  actuated  by  the 
bomb  explosion,  the  next  tenth  second  is  marked  zero  and  the  mark  at 
each  subsequent  second  is  numbered.  Time  intervals  to  the  nearest 
0.01  second  can  be  interpolated  from  this  record  by  eye. 

BOMBS 

For  use  in  R.  A.  R.  a  sound  of  great  intensity  reaching  a  peak  almost 
instantly  and  one  that  will  travel  through  the  water  in  all  directions  is 
required.  The  explosion  of  a  trinitrotoluene  (TNT)  bomb  has  been 
found  best  adapted  for  the  purpose,  although  any  type  of  explosive 
suitable  for  use  under  water  can  be  used.  Dynamite  has  been  used,  but 
it  is  more  unstable  and  more  dangerous  to  handle  than  TNT.  The 
frequency  of  a  bomb  explosion  is  below  300  cycles,  which  is  lower  than 
most  interfering  noises. 

The  TNT  itself  does  not  have  to  be  in  a  watertight  container.  For 
best  results  the  container  should  be  made  of  a  comparatively  strong 
rigid  material  so  that  the  gases  generated  are  contained  until  detona- 
tion is  complete,  whereupon  the  container  bursts.  The  resulting  ex- 
plosion produces  a  highly  compressed  sound  wave  that  has  a  greater 
range  than  one  from  an  explosion  in  a  comparatively  fragile  container. 

For  long  distances  and  best  results,  hollow  cast-iron  spheres  with 
half-inch  walls,  containing  from  1  to  4  pounds  of  TNT,  are  used. 
These  spheres  have  to  be  especially  cast  and  are  expensive  and  heavy 
to  handle.  For  ordinary  distances  and  for  perhaps  95  percent  of  the 
cases,  ordinary  commercial  tin  cans  with  a  friction  top  are  used. 
Three  sizes  of  the  latter  are  commonly  used,  14,  i/^,  and  1  pint,  depend- 
ing on  the  distances  involved  and  the  characteristics  of  the  area  being 
surveyed. 

Ordinary  commercial  detonators  made  of  fulminate  of  mercury  are 
used  with  standard  waterproof  fuse  to  detonate  the  TNT.  Tin  cans 
619830 — 45 16 


232         ANNUAL  REPORT  SMITHSONIAN   INSTITUTION,    1944 

of  various  sizes  are  filled  in  advance  with  TNT  compacted  firmly.  A 
hole  is  punched  in  the  center  of  the  lid  of  each  can.  Fuses  of  various 
lengths  are  attached  to  the  detonators  and  this  junction  of  the  fuse 
and  detonator  must  be  watertight.  Just  before  an  R.  A.  R.  position  is 
required,  the  detonator  is  inserted  through  the  hole  in  the  lid  of  the 
can  and  pushed  down  into  the  TNT.  The  fuse  is  lighted  on  an  electric 
heating  element  and  the  bomb  is  thrown  overboard  well  clear  of  the 
ship,  which  is  under  way. 

The  bombs  must  not  be  exploded  too  close  to  the  survey  ship.  Also 
they  should  not  explode  too  close  to  the  surface  of  the  water,  for  then 
part  of  the  sound  energy  is  dissipated  into  the  air.  Best  results  are 
apparently  obtained  with  explosions  at  a  depth  of  about  7  fathoms. 
To  achieve  these  two  results,  the  bombs  are  weighted  to  make  them 
sink  at  the  required  speed,  and  the  fuse  is  cut  in  lengths  to  provide  the 
required  delay  in  time. 

In  1940  the  cost  of  a  1-pint  bomb  with  fuse  and  detonator  was  about 
30  cents. 

VELOCITY  OF  SOUND  IN  SEA  WATER 

To  measure  distances  by  subaqueous  sound  transmission,  one  needs 
to  know  not  only  the  elapsed  time  intervals  but  the  effective  horizontal 
velocity  at  which  the  sound  travels  through  the  water.  The  velocity 
of  propagation  of  sound  in  sea  water  may  be  calculated  from  the  tem- 
perature and  salinity  of  the  water  and  the  hydrostatic  pressure. 
Tables  have  been  prepared  based  on  these  three  variables.  The  velocity 
of  sound  varies  with  these  three  characteristics  by  the  following  ap- 
proximate percentages : 

(a)  Each  1°  C.  increase  in  temperature  increases  the  velocity  0.2 
percent. 

(b)  Each  1  part  per  1,000  increase  in  salinity  increases  the  velocity 
0.1  percent. 

(c)  Each  additional  100  fathoms  (183  m.)  of  depth  increases  the 
velocity  0.22  percent.  The  velocity  of  sound  in  water  is  approximately 
1,500  meters  per  second  at  a  temperature  of  14°  C,  salinity  35  parts 
per  1,000,  and  at  surface  atmospheric  pressure. 

To  determine  the  velocity  of  sound  from  the  tables,  the  temperature 
and  salinity  of  the  water  must  be  measured,  and  the  depth  must  be 
known,  for  pressure  varies  almost  exactly  with  depth.  The  variation 
of  salinity  in  sea  water  is  small,  and  its  effect  on  velocity,  as  compared 
with  the  effect  of  variation  in  temperature,  is  relatively  unimportant. 
The  temperature  varies  not  only  from  place  to  place,  but  ordinarily 
decreases  with  the  depth.  For  the  average  E.  A.  R.  survey,  the  velocity 
of  sound  must  be  known  within  4  meters  per  second,  and  to  attain  this 


4 


RADIO   ACOUSTIC   RANGING — ^ADAMS  233 

accuracy  the  average  temperature  of  the  water  through  which  the 
sound  wave  passes  must  be  known  within  approximately  1°  C. 

During  a  hydrographic  survey  controlled  by  R.  A.  R.,  frequent  tem- 
perature observations  are  made.  Observations  from  the  surface  to 
the  bottom  are  made  at  various  places  and  times,  supplemented  by 
more  frequent  observations  at  the  surface  and  the  bottom.  Tempera- 
tures are  measured  with  one  or  more  reversing  thermometers  attached 
to  a  sounding  wire  and  lowered  to  the  desired  depth.  The  thermome- 
ter reverses  as  soon  as  it  starts  upward  and  breaks  the  column  of  mer- 
cury so  that  the  value  registered  at  the  greatest  depth  can  be  read 
after  the  thermometer  has  been  brought  to  the  surface. 

A  bathythermograph,  a  comparatively  new  instrument,  is  also  used 
to  measure  water  temperatures  in  the  upper  75  fathoms,  where  the 
greatest  variation  occurs.  This  instrument  records  automatically  and 
graphically  the  temperatures  with  reference  to  depths. 

The  variation  in  salinity  normally  encountered  affects  velocities  of 
sound  only  slightly  as  compared  with  temperature,  but  salinity  does 
vary  and  its  value  must  be  determined.  In  the  Coast  and  Geodetic 
Survey  the  salinity  is  determined  indirectly  by  measuring  with  a 
hydrometer  the  specific  gravity  of  a  water  sample.  An  accuracy  of 
about  one-tenth  part  per  1,000  may  thus  be  obtained. 

Velocity  of  sound  as  determined  from  the  physical  characteristics  of 
the  water  and  from  tables  is  obviously  the  velocity  of  propagation  of 
the  sound  wave,  irrespective  of  direction.  The  effective  horizontal 
velocity  is  required  in  R.  A.  R.  If  the  sound  wave  is  refracted,  or  is 
reflected  from  the  bottom  one  or  more  times  en  route  to  the  receiving 
station,  as  is  explained  later,  it  is  apparent  that  the  theoretical  velocity 
alone  will  not  suffice  for  use  in  R.  A.  R.  In  such  cases,  the  measured 
time  intervals  are  greater  than  they  would  be  if  the  sound  traveled 
by  a  direct  horizontal  path. 

Under  certain  conditions  the  effective  horizontal  velocity  of  sound 
at  a  place  can  be  determined  experimentally.  If  a  bomb  is  exploded 
at  a  known  horizontal  distance  from  a  receiving  station  and  the  time 
interval  from  the  explosion  to  its  receipt  at  the  receiving  station  is 
measured,  the  distance  divided  by  the  time  interval  will  give  the  effec- 
tive horizontal  velocity  of  sound  between  the  source  and  the  receiver 
for  the  temperature  and  salinity  of  the  water  at  that  place  and  time, 
irrespective  of  the  path  of  the  sound  wave.  Where  the  depths  of  water 
permit,  it  is  customary  to  make  such  tests  throughout  an  area  being 
surveyed  and  at  intervals  during  the  survey.  For  a  survey  in  uniform 
depths  where  the  temperature  and  salinity  are  relatively  constant, 
results  of  such  tests  can  be  subsequently  used  in  determining  R.  A.  R. 
positions.  Wliere  the  temperature  and  salinity  change  frequently, 
the  velocity  of  sound  determined  by  tests  can  be  modified  to  take  into 


234         ANNUAL  REPORT  SMITHSONIAN   INSTITUTION,    1944 

account  the  temperature  and  salinity  differences.  But  where  the 
depths  in  the  area  vary  to  a  marked  degree,  and  especially  where  the 
depths  are  too  great  to  permit  tests  to  be  made,  the  velocity  of  sound 
values  must  be  determined  from  an  assumption  of  the  path  of  the 
sound  wave. 

There  is  also  an  indirect  method  for  determining  the  effective  hori- 
zontal velocity  of  sound  under  certain  conditions  and  allowing  certain 
assumptions.  If  the  time  intervals  from  a  bomb  explosion  to  three 
receiving  stations  at  known  positions  are  measured  accurately,  and 
the  same  temperature  and  salinity  conditions  and  depths  along  the 
three  paths  of  sound  are  assumed,  then  the  effective  horizontal  velocity 
can  be  computed  by  means  of  a  rather  involved  formula.  It  is  obvious 
that  there  must  be  no  doubt  regarding  the  accuracy  of  the  travel  times. 
If  one  value  is  doubtful  or  if  the  conditions  along  the  three  paths  are 
dissimilar,  an  erroneous  value  of  the  velocity  of  sound  will  result. 

PATH  OF  A  SOUND  WAVE 

In  an  ideal  water  medium  with  uniform  characteristics  and  unlim- 
ited dimensions  in  every  direction,  a  sound  from  a  nondirectional 
source  would  be  propagated  along  straight  paths  in  every  direction. 
The  arrival  time  at  any  receiving  station  would  be  the  time  required 
for  the  sound  to  travel  the  shortest  path.  In  such  a  case,  the  theoreti- 
cal velocity  of  sound  would  be  the  same  as  the  effective  velocity,  and 
R.  A.  R.  would  not  be  complicated  by  uncertainties  due  to  the  path  of 
the  sound  wave. 

Unfortunately,  the  ideal  medium  does  not  exist  in  practice,  and  the 
propagation  of  sound  in  water  is  indeed  complicated.  The  sound  wave 
is  propagated  through  a  body  of  water  bounded  above  by  the  water 
surface  and  below  by  the  ocean  bottom ;  the  horizontal  dimension  of 
the  medium  is  long  as  compared  with  its  vertical  dimension;  sound 
waves  are  reflected  from  both  boundaries  of  the  medium,  and  within 
the  medium  they  are  refracted  by  changes  in  the  velocity  of  sound 
along  the  path.    These  facts  complicate  the  path  of  the  sound  wave. 

The  reception  of  sound  is  also  complicated  by  the  fact  that  the  vari- 
ous reflected  and  refracted  waves  interfere  with  one  another.  Where 
two  sound  waves  of  the  same  frequency  and  wave  form  meet  at  one 
point,  they  will  tend  to  reinforce  or  neutralize  each  other,  depending 
on  their  directions  of  propagation  and  whether  they  meet  in  the  same 
or  opi^osite  phases. 

It  is  apparent  that,  in  a  bounded  water  medium,  the  sound  wave 
may  travel  an  almost  unlimited  number  of  paths.  There  will  be  one 
direct  path  from  the  source  to  the  receiver  and  a  multitude  of  reflected 
patlis.   The  sound  wave  that  first  arrives  at  the  receiver  with  sufficient 


RADIO   ACOUSTIC   RANGING — ADAMS  235 

intensity  to  actuate  it  is,  of  course,  the  one  that  is  used  in  R.  A.  R. — 
other  sound  waves  arriving  later  serve  only  to  prolong  the  received 
signal.  Unfortunately,  the  sound  traveling  via  the  direct  path  is 
almost  always  canceled  by  the  sound  wave  reflected  from  the  surface 
of  the  water.  This  surface-reflected  sound  wave  is  reversed  in  phase, 
and  as  the  length  of  its  path  is  nearly  equal  to  the  direct  path,  almost 
complete  cancelation  of  the  two  takes  place.  In  actual  experience  the 
sound  via  the  direct  path  is  rarely  received  at  distances  greater  than 
7  or  8  miles. 

The  result  of  this  is  that  the  useful  sound  wave  in  R.  A.  R.  is  the 
one  that  is  reflected  at  least  once  from  the  ocean  bottom  and,  depending 
on  the  depth  of  the  water  and  its  physical  characteristics,  the  sound 
may  arrive  at  the  receiving  station  after  having  been  refletced  a  num- 
ber of  times  between  surface  and  bottom. 

Another  complication  is  the  fact  that  the  surface  boundary  is  hori- 
zontal, but  the  ocean  bottom  is  not.  A  sound  wave  is  reflected  from  a 
boundary  in  the  same  way  as  a  ray  of  light  is  reflected  from  a  mirror, 
the  angle  of  reflection  being  always  equal  to  the  angle  of  incidence.  If 
the  water  is  deep  at  the  bomb  explosion  but  the  receiving  station  is 
located  in  comparatively  shallow  water,  as  is  the  usual  case  in  R.  A.  R., 
it  is  obvious  that  the  bottom  slopes  upward  along  the  effective  path  of 
propagation.  In  such  a  case,  each  time  the  sound  wave  is  reflected 
from  the  bottom,  its  direction  of  propagation  is  changed  toward  the 
vertical,  and  if  enough  reflections  are  involved  and  the  slope  of  the 
bottom  is  sufficiently  great,  the  successive  angles  of  reflection  may  be 
decreased  until  the  sound  wave  is  reflected  vertically  upward  or  it  may 
actually  reverse  its  horizontal  direction  of  propagation,  and  never 
reach  the  receiving  station.  This  condition  is  aggravated  in  shoal 
water  where  more  reflections  take  place  in  a  given  horizontal  distance 
than  do  in  deep  water  of  the  same  characteristics.  This  partly  explains 
the  difficulty  encountered  in  sound  transmission  from  deep  water  on 
the  Continental  Slope  to  shoal  water  on  the  Continental  Shelf.  It  also 
explains  the  difficulty  encountered  in  R.  A.  R.  where  there  are  inter- 
vening shoal  areas  between  the  bomb  explosions  and  the  receiving 
stations. 

The  path  of  a  sound  wave  is  also  affected  by  refraction.  Wherever 
a  change  in  the  velocity  of  sound  takes  place  along  the  path,  the  sound 
wave  is  refracted.  If  pressure  were  the  only  characteristic  affecting 
velocity  of  sound,  its  constant  increase  with  depth  would  cause  a  con- 
stant increase  in  velocity,  and  the  sound  wave  would  be  refracted  in 
the  arc  of  a  circle  concave  upward.  It  is  rare,  however,  that  pressure 
is  the  only  variable  involved.  The  temperature  of  the  water  varies 
and  normally  decreases  with  depth  more  than  enough  to  overcome  the 
increase  caused  by  pressure,  until  the  depths  become  comparatively 


236         ANNUAL  REPORT  SMITHSONIAN   INSTITUTION,    1944 

great.  This  decrease  in  temperature  causes  a  decrease  in  velocity 
which  refracts  the  sound  wave  downward. 

Thus  it  is  seen  that  for  any  given  case  in  R.  A.  R.  the  path  along 
which  the  received  sound  has  traveled  may  be  very  complicated.  It 
may  have  been  reflected  a  number  of  times  from  the  bottom  and  the 
surface,  and  between  these  reflections  it  may  have  been  refracted,  either 
upward  or  downward,  or  perhaps  in  both  directions  at  different  depths. 

The  excellent  results  obtained  in  R.  A.  R.  are  due  to  the  fact  that 
water  is  a  relatively  good  medium  for  the  propagation  of  sound,  even 
though  its  physical  characteristics,  and  consequently  the  velocity  of 
sound,  vary  with  time,  place,  and  depth.  It  is  due  also  to  the  good 
reflecting  qualities  of  the  water  surface  and  the  ocean  bottom.  The 
sound  is  confined  vertically  and  is  reflected  and  amplified,  somewhat 
as  it  is  in  a  speaking  tube.  Little  of  the  energy  of  the  sound  wave  is 
actually  lost  in  reflections,  although  when  the  sea  is  rough  or  the  ocean 
bottom  irregular,  some  of  the  sound  energy  may  be  dissipated. 

R.  A.  R.  IN  PRACTICE 

Subaqueous  sounds  have  been  detected  with  instruments  of  only 
ordinary  sensitivity  at  a  distance  of  400  nautical  miles  (740  km.).  A 
sound  propagated  vertically  downward  by  an  electromagnetic  oscilla- 
tor in  a  depth  of  about  200  fathoms  (365  m.)  has  been  heard  after 
having  been  reflected  23  times  alternately  from  the  bottom  and  the 
surface.  In  R.  A.  R.  the  longest  distance  that  has  been  measured  is 
184  nautical  miles  (340  km.).  This  was  in  connection  with  a  test 
which  was  concltided  at  that  distance,  but  there  was  no  observable 
diminution  in  the  intensity  of  the  received  sound  as  compared  with 
that  received  at  somewhat  lesser  distances.  In  actual  hydrographic 
surveying,  distances  of  100  miles  (185  km.)  or  more  have  often  been 
measured.  Shore  stations  are  much  more  efficient  in  this  respect  than 
sono-radio  buoys,  although  returns  have  been  received  from  sono-radio 
buoys  at  distances  of  100  miles  (185  km.).  The  type  of  area  in  which 
sono-radio  buoys  are  preferred  to  shore  stations  ordinarily  limits  their 
range  to  about  30  or  35  miles  (55  or  65  km.). 

The  operation  of  R.  A.  R.  to  control  hydrographic  surveys  is  now  a 
routine  procedure.  The  position  of  the  survey  ship  is  fixed  regularly 
by  R.  A.  R.  at  intervals  of  10  minutes  or  less  with  as  much  casualness 
as  if  three-point  sextant  fixes  were  being  used. 

The  positions  of  the  receiving  stations  are  plotted  on  a  projection, 
just  as  the  positions  of  triangulation  stations  are.  Because  of  the  long 
distances  ordinarily  involved,  the  distortion  which  occurs  in  a  plotting 
sheet  made  of  even  the  best  drawing  paper  has  considerable  effect. 
For  this  reason,  a  number  of  uniformly  spaced  concentric  circles  are 


RADIO    ACOUSTIC   RANGING — ^ADAMS 


237 


drawn  on  the  sheet  from  each  R.  A.  R.  station  at  the  time  the  projection 
is  made. 

The  position  of  the  survey  ship  can  be  plotted  with  a  beam  compass, 
by  swinging  distance  or  time  arcs  from  the  respective  receiving  sta- 
tions, but  setting  the  beam  compass  with  reference  to  the  nearest  of 


Figure  3.— An  area  surveyed  in  1939  by  radio  acoustic  ranging  (R.  A.  R.),  showing 
the  sono-radio  buoys  and  ordinary  buoys  used  to  control  the  hydrography.  The 
lines  of  buoys  were  located  by  taut-wire  traverses,  but  some  of  the  outer- 
most sono-radio  buoys  were  located  by  R.  A.  R.  distances.  Legend:  •  ordi- 
nary survey  buoy  ;  O  sono-radio  buoy  ;  A  triangulation  station ;  <-  sextant 
fix ; taut-wire  measurement ; . .  R.  A.  R,  distance. 

the  concentric  circles.  The  position  of  the  ship  is  at  the  intersection  of 
the  arcs.  Positions  can  also  be  plotted  by  using  a  special  circular 
celluloid  protractor. 

R.  A.  R.  was  originally  adopted  to  control  hydrographic  surveys  be- 
yond the  visibility  of  shore  signals  or  where  survey  buoys  could  not  be 
used.    Since  its  use,  however,  does  not  depend  on  visual  observation, 


238  ANNUAL  REPORT   SMITHSONIAN   INSTITUTION,    1944 

it  is  equally  usable  at  night,  or  in  fog.  Survey  ships  of  the  Coast  and 
Geodetic  Survey,  using  K.  A.  R.,  have  surveyed  continuously  24  hours 
a  day  for  periods  of  10  days  at  a  time. 

Some  statistics  of  a  survey  controlled  exclusively  by  R.  A.  R.  may 
be  of  interest.  They  are  from  an  offshore  survey  in  the  vicinity  of 
Nantucket  Shoals  off  the  northeast  Atlantic  coast  of  the  United  States. 
These  surveys  were  plotted  on  one  1 :  60,000  scale  sheet  and  two 
1 :  120,000  scale  sheets.  Sono-radio  buoys  were  used  for  receiving 
stations  at  24  different  locations.  The  surveying  was  done  between 
May  2  and  September  25,  1939.  The  area  surveyed  was  8,562  square 
statute  miles  (22,176  sq.  km.),  and  the  total  length  of  sounding  lines 
was  10,496  statute  miles  (16,892  km.) ;  5,506  bombs  of  various  sizes 
were  used,  made  from  3,511  pounds  of  TNT  and  4,170  feet  of  fuse.  To 
obtain  the  required  temperature  and  salinity  data,  serial  temperatures 
were  observed  at  135  different  places.  The  positions  of  the  sono-radio 
buoys  were  determined  by  taut-wire  traverses,  in  connection  with 
which  ordinary  buoys  were  used  at  60  different  locations,  in  addition 
to  the  sono-radio  buoys.  The  total  number  of  working  days  was  101, 
including  18  days  used  for  placing  or  picking  up  buoys  and  running 
the  taut-wire  traverses  for  their  locations.  The  survey  vessel  ran  a 
total  distance  of  16,481  nautical  miles  (30,543  km.)  for  all  purposes 
during  the  survey. 


Smithsonian  Report,  1944.— Adams 


Plate  1 


SONo-RADio  Buoy  (All-metau  type). 


THE  DAVID  W.  TAYLOE  MODEL  BASIN 


By  Re:ak  Admiral  He21bert  S.  Howard,  U.  S.  N. 
Director,  David  W.  Taylor  Model  Basin 


[With  4  plates] 


The  largest  and  most  completely  equipped  ship-model  testing  and 
experimental  plant  in  the  world  operates  directly  under  the  Bureau  of 
Ships  of  the  Navy  Department. 

This  plant,  the  David  W.  Taylor  Model  Basin,  staffed  by  a  highly 
trained  and  capable  group  of  officers  and  civilian  technical  and  shop 
personnel,  has  as  its  basic  function  the  solving  of  problems  concerning 
the  design  and  operation  of  naval  vessels  by  testing  models  in  water 
under  controlled  conditions.  Included  in  its  work  are  the  determina- 
tion of  the  speed  and  powering  of  ships,  launching,  stability,  action  in 
waves,  turning  and  maneuvering,  and  propeller  design.  Besides  ques- 
tions of  pure  ship  design  and  form,  the  problems  presented  for  solution 
cover  the  field  of  mine-sweeping  devices,  paravanes,  and  torpedoes ;  in 
fact,  everything  which  has  to  do  with  forms  which  move  through  the 
water. 

In  addition  to  the  preceding  problems,  special  problems  of  struc- 
tural design  of  ships  comprise  a  major  activity  of  the  plant.  These 
problems  cover  all  manner  of  special  questions  relating  to  the  strength 
of  ships  and  their  parts,  the  resistance  of  ship  structures  to  underwater 
explosions,  structural  vibration,  and  the  effect  of  shock,  and  the  elimi- 
nation of  such  vibration  and  shock  effects. 

In  general,  the  chief  function  of  this  organization  at  present  is  to 
give  the  earliest  possible  solutions  or  answers  to  the  wartime  problems 
submitted  to  it.  Research,  which  has  been  and  is  being  continuously 
carried  on,  gives  the  background  of  knowledge  which  makes  it  possible 
to  undertake  and  furnish  the  solution  to  these  urgent  problems. 

Although  the  Model  Basin  operates  directly  under  the  Bureau  of 
Ships,  work  is  carried  on  not  only  for  that  Bureau  but  for  all  branches 
of  the  Navy  Department,  whether  for  the  Commander  in  Chief  him- 
self or  any  of  the  technical  bureaus.  Work  is  also  done  for  other 
branches  of  the  Government,  notably  the  United  States  Maritime 

*  Reprinted  by  permission  from  Journal  of  Applied  Physics,  vol.  15,  No.  3,  March  1944. 

239 


240  ANNUAL  REPORT   SMITHSONIAN   INSTITUTION,    1944 

Commission,  and  for  private  companies  and  individuals,  this  practice 
fulfilling  the  requirements  of  the  act  which  created  the  establishment. 

The  construction  of  the  Taylor  Model  Basin  was  authorized  by  Act 
of  Congress  of  May  6, 1936.  This  act  gave  authority  for  the  purchase 
of  a  suitable  site  and  the  construction  of  a  new  model  basin  establish- 
ment for  the  United  States  Navy.  This  was  to  replace  and  extend  the 
work  of  the  original  Experimental  Model  Basin  which  had  been  in 
service  at  the  Washington  Navy  Yard  for  nearly  40  years.  The  old 
experimental  basin  had  become  too  small  to  carry  out  its  work  for  the 
Navy  and  private  individuals,  and  its  equipment  was,  moreover,  be- 
coming obsolete. 

To  commemorate  the  work  of  that  officer  who  had  been  responsible 
for  the  original  Experimental  Model  Basin  and  under  whom  that  basin 
had  operated  for  the  greater  part  of  its  existence,  the  Secretary  of  the 
Navy  directed  that  the  new  establishment  be  known  as  "The  David  W. 
Taylor  Model  Basin"  in  honor  of  Rear  Admiral  David  Watson  Taylor, 
Construction  Corps,  United  States  Navy,  Retired,  former  Chief  Con- 
structor of  the  Navy. 

The  location  chosen  for  the  new  establisliment  was  in  the  valley  of 
the  Potomac  some  12  miles  from  the  center  of  Washington.  This  site 
was  selected  not  only  because  land  was  available  but  principally  be- 
cause three  basic  requirements  were  fulfilled.  First,  solid  rock  was 
at  the  surface  in  this  location ;  this  meant  that  the  foundations  for  the 
rails  of  the  towing  carriages  of  the  basins  could  be  carried  down  to 
solid  rock  and  the  extremely  accurate  alignment  needed  could  be  prac- 
tically guaranteed.  Second,  an  ample  supply  of  clean  fresh  water 
necessary  for  the  testing  basins  was  available,  since  the  main  conduits 
to  Washington  were  close  at  hand.  Finally,  the  location  was  away 
from  heavy  traffic  which  might  disturb  the  alignment  of  the  towing- 
carriage  rails  and  their  foundations,  but  it  was  still  fairly  close  to  the 
Navy  Department  which  permitted  easy  communication  and  frequent 
visits. 

The  new  establishment  was  planned  and  laid  out  by  Capt.  H.  E. 
Saunders,  who  had  been  stationed  at  the  old  Experimental  Model 
Basin  for  a  number  of  years.  Based  on  long  experience  there  and 
reports  from  model  basins  the  world  over,  the  new  model  basin  was 
planned  to  provide  not  only  the  best  and  most  up-to-date  facilities  and 
equipment  for  model  testing,  but  in  such  size  and  capacity  as  to  ensure, 
as  far  as  could  be  foreseen,  that  it  would  meet  all  needs  of  the  Navy  for 
many  years  to  come. 

The  actual  design  was  undertaken  in  1933-34  by  the  Bureau  of 
Yards  and  Docks  of  the  Navy  Department  and  construction  was 
started  in  September  1937.  The  basins  were  filled  with  water  in  March 
1939  and  the  plant  was  completed  in  July  of  that  year.     Because  of  the 


TAYLOR    MODEL  BASIN — HOWARD  241 

long  time  required  for  laying  the  carriage  tracks  and  for  making  other 
preparations,  the  principal  activities  were  not  transferred  from  the 
Navy  Yard  until  November  1940. 

The  original  conception  of  this  establishment,  as  indicated  by  the 
authorizing  act,  was  that  it  should  be  constructed  to  investigate  and 
determine  the  most  suitable  and  desirable  shapes  and  forms  for  naval 
vessels  and  to  investigate  other  problems  of  ship  design.  Thus 
primarily  the  establishment  was  designed  and  equipped  to  carry  out 
experimental  work  on  the  forms  of  ships'  hulls  and  to  estimate  the 
power  required  to  drive  them,  with  a  secondary  interest  in  other  fea- 
tures of  design.  This  original  conception  has  almost  been  lost  sight 
of  in  an  expansion  and  growth  far  beyond  the  fields  originally  con- 
templated. The  war  has  naturally  been  principally  responsible  for 
this  great  expansion.  Under  the  heading  of  "underwater  forms  and 
propulsion"  the  work  has  expanded  until  it  has  come  to  cover  the 
proper  form  or  shape  of  almost  any  body  which  is  propelled,  towed,  or 
projected  on  or  through  the  water;  while  under  the  secondary  heading 
of  "other  problems  of  ship  design"  the  expansion  has  been  so  broad  in 
the  fields  of  structural  strength,  shock,  vibration,  underwater  explo- 
sions and  related  subjects  that  the  primary  and  secondary  objects  of 
the  original  establishment  have  almost  changed  places. 

The  outstanding  features  of  the  Taylor  Model  Basin  are  its  test 
facilities,  which  are  unusual  both  as  to  types  and  as  to  size  and  capacity. 
For  an  understanding  of  the  work  undertaken  a  general  description  of 
the  physical  plant  and  these  facilities  is  necessary. 

As  a  testing  establishment  the  Taylor  Model  Basin  was  made  large 
enough  to  house  equipment  which  would  accomplish  each  of  the  vari- 
ous types  of  research  on  models  with  the  greatest  degree  of  accuracy 
and  reliability. 

Physically  the  establishment  consists  of  three  buildings:  a  main 
building  871  feet  by  54  feet ;  lying  parallel  to  it,  a  basin  building  1,330 
feet  long ;  and  a  wind-tunnel  building.  The  main  building  houses  in 
its  central  section  the  offices,  drafting  and  computing  rooms,  record 
storage  vaults,  a  library,  a  photographic  laboratory,  and  a  museum. 

The  western  section  of  the  building  contains  the  shops  where  wood 
and  metal  models,  mechanical  devices,  instruments,  dynamometers, 
and  other  special  equipment  are  made. 

The  eastern  end  of  the  main  building  constitutes  the  laboratory. 
In  this  laboratory  are  located  the  12-inch  and  24-inch  variable-pressure 
water  tunnels,  30,000-pound  and  600,000-pound  universal  static-load 
testing  machines,  and  a  150,000-pound  alternating-load  testing  ma- 
chine, and  other  equipment. 

The  basin  building  is  unique  in  its  appearance,  because  of  its  barrel- 
arch  roof  1,188  feet  long.    Instead  of  a  single  large  model  basin  like 


242  ANNUAL   REPORT   SMITHSONIAN   INSTITUTION,    1944 

the  old  one  at  the  Washington  Navy  Yard,  there  are  four  separate 
model  basins  each  designed  for  a  particular  line  of  work. 

The  principal  large  deep-water  basin  is  963  feet  long  by  51  feet  wide 
by  22  feet  deep.  Here  models  of  large  ships  are  towed  or  self- 
propelled.    This  is  the  largest  basin  of  its  kind  in  the  world. 

Joining  the  large  basin  is  a  shorter  shallow-water  basin  303  feet  long 
by  51  feet  wide  by  10  feet  deep.  The  depth  can  be  varied  at  will  to  rep- 
resent rivers,  canals,  and  channels  of  limited  depth  and  width.  In 
this  basin  models  of  tugboats,  barges,  river  craft,  and  other  types  of 
shallow-water  vessels  are  tested. 

Forming  a  continuation  of  the  west  end  of  the  shallow-water  basin 
is  a  J -shaped  turning  basin,  for  testing  the  maneuvering  and  steering 
characteristics  of  models.  In  a  special  enclosure  over  this  basin, 
accurate  photographic  observations  of  the  models  under  test  are  made 
with  a  group  of  cameras  about  40  feet  overhead. 

To  the  north  side  of  the  large  basin  there  is  a  high-speed  basin  1,168 
feet  long  by  21  feet  wide  by  10  feet  deep,  for  the  testing  of  models  of 
high-speed  motor  boats  and  seaplane  hulls.  Incidentally,  the  site  is 
large  enough  to  permit  the  extension  of  this  basin  to  more  than  twice 
its  present  length  to  meet  requirements  of  the  future. 

In  the  basement  of  the  main  building  is  a  small  basin,  142  feet  long 
by  10  feet  wide  by  5^/2  feet  deep,  for  the  testing  of  special  models  and 
for  unusual  research  problems. 

The  towing  carriages,  which  span  the  basins  and  operate  on  the 
precision-laid  rails  atop  the  basin  walls,  furnish  the  means  of  testing 
the  models.  The  heart  of  a  towing  carriage  is  the  dynamometer, 
which  with  its  related  recording  instruments  measures  the  forces 
arising  from  the  motion  of  a  model  through  the  water. 

Two  carriages  are  now  in  operation — carriage  1  over  the  deep-water 
basin,  and  a  special  quiet-running  carriage  with  wood  frame  and  pneu- 
matic-tire wheels  over  the  high-speed  basin.  Under  construction,  and 
to  be  placed  in  service  during  1944,  are  carriages  for  the  shallow-water 
basin  and  the  high-speed  basin.  The  last  carriage  will  have  a  top 
speed  of  24  knots. 

The  carriage  which  now  operates  on  the  deep-water  basin  is  typical. 
The  specifications  it  must  fill  are  exacting:  a  testing  speed  range  of 
from  0.1  to  18  knots,  the  selected  speed  to  be  constant  during  an 
8-second  measuring  run  within  0.01  knot,  a  rigid-frame  structure  to 
span  the  51-foot  distance  between  the  basin  walls  without  permitting 
disturbing  vibrations  or  deflections  at  the  midspan  where  the  measur- 
ing instruments  are  located,  absolutely  straight-line  motion  of  the 
towing  point  where  the  model  is  attached  to  the  carriage,  a  dynamome- 
ter to  measure  the  model  resistance  during  the  measuring  run  to  within 


TAYLOR    MODEL  BASIN — HOWARD  243 

0.01  pound  but  rugged  enough  to  handle  the  forces  on  large,  30-foot 
battleship  models  at  full  test  speed. 

Two  variable-pressure  water  tunnels,  designed  primarily  for  testing 
model  propellers  but  also  used  extensively  for  special  hydrodynamic 
tests,  are  among  the  unusual  facilities.  Each  water  tunnel  consists  of  a 
closed  duct  circuit  arranged  in  a  vertical  plane,  in  which  water  is 
circulated  at  a  known  speed.  In  the  lower  limb  of  the  apparatus  is  a 
motor-driven  impeller  which  circulates  the  water,  and  in  the  upper 
limb  is  the  test  section,  fitted  with  glass  ports  for  visual  and  photo- 
graphic observation  of  the  propeller  being  tested  in  a  jet  of  water  of 
uniform  velocity  and  turbulence.  The  diameter  of  the  jet  nozzle  is 
12  inches  for  one  of  the  water  tunnels,  and  24  inches  for  the  other. 

The  model  propeller  is  mounted  on  a  motor-driven  shaft  projecting 
into  the  test  chamber.  The  thrust  and  torque  of  the  propeller  at  vari- 
ous speeds  of  revolution  are  measured  by  a  dynamometer.  Water 
speeds  in  the  24-inch  tunnel  up  to  35  knots  are  available. 

Vacuum  pumps  lower  the  air  pressure  above  the  water  in  the  test 
chamber  of  the  tunnel,  in  order  to  create  an  absolute  pressure  on  the 
model  propeller  corresponding  to  the  combined  effect  of  atmospheric 
and  water  pressure  on  the  propeller  of  the  full-sized  ship.  Under  these 
conditions,  the  phenomena  of  cavitation  occur  on  the  model  propeller 
so  that  the  test  accurately  represents  the  behavior  of  the  full-scale 
propeller.  Cavitation  is  the  formation  of  water-vapor  cavities,  or 
"bubbles,"  on  the  propeller  blade  surface,  caused  by  high  loading  and 
consequent  serious  reduction  of  pressure  on  the  back,  or  "suction  side" 
of  the  propeller.  Efficiency  suffers  when  cavitation  occurs.  Cavita- 
tion effects  are  studied  by  means  of  stroboscopic  illumination  of  the 
propeller  being  tested,  and  these  effects  are  recorded  by  high-speed 
flash  photographs,  of  1/30,000-second  exposure. 

In  the  laboratory  building  there  are  located  two  large  machines  for 
testing  structural  specimens,  both  full-size  and  model  scale.  One,  the 
150,000-pound  alternating-load  testing  machine,  tests  beams,  colunms, 
riveted  and  welded  joints,  and  other  structural  members  in  alternate 
compression  and  tension  over  long  periods  of  time,  to  discover  the 
manner,  loading,  and  number  of  cycles  to  failure  in  fatigue. 

The  other  large  testing  machine  is  a  universal  static-load  testing 
machine  with  600,000-pound  capacity  in  either  tension  or  compression. 
Stress-strain  data,  yield  point,  and  ultimate  strength  of  a  wide  variety 
of  structural  specimens  may  be  obtained  with  this  apparatus. 

One  of  the  most  unusual  and  recently  completed  facilities  is  the  test 
pond  for  underwater  explosion  tests.  This  is  a  pentagonal  pond,  dug 
partly  out  of  the  solid  rock  and  partly  formed  by  built-up  rock  em- 
bankments.   It  is  roughly  150  feet  across  and  will  carry  water  to  a 


244         ANNUAL  REPORT  SMITHSONIAN   INSTITUTION,    1944 

depth  of  25  feet.  In  this  pond  research  investigations  of  underwater 
explosions  and  explosive  tests  against  models  of  ship  structures  are 
carried  out. 

Information  can  be  obtained  on  the  trajectories  of  model  bombs  and 
torpedoes  after  impact  with  the  water  surface  by  experiments  made  in 
the  new  transparent-wall  tank,  using  high-speed  motion  pictures  to 
record  the  paths  of  the  models.  The  new  tank  has  glass  windows 
forming  one  side  and  one  end ;  it  is  25  feet  long,  9  feet  deep,  and  4^ 
feet  wide,  filled  with  continuously  filtered,  crystal-clear  water  to  insure 
clear  photographs.  The  windows  are  three-quarters  of  an  inch 
thick  "tempered"  glass,  four  times  as  strong  as  ordinary  plate  glass 
of  the  same  thickness.  Intense  photographic  illumination  is  necessary 
to  obtain  good  film  records  of  the  objects  moving  through  the  water. 

The  circulating-water  channel,  now  nearing  completion,  is  an 
unusual  hydraulic  testing  facility,  both  as  to  type  and  size.  Essen- 
tially it  consists  of  an  open-top  test  section  22  feet  wide  and  60  feet 
long  in  which  a  stream  of  water  9  feet  deep  flows  at  a  maximum  speed 
of  10  knots.  The  object  under  test  will  be  held  stationary  in  the  moving 
stream  and  the  forces  exerted  by  the  water  measured  by  suitable  dyna- 
mometers. The  walls  and  bottom  of  this  channel  contain  windows 
approximately  4  feet  by  ll^  feet  through  which  both  visual  and  photo- 
graphic observations  can  be  made. 

The  chief  advantages  obtained  by  testing  in  the  circulating-water 
channel  are  that  the  object  undergoing  test  can  be  viewed  and  photo- 
graphed from  all  sides  and  that  the  tests  may  be  carried  on  for  an 
indefinite  period  without  stopping  as  at  the  end  of  a  straight  towing 
run. 

The  objects  tested  in  this  channel  will  consist  of  ship  models,  torpedo 
shapes,  mines,  and  special  devices  which  cannot  be  tested  as  well  by 
towing  in  still  water.  The  water  channel  will  complement  the  existing 
turning  basins  and  water  tunnels  but  will  not  supplant  them. 

In  order  that  such  a  large  stream  of  water  may  be  circulated  at  con- 
stant speed  with  uniform  flow  throughout  the  test  section,  a  structure 
about  150  feet  long  and  45  feet  high  is  required.  The  water  is  pumped 
through  the  channel  by  two  12i/^-f  oot-diameter  propeller-type  pumps 
driven  by  direct-connected  1,250-horsepower  electric  motors.  These 
motors  rotate  at  constant  speed  and  the  rate  of  flow  of  the  water  is 
regulated  by  adjusting  the  pitch  of  the  propeller  blades  while  running. 

The  wind-tunnel  building  is  located  to  the  west  of  the  main  building. 
It  contains  two  steel  wind  tunnels,  each  with  a  closed  rectangular  test 
section  8  feet  by  10  feet,  and  with  single  return  passage.  These  tunnels 
are  equipped  with  4-bladed,  16-foot-diameter  wooden  propellers,  one 
driven  by  a  1,000-horsepower  motor,  the  other  by  a  700-horsepower 
motor.    These  motors  are  controlled  by  the  Clymer  system  which  per- 


TAYLOR    MODEL  BASIN — HOWARD 


245 


mits  speed  control  within  plus  or  minus  1/2  percent.  Air  velocities  can 
be  varied  from  approximately  10  to  220  miles  per  hour.  Six  precision 
scales  automatically  record  the  three  moments  and  three  forces  on  the 
model.    A  seventh  scale  records  the  wind  velocity. 

Airplane  models  up  to  8-f  eet  wing  span  can  be  tested  both  for  normal 
performance  characteristics  and  for  stability  in  yaw;  two  separate 
systems  for  supporting  the  model  are  used  for  these  two  types  of  test. 


^1 

11 

1 

1 

- 

i 

- 

1 

•2 

At  the  present  time  tests  for  the  Bureau  of  Aeronautics  are  still 
carried  on  principally  in  the  old  wind  tunnels  at  the  Washington  Navy 
Yard,  but  within  a  short  time  the  new  tunnels  will  be  actively 
operating. 

The  organization  of  the  Taylor  Model  Basin  is  shown  on  the  chart. 
Bear  Admiral  Herbert  S.  Howard,  U.  S.  N.,  is  director;  Capt.  Harold 
E.  Saunders,  U.  S.  N.,  who  laid  out  the  establishment  and  was  in 


246  ANNUAL  REPORT   SMITHSONIAN   INSTITUTION,    1944 

charge  of  the  entire  work  of  preparing  the  facilities  for  operatioiij 
is  technical  director  and  head  of  the  technical  division;  and  Capt. 
W.  C.  Mehaffey,  U.  S.  N.  R.,  is  executive  officer  and  production  officer. 

The  heart  of  the  organization  and  the  reason  for  its  existence 
rest  in  the  technical  division.  This  division  is  divided  further  into 
three  main  divisions:  hydromechanics,  structural  mechanics,  and 
aeromechanics. 

Each  of  these  divisions  is  headed  by  a  senior  officer,  with  officer 
assistants,  specially  trained  and  qualified  for  this  particular  work. 
The  civil  technical  staff  is  of  the  same  high  caliber,  the  nucleus  of  this 
staff  possessing  a  national  and  international  reputation  in  this  highly 
specialized  work. 

In  the  hydromechanics  division  the  principal  work  falls  within  the 
field  of  ships'  lines,  propellers,  and  underwater  forms  such  as  mine- 
sweeping  gear  and  torpedoes.  After  the  technical  design  of  a  device 
is  completed,  a  model  is  built  to  scale,  in  order  to  carry  out  the  test 
necessary  to  check  the  form  and  to  determine  the  power  needed  to 
propel  or  tow  it ;  the  test  is  made  in  one  of  the  various  model  basins. 
The  procedure  in  a  typical  test  of  a  ship  is  as  follows. 

The  usual  ship  model  is  about  20  feet  long,  hollow,  and  fashioned 
from  layers  of  wood  glued  together.  It  is  carefully  shaped  to  represent 
the  outer  surface  of  the  ship's  hull,  to  exact  scale,  from  keel  to  deck. 
The  model  is  complete  as  to  its  underwater  form,  with  rudder,  propel- 
lers, shafts,  struts,  bilge  and  docking  keels,  but  without  upper  works. 

The  model  is  first  towed,  non-self-propelled,  over  one  of  the  main 
basins  by  the  carriage  which  has  already  been  described. 

In  making  a  towing  run  the  carriage  starts  from  rest,  and  smoothly 
and  gradually  acquires  the  speed  necessary  for  the  test.  When  the 
carriage  is  towing  the  model  at  a  uniform  rate  at  the  desired  speed, 
and  the  model  is  producing  its  characteristic  wave  formation,  the 
actual  resistance  of  the  ship  model  in  pounds  and  hundredths  of  a 
pound  is  measured. 

Later  a  second,  self-propelled  test  is  run,  in  which  the  model  is 
driven  under  its  own  power  along  the  basin  with  small  model  propel- 
lers. Small  electric  motors  installed  in  the  model,  one  motor  to  each 
shaft,  operate  the  propellers.  An  operator  on  the  towing  carriage  to 
which  the  model  is  attached  regulates  the  speed  of  the  model  ship. 
From  the  tests  so  made,  calculations  give  the  corresponding  results  for 
the  full-sized  vessel. 

Under  the  hydromechanics  division  is  also  carried  out  the  design  of 
propellers  in  connection  with  the  Bureau  of  Ships,  and  the  testing  of 
model  propellers  based  upon  these  designs.  These  model  tests  are 
made  in  one  of  the  two  propeller  tunnels  already  described. 


TAYLOR   MODEL  BASIN — HOWARD  247 

This  division  also  carries  out  full-scale  special  tests  aboard  ships  of 
the  fleet,  usually  at  the  time  of  their  trials,  such  as  turning  trials  to 
determine  the  track  of  a  ship  under  different  conditions  of  speed  and 
rudder. 

The  structural  mechanics  division  is  concerned  with  all  questions  of 
the  strength  of  ships'  structure,  vibration,  and  related  subjects. 

The  work  in  structural  mechanics  at  the  model  basin  had  its  incep- 
tion a  number  of  years  ago  in  the  thought  that  if  the  performance  of 
full-sized  ships  could  be  accurately  forecast  through  experimental 
work  with  models  in  a  model  basin,  it  should  equally  well  be  possible 
to  forecast  the  performance  of  the  structure  of  ships  by  the  use  of 
accurately  constructed  models,  with  proper  technique  in  carrying  out 
the  tests.  This  would  permit  gaining  knowledge  as  to  the  performance 
of  such  structures  long  before  a  ship  itself  was  finished. 

This  work  was  started  with  elementary  models  of  the  hulls  of  ships, 
and  sectional  models  of  the  hulls  of  submarines.  Proving  successful, 
it  has  been  continued  to  the  present  time,  until  it  now  includes  deck 
and  bottom  structures,  turrets  and  their  foundations,  and  similar 
projects. 

The  next  problem  undertaken  in  this  field  was  the  resistance  of  the 
structure  of  ships  to  underwater  explosions.  It  was  soon  found  that, 
for  this  work  to  be  effective,  fundamental  knowledge  must  be  gained 
as  to  the  nature  of  the  underwater  explosions  themselves.  With  the 
construction  of  the  new  Taylor  Model  Basin  an  extensive  research 
program  was  taken  in  hand  to  investigate  the  effect  of  the  explosion  of 
small  charges  against  simple  diaphragms,  and  also  to  study  the  explo- 
sions of  charges  themselves,  by  the  use  of  extremely  high-speed  under- 
water motion  photography.  From  this  research,  information  is  being 
gained  as  to  the  nature  of  explosions  themselves,  and  their  effect  upon 
the  structure  of  ships. 

A  third  most  important  work  of  this  division  is  that  of  investigating 
vibration  of  ships'  hulls  and  structural  foundations,  including  support 
of  instruments  and  other  equipment  aboard  ship.  Some  of  this  work 
is  done  at  the  model  basin  but  a  large  part  of  it  is  carried  out  aboard 
newly  commissioned  ships  of  the  fleet  when  undergoing  their  first 
high-speed  runs  and  gun-firing  trials. 

The  work  of  the  aeromechanics  division,  including  the  operation  of 
the  two  new  wind  tunnels,  is  concerned  principally  with  wind-tunnel 
tests  of  models  of  new  designs  of  airplanes  for  the  Bureau  of  Aero- 
nautics of  the  Navy  Department,  and  with  tests  to  determine  the  effects 
of  modifications  to  improve  the  performance  of  existing  designs. 
Wind-tunnel  tests  are  also  made  for  the  Bureau  of  Ordnance,  and 

619830 — 45 17 


248  ANNUAL  REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

other  government  departments,  to  assist  them  in  special  problems 
requiring  aerodynamic  information. 

To  construct  the  various  types  of  models  which  are  used  in  the  inves- 
tigations which  have  been  described,  two  separate  shops,  one  wood- 
working, the  other  metalworking,  form  an  integral  part  of  the  estab- 
lishment. The  former  exists  particularly  to  manufacture  the  wood 
models  of  ships,  aircraft,  or  other  forms  which  are  tested,  while  the 
latter  constructs  all  special  equipment,  instruments,  and  other  gear  as 
well  as  any  metal  models  used  in  the  tests  in  the  establishment. 

In  its  highly  technical  work  which,  in  many  of  its  aspects,  involves 
the  measurement  of  infinitely  small  units  of  time,  stress,  and  motion, 
the  Taylor  Model  Basin  has  taken  a  leading  place  in  the  development 
of  special  instruments.  As  two  examples  in  the  field  of  instrumenta- 
tion in  which  the  organization  has  become  preeminent,  the  work  in 
ultra-high-speed  motion  pictures  and  electronics  should  be  mentioned. 
The  basin  has  taken  a  leading  position  in  the  development  of  high- 
speed motion-picture  equipment  and  technique  to  record  the  details  of 
lightning-fast  phenomena  such  as  shock  and  explosion,  and  also  in  the 
development  of  electronic  measuring  instruments  accurately  to  record 
super-high-speed  events  such  as  the  pressure  curve  of  an  explosion,  or 
to  measure  infinitesimally  small  changes  in  displacement  for  obtaining 
data  on  vibrations  and  strains  in  structures. 

From  the  preceding  paragraphs  it  can  be  seen  how  large  a  part  the 
work  at  the  Taylor  Model  Basin  plays  in  the  technical  side  of  the  war 
effort.  Every  new  design  of  ship,  from  aircraft  carrier  to  landing 
barge,  is  checked  and  tested  as  to  its  form  and  power;  minesweeping 
gear,  insofar  as  its  performance  in  water  is  concerned,  is  tested  and 
run  in  model  or  full  size ;  special  weapons  and  devices  which  operate 
in  or  on  the  water  are  designed  as  to  their  hydrodynamic  features ;  and 
the  vibration  of  new  ships  and  their  ability  to  withstand  shock  are 
investigated.    The  list  could  be  multiplied  indefinitely. 

This  general  description  of  the  work  undertaken  and  now  under  way 
at  the  Taylor  Model  Basin,  and  the  special  items  listed,  would  not  be 
complete  without  comment  upon  the  quality  of  the  technical  reports 
which  make  available  for  use  the  actual  results  from  these  tests  and 
projects.  No  matter  how  thorough  and  complete  the  technical  studies 
and  tests  themselves  may  be,  if  they  are  not  so  written  up  and  presented 
as  to  be  understandable  and  clear  for  the  use  of  the  officials  for  whom 
the  tests  and  studies  are  made,  they  might  as  well  not  have  been  made 
at  all.  Particular  effort  has  been  made  in  the  preparation  of  better 
and  clearer  reports  by  progressive  development  of  reproduction  meth- 
ods, lay-out  styles,  and  writing  technique,  so  that  these  reports  may  be 
readily  understandable  by  those  who  desire  to  use  them.  The  success 
of  these  efforts  has  been  made  evident  in  the  widespread  demand  for 


TAYLOR    MODEL   BASIN — HOWARD  249 

Taylor  Model  Basin  reports  throughout  this  country  and  abroad  as 
well  ^s  by  the  various  agencies  of  the  Navy  itself. 

At  present  every  effort  of  the  Taylor  Model  Basin  staff  and  its  facili- 
ties is  being  applied  to  the  one  end  which  is  to  contribute  to  the 
maximum  of  their  abilities  to  the  early  winning  of  the  war.  Pure 
research  must  take  a  secondary  place,  but  it  is  only  through  the  pure 
research  carried  on  in  peacetime  and  the  skill  so  developed  in  the 
solving  of  similar  problems  that  quick  and  correct  answers  can  be 
found  now  for  the  urgent  problems  of  the  war. 

The  interest  of  the  country  in  research  has  increased  greatly  in  these 
most  recent  years.  It  is  greatly  to  be  hoped  that  when  peace  comes 
again  this  interest  will  not  lag  but  will  continue  so  strongly  that  this 
establishment  may  continue  to  operate  at  its  full  capacity,  so  that 
through  the  more  extensive  pure  research  then  possible,  technical 
improvements  in  the  design  and  construction  of  our  ships  and  naval 
weapons  may  increase.  Thus,  should  war  ever  again  be  forced  upon  us, 
we  may  feel  that  we  have  kept  ourselves  prepared  to  meet  the  technical 
problems  of  that  day. 


Smithsonian 

Report, 

1944.- 

—Howard 

Plate  2 

1 

! 

1 

BMnN<^JKSn^B^^^HB 

1 

■ 

1 

1.  David  W.  Taylor  Model  Basin.    July  1941. 
General  view  of  towing  carriage  1  over  the  deep-water  basin  with  a  ship  model  attached  to  the  towing 

dynamometer. 


2.   David  W.  Taylor  Model  basin.     March  28,  1941. 

Large  model  profiling  machine  in  operation.    Arm  and  vertical  shaft  of  the  Daniels  planer  may  be  seen  in 

the  foreground. 


Smithsonian  Report,  1944. — Howard 


Plate  3 


1.  David  w.  Taylor  Model  Basin,    august  20,  1941. 

Weighing  a  ship  model  preparatory  to  ballasting  it  to  the  proper  displacement,  draft,  and  trim.  All  models 
as  constructed  are  sufficiently  light  to  permit  adding  ballast  weights  to  make  their  weight  correspond  to 
the  probable  range  of  ship  displacements. 


2.  David  W.  Taylor  Model  Basin 
Placing  ballast  weights  into  ship  model  to  obtain  proper  trim  and  even  keel. 


Smithsonian  Report.  1 944 — Howard 


Plate  4 


1.  Engineer  Using   Dynamometer  for  Measuring   Model  Resistance. 


2.  CAViTATiNG   Model  Propeller  under  Test  in  i2-inch  Water  Tunnel. 

Picture  made  with  l/30000th-second  flash.  Note  heavy  tip  vortices,  considerable  laminar  cavitation  near 
tips,  and  the  start  of  burbling  cavitation  of  the  blade  face  near  the  hub.  This  is  a  right-hand  propeller 
and  the  water  is  flowing  from  left  to  right. 


RESEARCH  FOR  AERONAUTICS— ITS  PLANNING  AND 
APPLICATION  1 


By  W.  S.  Fabeen 
Director,  Royal  Aircraft  Estahlishment 


INTRODUCTION 

The  exceptional  circumstances  of  the  times  make  it  impossible  for 
me  to  observe  the  letter  of  what  I  know  is  the  Institute's  wish  in  the 
choice  of  a  subject,  though  I  believe  I  can  conform  to  it  in  spirit.  The 
Institute  desires  that  the  lecturer  shall  deal  with  some  scientific  or 
technical  subject  on  which  he  is,  or  has  been,  personally  engaged,  and 
shall  not  indulge  in  broad  surveys.  There  will  come  a  time  when  the 
lecturer's  chief  difficulty  will  be  to  choose  from  the  embarrassingly 
rich  store  of  knowledge  which  has  accumulated  during  this  war.  But 
for  the  time  being  the  door  of  that  store  cannot  be  opened  in  public. 
Moreover,  I  doubt  whether  the  part  that  I  have  played  in  a  large 
number  of  fascinating  and  exciting  investigations  during  the  last 
4  or  5  years  is  such  that  I  could  fairly  deprive  those  who  have  done 
the  work  of  the  privilege  of  speaking  about  it.  This  is  a  difficulty 
that  has  always  faced  those  who  hold  such  positions  as  mine,  and  one 
of  which  your  Council  were  no  doubt  well  aware  when  they  invited  me. 

I  have  long  been  concerned  with  the  problems  that  arise  in  applying 
the  advances  in  knowledge  which  research  for  aeronautics  has  brought 
us  and  with  the  problems  of  planning  the  course  of  current  research 
and  of  providing  appropriate  and  timely  resources  for  future  research. 
I  believe  that  these  are  matters  that  might  with  advantage  be  surveyed 
as  a  whole,  in  a  scientific  spirit.  Moreover,  I  believe  that  the  subject 
can  usefully  be  treated  in  a  purely  personal  way,  and  I  have  through- 
out drawn  on  my  own  experience. 

From  this  it  follows  that  any  conclusions  I  draw  apply  only  to  the 
circumstances  in  my  own  country,  or  rather  to  my  own  interpretation 
of  what  they  have  been  and  may  be.  It  will  be  for  you,  not  for  me, 
to  say  whether  you  find  them  in  any  way  relevant  to  circumstances 

^  The  seventh  Wright  Brothers  lecture,  presented  before  the  Institute  of  the  Aeronautical 
Sciences  In  the  U.  S.  Chamber  of  Commerce  Auditorium,  Washington,  D.  C,  December  17, 
1943.  Reprinted  by  permission  from  the  Journal  of  Aeronautical  Sciences,  vol.  11, 
No.  2,  April  1944. 

251 


252  ANNUAL   REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

in  the  United  States.  But  the  intimate  relations  that  have  existed 
between  workers  in  America  and  in  England,  in  the  field  in  which 
my  interests  and  responsibilities  lie,  give  me  the  courage  to  believe  that 
a  summary  of  my  experience  may  be  of  interest  to  you,  and  worthy  of 
this  occasion. 

THE  AIM  OF  RESEARCH 

Research  is  one  of  the  things  we  all  understand  but  find  difficult 
to  define.  In  the  foreword  to  a  recent  pamphlet  on  Industrial  Re- 
search, Sir  Harold  Hartley  defined  it  as  "a  habit  of  mind  which  makes 
us  attack  every  problem,  big  or  small,  in  an  orderly,  systematic  way, 
using  if  possible  the  advantages  that  modern  science  can  give  us." 
I  remember  Lord  Rutherford,  in  a  characteristically  expansive  and 
emphatic  mood,  using  almost  the  same  words.  I  invite  you  to  note 
the  two  words  "if  possible."  There  are  limits  to  what  "modern  science" 
can  do  for  us.  In  research,  as  in  other  human  activities,  we  depend  a 
good  deal  on  our  wits.  There  is  limitless  opportunity  for  intuition 
and  initiative. 

The  aim  of  research  is  to  produce  a  theory  firmly  supported  by 
experimental  evidence.  Though  necessarily  incomplete,  it  must  be 
a  close  enough  approximation  to  serve  the  man  who  has  to  make 
things  work.  I  trust  you  will  not  infer  from  this  statement  that  I  am 
interested  in  research  only  for  what  I  can  get  out  of  it.  I  have  known 
the  thrill  of  working  solely  for  the  fun  of  it.  But  I  am  interested, 
for  the  time  being,  in  research  with  a  clear  and  unmistakable  objec- 
tive— the  discovery  of  how  to  make  better  aircraft.  It  is  my  experience 
that,  for  such  research  to  be  not  only  fruitful  but  timely,  it  is  essential 
that  the  practical  problems  involved  in  its  eventual  application  shall 
always  be  clear  to  those  who  are  doing  it.  This  need  not  in  any  way 
restrict  their  freedom.  Indeed,  they  can  gain  immensely  from  contact 
with  those  upon  whom  the  burden  of  applying  their  work  is  placed. 

The  theme  I  have  taken  is  indeed  that  it  is  only  by  intimate  and 
wholehearted  collaboration  between  the  research  worker,  the  designer, 
the  constructor,  and  the  user  that  research  can  be  intelligently  planned, 
pursued,  and  applied. 

THE  INDEPENDENT  WORKER  IN  RESEARCH 

As  a  preliminary  I  propose  to  give  you  an  example  from  my  earlier 
experience  which  I  feel  puts  the  point  as  it  appears  to  the  independent 
research  worker. 

I  have  been  personally  concerned  with  research  in  flight  for  nearly 
30  years.  The  two  chief  aerodynamic  problems  have  been,  and  still 
are,  the  reduction  of  drag  and  the  improvement  of  stability  and  con- 
trol.   Throughout,  these  problems  have  been  attacked  in  the  light  of 


RESEARCH    FOR  AERONAUTICS — FARREN  253 

the  practical  questions  thrown  up  by  continuous  contact,  on  the  one 
hand,  with  those  who  design  and  build  aircraft  and,  on  the  other,  with 
those  who  use  them.  In  my  experience  it  has  been  this  intimate  rela- 
tion between  the  three  parties  which  has  made  this  work  so  continu- 
ously exciting  and,  I  believe,  profitable.  On  looking  back  I  cannot  find 
any  example  that  convinces  me  that  we  should  have  moved  more 
quickly  or  more  certainly  had  work  on  the  fundamentals  been  divorced 
from  that  on  problems  of  the  moment. 

It  is  true  that  at  times,  while  we  were  developing  our  theory,  we 
had  the  advantage — and  this  adds  to  my  point — of  individual  work 
going  on  in  flight,  under  conditions  which  I  now  believe  to  have  been 
ideal.  When  I  was  one  of  the  team  who  worked  on  these  subjects  at 
Cambridge,  we  often  felt  that  we  could  do  more,  or  do  it  more  quickly, 
if  only  we  had  more  of  something — men,  airplanes,  workshops — but 
chiefly  more  hours  in  the  day.  In  truth,  I  think  we  did  as  much  as  was 
physically  possible  without  enlarging  our  organization,  and,  if  we  had 
done  that,  our  work  would  have  changed  in  character  and  would,  I 
believe,  have  been  less  effective.  That  it  had  effect,  and  quickly,  was 
due  to  our  close  relation  with  the  establishments  that  had  the  necessary 
resources  to  exploit  it  for  practical  purposes  with  which  they  were 
intimately  acquainted.  They  seized  it  and  rapidly  developed  it.  Its 
practical  effect  can  now  be  seen  not  only  in  many  aircraft  but  in  the 
research  equipment  and  programs  of  work. 

You  will  remember  Sir  Melvill  Jones's  first  Wright  Brothers  lecture, 
in  which  he  described  some  of  the  work  I  have  just  referred  to  on  the 
boundary  layer.  From  my  own  share  in  that  work  I  can  say  that  we 
were  profoundly  excited  by  the  problems  themselves  and  by  the  fasci- 
nation of  trying  to  solve  them  by  experiments  in  flight.  But  we  were 
stimulated,  and  all  our  discussions  were  illuminated,  by  the  realization 
of  the  potential  application  of  their  results.  This  we  obtained  from 
our  constant  personal  contacts  with  the  experimental  establishments 
and  with  aircraft  designers. 

Thus  my  experience  leads  me  to  the  conclusion  that,  while  there 
should  be  no  explicit  attempt  to  divorce  work  on  basic  problems  from 
that  on  immediate  ones  of  narrower  range,  the  fullest  encouragement 
and  practical  support  should  be  given  to  independent  workers.  What 
form  this  should  take  I  hesitate  to  define.  My  own  preference  is  not 
for  large  endowments  to  institutions  in  the  hope  that  they  may  attract 
good  men.  I  would  rather  make  generous  finance  available  through 
some  semi-independent  advisory  organization  when  the  need  is  made 
clear  by  the  development  of  the  work.  This  may  be  either  in  cash  or 
in  kind.  We  at  Cambridge  had  very  little  money,  but  the  country 
supplied  us  with  airplanes  and  maintained  and  renewed  them.  My 
only  concern  is  that  the  ponderous  workings  of  the  machinery  of  gov- 


254         ANNUAL  REPORT  SMITHSONIAN   INSTITUTION,    1944 

ernment,  when  finance  is  involved,  may  result  in  the  essential  help 
coming  too  late.  One  day  we  shall  learn  to  trust  our  scientific  advisers 
with  a  reasonable  fraction  of  our  money  on  a  block-grant  basis  and 
ask  no  account  except  at  longish  intervals. 

RESEARCH  ON  A  LARGE  SCALE 

I  come  now  to  that  class  of  research  for  aeronautics  whose  scale  is 
such  that  success  depends  on  planning  of  large  experimental  resources 
and  on  planning  so  that  application  to  practice  may  meet  the  foreseen 
needs  of  design  and  its  capacity  to  exploit  new  discoveries. 

We  must,  in  my  view,  plan  research  for  aeronautics  in  three  phases. 
First,  we  must  relate  all  our  main  effort  to  advances  in  basic  theory. 
Odd  pieces  of  information  without  a  clear,  strong  framework  are 
worth  little.  Second,  we  must  f)rovide  the  experimental  information 
by  which  theory  may  be  built  up  and  its  limitations  recognized  and 
reduced.  Third,  we  must  ensure  that  experimental  application  is 
made  in  such  conditions  that  the  practical  value  of  the  theory  is 
confirmed. 

There  are  three  chief  parties  to  this  undertaking:  first,  those  who 
are  by  trade  workers  in  the  field  of  theory  and  those  who  have  the 
flair  for  the  associated  exploration  by  experiment;  second,  those  who 
make  use  of  the  results  in  the  design  and  construction  of  aircraft ;  and 
third,  those  who  use  the  aircraft  and  on  whom  we  rely  to  exploit  the 
product  of  the  efforts  of  the  first  and  second.  The  extent  to  which 
these  should  enter  into  planning  of  research  can  be  illustrated  by  an 
example — the  problem  of  reducing  the  cooling  drag  of  power  plants. 

That  it  is  possible  to  reduce  the  power  wasted  in  cooling  an  airplane 
power  plant  to  2  percent  or  less  of  the  brake  horsepower  was  estab- 
lished many  years  ago.  Indeed,  it  was  shown  that  at  flight  speeds  that 
were  then  within  sight  and  have  now  been  passed  the  cooling  could  be 
made  to  help  to  propel  the  airplane.  But  the  cooling  of  a  power  plant 
is  a  matter  that  goes  far  beyond  broad  conceptions  of  this  kind.  It 
involves  complex  flows  of  air  and  liquids,  demanding  regulation  to 
meet  the  varying  conditions  of  flight  and  high  standards  of  reliability 
in  functioning  and  of  ease  of  maintenance,  which  are  of  the  greatest 
concern  to  the  user. 

It  was  not  until  other  developments  had  reduced  the  rest  of  the  drag 
so  much  that  the  power-plant  drag  was  a  dominating  factor  that  the 
designer  became  convinced  that  the  problem  demanded  his  serious 
attention.  He  has  finally  succeeded  in  producing  cooling  systems  that 
are  no  less  reliable  and  have  a  much  lower  drag.  The  user  accepts 
the  slight  additional  embarrassment  to  maintenance  in  return  for  the 
higher  speed  and  greater  range. 


RESEARCH   FOR  AERONAUTICS — FARREN  255 

But  the  practical  problems  of  achieving  the  full  result  are  still  only 
partially  solved.  Few  power  plants  will  stand  up  to  critical  examina- 
tion on  such  points  as  low-loss  ducting  or  airtight  cowlings.  It  is  a 
difficult  engineering  problem  to  design  and  make  such  features  at  the 
same  time  light  and  easily  removable  and  replaceable  without  damage. 

Throughout  the  whole  history  of  this  development  there  has  been 
intimate  association  between  the  three  parties  chiefly  concerned.  But 
in  my  view  we  can  now  see  that  a  better  planning  of  the  enterprise  as 
a  whole  would  have  saved  much  time  and  waste  of  work.  In  particu- 
lar, an  earlier  realization  by  the  designer  of  the  outstanding  advance 
that  was  within  his  grasp  would  have  brought  him  to  a  closer  coopera- 
tion, on  strictly  practical  lines,  with  his  only  source  of  specific  infor- 
mation— the  research  establishments.  They  in  turn  were  backward  in 
that  they  did  not  provide  themselves  with  the  right  material  by  which 
alone  convincing  information,  directly  applicable  to  practical  prob- 
lems, could  be  obtained.  This  is  a  case  in  which  I  believe  the  enlight- 
ened user,  if  correctly  advised,  could  have  forced  the  pace. 

A  SURVEY  OF  25  YEARS'  ACHIEVEMENT 

The  final  criterion  of  our  success  in  using  the  knowledge  with  which 
we  have  been  supplied  is  the  extent  to  which  the  product  of  our  efforts 
has  improved  as  time  has  passed.  The  curve  of  advance  is  not  a 
smooth  one.  Over  longish  periods  we  often  see  little  beyond  a  slow 
rise  in  achievement,  and  we  tend  to  believe  that  there  is  little  more  to 
be  expected.  Then  there  comes  something  in  the  nature  of  a  trans- 
formation. It  is  often  ascribed  to  a  single  cause  and,  generally,  one 
can  say  that  there  is  an  outstanding  stimulus.  But  if  we  compare  the 
final  product — in  this  case,  the  airplane  itself — before  and  after  the 
event,  allowing  a  long  enough  time  for  the  situation  to  reach  a  fairly 
stable  state,  we  can  make  a  fair  assessment  of  the  relative  weight  of  all 
the  influences  which  have  contributed  to  the  change.  I  believe  such 
an  examination  of  the  advance  of  the  airplane  between  say  1917  and 
1942  is  useful  in  providing  us  not  only  with  a  means  of  examining  how 
far  we  have  been  successful  in  using  the  results  of  research  but  also  a 
guide  to  the  part  played  by  sheer  engineering  skill  and  initiative. 
Finally,  it  may  serve  as  a  base  from  which  we  may  survey  some  of  the 
potential  advances  that  are  now  opening  out  to  us  and  judge  what 
resources  we  shall  need  in  order  to  achieve  them. 

I  shall  take  two  typical  aircraft  that  were  in  general  and  successful 
use  in  1917  and  compare  them  with  two  modern  aircraft  of  similar 
duties.  Naturally  there  are  striking  differences,  and  we  shall  find  no 
difficulty  in  tracing  them  to  their  sources.  But  perhaps  equally  strik- 
ing are  the  characteristics  that  have  apparently  undergone  little 


256  ANNUAL  REPORT   SMITHSONIAN   INSTITUTION,    1944 

change.  I  think,  however,  that  we  shall  see  that  the  effort  to  preserve 
them  unchanged  has  made  as  high  a  demand  on  research  and  engi- 
neering skill  as  that  required  to  produce  the  more  obvious  improve- 
ments. 

During  the  last  war  the  Royal  Aircraft  Factory  (which  became  the 
Eoyal  Aircraft  Establishment  in  April  1918)  produced  many  designs 
for  aircraft  which  were  constructed  in  large  numbers.  One  of  the  most 
successful  was  the  S.  E.  5,  a  single-seat  fighter  with  a  180-hp.  Hispano 
Suiza  engine.  It  had  a  creditable  history  as  a  fighter.  I  propose 
to  compare  it  with  a  Spitfire.  Then  I  shall  take  the  Handley  Page 
0/400  twin-engined  heavy  bomber  and  compare  it  with  a  Lancaster. 

I  shall  not  be  giving  away  any  information  to  our  enemies.  They 
are  well  acquainted,  in  more  ways  than  one,  with  both  Spitfires  and 
Lancasters.  Some  of  them  may  even  remember  the  S.  E.  5  and  the 
0/400.  For  my  purpose  it  is  quite  sufficient  to  take  examples  of  marks 
of  the  modern  types  whose  performance  has  long  been  surpassed. 

Let  us  first  look  at  them  in  general  outline.  Figure  1  shows  the 
1917  fighter.  In  Figure  2  its  specifically  military  features  have  dis- 
appeared and  around  it  is  the  outline  of  the  Schneider  Trophy 
streamlined  monoplane,  the  essential  product  of  the  period  between 
the  two  world  wars.  Figure  3  shows  the  1942  fighter.  In  Figures 
4,  5,  and  6  is  shown  the  transition  from  the  1917  bomber,  through  the 
streamlined  airliner,  to  the  1942  bomber.  The  most  obvious  differ- 
ences are  the  change  from  biplane  to  monoplane  and  the  general 
cleaning-up  due  to  enclosing  the  crew,  abolis|iing  external  wing 
bracing,  and  retracting  the  undercarriage.  Comparing  them  type 
by  type,  the  over-all  dimensions  are  not  very  different.  The  Spitfire 
has  the  same  wing  surface  as  the  S.E.5,  about  half  the  drag,  nearly 
twice  the  strength,  three  times  the  speed,  four  times  the  total  weight, 
four  times  the  military  load,  and  seven  times  the  power.  The  Lan- 
caster has  about  half  the  drag  of  the  Handley  Page  0/400  on  the  same 
span  of  wings  and  about  three-quarters  the  wing  surface.  Its  total 
weight  is  nearly  five  times  as  great ;  the  wing  loading,  over  six  times ; 
the  power,  seven  times;  and  the  military  load,  with  a  25  percent 
greater  range,  over  eight  times.  Let  us  inquire  how  some  of  these 
improvements  have  been  made. 

DRAG  REDUCTION 

The  change  in  drag  coefficient  C-do  is  of  first  interest.  I  have  not 
found  it  possible  to  get  accurate  figures  for  the  older  aircraft,  but 
they  are  approximately  0.039  for  the  fighter  and  0.046  for  the  bomber. 
The  corresponding  modern  figures  are  0.022  for  the  Spitfire  and  0.030 
for  the  Lancaster.  Thus,  per  square  foot  of  wing  surface,  the  total 
drag  has  been  reduced  to  about  55  and  65  percent  of  the  1917  standard. 


RESEARCH  FOR  AERONAUTICS — FARREN 


257 


FiGUEE    1. 


Figure  2. 


Figure  3. 


258  ANNUAL  REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 


RESEARCH   FOR  AERONAUTICS — FARREN 


259 


Comparing  the  two  fighters  in  more  detail,  we  find  first  that  the 
wing  surface  is  the  same  for  both.  Disregarding  induced  drag  (or 
assuming  it  to  be  the  same  fraction  of  the  whole  in  each),  the  top 
speed  at  the  same  height  will  be  proportional  to  the  cube  root  of 
the  thrust  power  divided  by  the  drag  coefficient.  Since  the  pro- 
peller efficiency  is  near  enough  the  same  for  both,  we  may  use  brake 
power.  Taking  ground-level  powers  in  both  cases — 180  hp.  for  the 
Hispano  and  1,250  for  the  Merlin — the  ratio  is  about  7.  Thus  the 
contributions  to  increase  of  speed  are: 

(0.039X^/2 
— ^- —  J      =1.21 


by  increase  of  power  (7)^''^ 


=  1.92 


The  product  of  these  figures  is  2.33. 

If  we  assume  that  by  supercharging  it  is  possible  to  keep  the  Merlin 
power  constant  up  to  say  25,000  feet,  where  the  density  is  approxi- 
mately halved,  we  shall  get  a  further  rise: 

by  supercharging^  (2)^/^  =  1.26 

The  total  ratio  of  increase  is  therefore  nearly  3. 

At  this  point  I  feel  that  the  engine  people  are  feeling  very  pleased — 
and  we  have  good  reason  to  acknowledge  the  success  of  their  effort. 
But  these  figures  as  they  stand  do  less  than  justice  to  the  aerodynamic 
contribution.  All  the  cooling  required  by  the  seven-times  increased 
power  has  been  provided  and  yet  the  aircraft  has  no  more  than  half 
the  drag  per  square  foot  of  wetted  surface. 

How  have  these  improvements  been  made?  Let  us  look  first  at 
the  drag  account  (table  1).  To  the  saving  of  47  pounds,  the  most 
obvious  contributions  are  from  the  elimination  of  wing  bracing  and 
undercarriage — 31  pounds  in  all.  But  the  body  and  cooling  drag  is 
actually  reduced  by  over  10  percent  in  spite  of  the  sevenfold  increase 
of  power. 


Table  1 


S.  E.  5  drag 
at  100  ft. 
per  sec. 

Spitfire  drag 
at  100  ft. 
per  sec. 

Wings 

Pounds 
28 
15 
44 
7 
16 

Pounds 
20 

Wing  bracing 

Body  and  cooling 

38  6 

Tail  surfaces 

4.4 

Undercarriage 

Total. 

110 
0.039 

63 

Cdo--- 

0.022 

260  ANNUAL  REPORT   SMITHSONIAN   INSTITUTION,    1944 

Table  2 


S.  E.5 

Spitfire 

FW190 

Structure                    .                 -- 

Percent 
29.7 
37.1 
15.4 
17.8 

Percent 
28.9 
38.0 
16.6 
16.5 

Percent 

30.9 

Power  plant      .  .           .      -  

35.7 

Fuel    

14.3 

Load                               -                           ---    -  

19.1 

Total 

100.0 
6 

100.0 
10 

100.0 

For  the  bomber,  the  reduction  in  C-do  is  rather  less  than  for  the 
fighter  on  account  of  the  drag  of  defensive  armament,  but  otherwise 
the  influences  operating  have  been  much  the  same. 

Toward  the  end  of  my  paper  I  shall  say  something  about  what 
further  improvements  in  drag  are  in  sight  and  what  problems  we 
have  to  solve  in  order  to  achieve  them. 

WEIGHT  ANALYSIS 

Let  us  look  next  at  the  weight  picture.  The  Spitfire  weighs  four 
times  as  much  as  the  S.  E.  5 ;  the  Lancaster,  nearly  five  times  as  much 
as  the  0/400.  What  has  made  it  possible  to  carry  so  much  additional 
weight  per  square  foot  of  wing  surface — for  the  fighter  four  times, 
for  the  bomber  six  times  as  much?  In  the  airplane  itself,  first,  the 
development  of  flaps  giving  higher  maximum  lift  coefficient  and  higher 
drag;  second,  power  plants  of  much  greater  power  per  unit  weight; 
and,  third,  constant-speed  propellers  to  make  the  power  fully 
available  over  a  wide  speed  range.  But  larger  and  better  airfields, 
permitting  higher  take-off  and  landing  speeds  and  better  flying  tech- 
nique, have  contributed  even  more.  The  effective  maximum  lift 
coefficient  has  risen  by  about  65  percent.  Even  so,  the  touch-down  and 
take-off  speeds,  with  the  higher  wing  loadings,  are  50  to  80  percent 
higher. 

A  comparison  of  the  weight  analyses  and  load  factors  of  the  fighters 
is  given  in  table  2.  As  a  matter  of  interest,  I  have  given  also  the 
weight  analysis  for  the  FW  190. 

How  has  this  remarkable  similarity  of  weight  distribution  been 
maintained?  From  the  structural  point  of  view,  it  is  essentially  by 
increasing  wing  loading  four  times  that  it  has  been  possible  to  go 
from  braced  biplane  to  monoplane  with  nearly  double  the  primary 
strength,  from  fabric  covering  to  a  metal  skin,  and  from  a  fixed  to  a 
retractable  undercarriage  with  no  significant  changes  in  percentage 
structure  weight. 

From  the  point  of  view  of  the  power  plant,  we  have  to  record  a  rise 
in  the  net  output  per  pound  of  complete  plant  in  the  ratio  of  about 
7  to  4.     The  complete  plant  of  1942  includes  both  constant-speed  pro- 


RESEARCH  FOR  AERONAUTICS — FARREN 


261 


peller  and  supercharging  arrangements  by  which  the  power  is  main- 
tained up  to  heights  at  which  the  air  density  is  half,  or  even  less  than 
half,  of  that  at  ground  level. 

For  the  same  percentage  fuel  weight  the  range  is  some  40  percent 
better  at  a  much  higher  cruising  speed.  Specific  fuel  consumption 
is  much  the  same  in  spite  of  the  great  improvement  in  specific  per- 
formance achieved  in  the  face  of  the  burden  of  supercharging.  We 
must  acknowledge  here  the  tremendous  contribution  of  high-octane 
fuel. 

We  are  left  in  both  cases  with  about  one-sixth  of  the  total  weight 
for  the  man,  his  equipment,  and  armament.  The  weight  of  the  man 
is  the  same  as  it  was.  In  1918  it  exceeded  that  of  his  whole  fighting 
equipment.  Today  it  is  but  a  fraction  of  it.  The  weight  of  the 
bullets  alone  in  the  modern  fighter  exceeds  that  of  the  whole  arma- 
ment of  the  S.  E.  5. 

For  the  bombers,  weight  analyses  are  strikingly  different  from 
those  of  the  fighters  (table  3).  In  1917  we  thought  it  natural  for  the 
structure  weight  of  a  large  bomber  to  be  greater  than  that  of  a  small 
fighter — 40.4  percent  compared  with  29.7  percent.  In  fact  there  was 
a  view,  widely  held  and  expressed  somewhat  forcibly  by  Dr.  Lan- 
chester,  that  aircraft  of  larger  span  than  say  100  feet  would  be 
uneconomical  because  of  the  operation  of  the  square-cube  law  char- 
acteristic of  geometrically  similar  structures.  Designers,  aided  by 
research,  have  managed  to  avoid  the  consequences  of  this  law.  They 
have  been  so  successful  that  the  structure  weight  percentage  for  the 
Lancaster  is  practically  the  same  as  that  for  the  Spitfire.  The  load 
factor  of  the  bomber  is,  of  course,  much  lower  than  that  of  the  fighter. 
But  it  is  probably  little  different  from  that  of  the  1917  bomber. 
The  progress  that  has  been  made  is  therefore  remarkable. 


Tables 


Handley 
Page  0/400 

Lancaster 

structure 

Percent 
40.4 
22.0 
19.3 
18.3 

Percent 

31.4 

Power  plant 

16.4 

Fuel  . -_- _         _  -. 

19  8 

Load -- -.- -- 

32.4 

Total 

100.0 

100.0 

In  the  achievements  summarized  above  I  think  aerodynamic,  struc- 
tural, and  power-plant  improvements  can  fairly  claim  about  equal 
shares,  and  to  each,  I  suggest,  the  contributions  of  research  and  of  en- 
gineering skill  and  ingenuity  have  been  about  equal.  To  pursue  the 
analysis  would  lead  me  away  from  my  main  theme.  But  I  think  we 
may,  with  advantage,  examine  the  history  of  effort  in  the  structural  and 


262  ANNUAL  REPORT   SMITHSONIAN   INSTITUTION,    1944 

aerodynamic  fields  a  little  further  in  order  to  show  the  nature  of  the 
difficulties  that  have  been  met  and  the  methods  by  which  they  have  been 
overcome. 

STRUCTURAL  DEVELOPMENTS 

In  1917  the  great  majority  of  aircraft  structures  were  made  of  wood 
and  steel.  Light  alloys  were  little  used.  Wing  surfaces  were  covered 
with  fabric,  and  torsional  stiffness  requirements  were  met  by  the  bi- 
plane wing  structure.  Today,  with  few  exceptions,  we  use  light  alloy 
for  the  primary  structure,  and  torsional  stiffness  is  derived  in  most 
cases  from  the  light-alloy  sheet  wing  covering.  The  very  con- 
siderable improvement  that  has  been  made  in  aluminum-rich  alloys 
contributes  chiefly  to  the  wing  spars.  There  is  as  yet  no  marked  sign  of 
a  development  in  their  properties  or  application  which  will  reduce  the 
weight  involved  in  meeting  torsional  stiffness  requirements.  This  is,  of 
course,  because  these  involve  stability  rather  than  strength  character- 
istics. 

I  do  not  suggest  that  the  enormous  effort  that  has  been  put  into  im- 
proving aircraft  materials  has  not  contributed  to  the  maintenance  of 
structure  weight  at  a  remarkably  low  figure  in  spite  of  increases  of 
speed,  strength  requirements,  and  size.  But  it  is  significant  that  the 
Mosquito  airplane,  which  is  made  almost  entirely  of  wood,  has  a  struc- 
ture weight  as  low  as  that  of  the  equivalent  metal  airplane. 

One  feature  of  the  modem  aircraft  which  has  undoubtedly  con- 
tributed to  a  more  economical  wing  structure,  in  particular,  is  the  great 
increase  of  wing  loading  and  therefore  of  wing  weight  per  unit  area, 
which  has  made  it  possible  to  employ  the  material  to  much  greater  ad- 
vantage— i.  e.,  to  have  a  smaller  percentage  of  relatively  lowly  stressed 
material.  This  brings  me  to  one  of  the  outstanding  contributions  of 
research  to  aeronautics — namely,  that  derived  from  the  investigation 
of  the  strength  of  actual  structures  in  close  association  with  theoretic 
analysis.  It  is  by  such  work  that  it  has  been  possible  to  increase  greatly 
the  useful  load  of  practically  all  aircraft  now  in  use.  The  most 
thorough  mechanical  testing  of  aircraft  structures  undoubtedly  pays  a 
high  dividend.  These  tests  have  not  only  shown  us  that  our  methods  of 
design  have  led  to  general  forms  of  structure  well  adapted  to  meet  the 
demands  on  them,  and  fundamentally  economical  in  character,  but  have 
enabled  us  to  discover  where  our  knowledge  of  the  detailed  distribution 
of  stresses  is  inadequate  and  at  the  same  time  to  improve  that  knowl- 
edge and  to  strengthen  the  structure  against  unforeseen  local  weak- 
nesses. 

The  determination  of  the  loads  that  the  structure  is  called  upon  to 
bear  is  fundamentally  a  more  difficult  problem.  We  are  greatly  in- 
debted to  such  methods  as  the  V.  G.  recorder,  but  these  give  us  only 
over-all  figures  that,  useful  as  they  are,  throw  little  light  on  the  load 


RESEARCH  FOR  AERONAUTICS — FARREN  263 

distrioution  in  flight.  We  have  now  available  a  method  of  great  po- 
tency in  the  electrical  resistance  strain  gauge.  This  is  being  used  with 
great  effect  on  a  large  scale  in  laboratory  tests,  and  its  application  to 
measurements  in  flight  is  being  rapidly  developed.  It  will  undoubtedly 
prove  to  be  one  of  the  greatest  contributions  of  the  research  worker  to 
improvement  in  the  structures  of  aircraft. 

Possibly  the  greatest  achievement  of  the  research  worker  in  the  field 
of  aircraft  structures  is  in  discovering  how  to  avoid  the  dangers  of  what 
we  comprise  in  the  term  "flutter."  In  my  view,  there  is  in  the  whole  of 
aircraft  engineering  no  better  example  of  the  power  of  mathematical 
analysis,  of  ingenuity  in  experiment,  and  of  skill  in  interpretation. 
The  successful  attainment  of  very  high  speeds,  with  a  remarkably  small 
number  of  serious  failures,  can  only  be  ascribed  to  the  most  skilled  use 
of  all  these  resources,  guided  by  systematic  review  of  the  results  of  their 
application.  Direct  experiment  in  flight — the  only  satisfactory 
check — is  almost  impracticable.  Laboratory  determination  of  reliable 
numerical  values  of  the  essential  quantities  involved  is  extremely  dif- 
ficult. Much  more  information  on  these  is  essential  for  progress,  and 
here  the  designer  can  justifiably  demand  all  that  research  can  provide. 

STABILITY  AND  CONTROL 

Up  to  this  point  I  have  said  nothing  of  the  contribution  of  research 
to  the  production  of  stable  and  controllable  aircraft.  I  am  glad  to 
say  that  the  time  is  now  long  past  when  lack  of  stability  is  regarded 
by  anyone  as  a  virtue  in  an  aircraft.  In  fact  it  is  unquestionably  a 
most  serious  defect,  whatever  the  duty  of  the  aircraft.  But  it  has 
always  been  difficult  to  define  the  necessary  or  desirable  margins  of 
stability  and  the  associated  general  stability  and  control  character- 
istics. The  designer  must,  however,  have  the  requirements  expressed 
in  terms  that  can  be  reflected  in  his  lay-out,  both  as  a  whole  and  in 
detail.  He  must  be  able  to  judge  fairly  accurately  how  the  changes  in- 
evitable as  a  design  develops  will  react  on  the  stability  and  control, 
and  he  must  have  at  his  disposal  means  of  dealing  economically  with  the 
consequences  both  of  the  variation  of  load  distribution  resulting  from 
operational  conditions  and  of  the  changes  involved  in  the  development 
of  the  aircraft. 

There  is  a  good  deal  about  the  stability  and  control  of  aircraft  in 
which  there  has  been  little  apparent  change  over  the  period  covered 
by  the  examples  I  have  taken.  I  believe,  however,  that  this  is  simply 
because  the  desirable  general  characteristics  were  attained  by  about 
1918.  Since  then  our  main  problems  have  been,  first,  to  preserve  them 
substantially  unchanged  in  spite  of  the  profound  changes  in  the  form 
of  aircraft  and,  second,  to  enable  the  same  man  to  control  much  larger 
and  much  faster  aircraft. 

619830 — 45 18 


264  ANNUAL  REPORT   SMITHSONIAN   INSTITUTION,    1944 

The  foundations  of  stability  and  control  theory  were  laid,  and  well 
laid,  long  ago.  Much  labor  has  been  spent  on  expanding  it  to  embrace 
new  developments,  such  as  structural  distortion,  and  on  the  analysis 
of  the  controlled  and  uncontrolled  motion  of  aircraft.  A  vast  amount 
of  experimental  evidence  has  been  accumulated.  Much  of  this,  how- 
ever, is  related  rather  to  specific  problems  than  to  the  systematic  devel- 
opment of  an  understanding  of  the  matter.  There  is  room  here  for  a 
wholesale  improvement,  particularly  by  an  attack  on  a  wider  front  in 
flight.  I  am  not  among  those  who  criticize  our  record  here  on  the 
grounds  that  we  did  not  undertake  enough  basic  work  at  the  time  when 
the  airplane,  as  we  now  know  it,  first  crystallized.  I  regret  that  cir- 
cumstances made  it  impossible  to  give  this  work  high  priority.  Had 
we  been  able  to  do  so,  we  might  have  avoided  many  troubles  and  saved 
much  labor.  But  I  do  not  believe  that,  on  the  balance,  we  would  have 
reached  our  objective — usable  aircraft — more  quickly.  We  relied  on 
our  past  experience,  on  our  ability  to  improvise,  and — most  significant 
of  all — on  our  conviction  that  the  theory  available  was  soundly 
founded  on  experimental  evidence.  We  discovered,  by  the  attacks  we 
were  forced  to  make  on  troubles  as  they  arose,  much  more  about  sta- 
bility and  control  than  most  of  us  believed  there  was  to  learn.  Thus, 
and  I  believe  only  thus,  could  we  have  advanced  at  the  rate  we  did. 
It  is  an  excellent  example  of  the  interworking  of  research  and 
application. 

In  the  field  of  control  balance  we  have  made  tremendous  advances 
in  the  face  of  difficulties  that  are  sometimes  hardly  appreciated.  The 
1917  bomber  operated  at  speeds — 80  to  100  m.p.h. — at  which  the  pilot 
could  provide  the  forces  necessary  for  control  with  little  or  no  aero- 
dynamic balance.  Take  the  0/400  ailerons.  The  maximum  hinge 
moment  required  was  probably  equivalent  to  a  force  on  the  pilot's 
hand  of  the  order  of  50  pounds,  with  ailerons  on  which  the  aero- 
dynamic balance  was  probably  no  better  than  one-half.  In  the  Lan- 
caster the  same  movement  of  surfaces  of  about  the  same  size  is  required 
at  300  m.p.h.,  requiring  nine  times  the  forces.  The  pilot  is  no  stronger, 
so  the  aerodynamic  balance  must  reduce  the  hinge  moment  to  say  one- 
eighteenth  of  that  of  unbalanced  ailerons.  This  is  a  difficult  require- 
ment but  it  has  been  met. 

Suppose  we  put  up  the  weight  at  the  same  wing  loading  to  100,000 
pounds,  one  and  one-half  times  that  of  the  Lancaster.  The  linear 
dimensions  will  rise  in  the  ratio  1.5  '^''^  and  the  hinge  moment  at  the 
same  speed  in  the  ratio  1.5  ^i"^.  The  aerodynamic  balance  must  there- 
fore reduce  the  hinge  moment  in  the  ratio 

1/(2)  (1.5)3/2(3)2  =  1/30 

A  similar  argument  leads  to  a  figure  of  1/400  if  the  weight  is  increased 
to  500,000  pounds.    We  can  certainly  achieve  1/30  and  possibly  1/400 


RESEARCH    FOR  AERONAUTICS — FARREN  265 

in  ideal  conditions.  But  it  is  doubtful  whether  this  is  a  wise  policy, 
since  we  can  hardly  expect  to  define  or  to  maintain  the  shapes  of 
surfaces  sufficiently  closely.  Power-operated  controls  have  been 
avoided  so  far,  but  it  is  unwise  to  assume  that  we  can  neglect  them 
indefinitely.  There  seems  to  be  no  good  reason  to  be  doubtful  of  our 
ability  to  make  them  reliable. 

POWER-PLANT  DEVELOPMENTS 

I  do  not  propose  to  extend  this  survey  to  the  two  other  main  factors 
that  have  contributed  to  the  changes  we  have  seen  in  aircraft — the 
power  plant  and  the  propeller.  I  have  already  quoted  some  figures 
that  show  how  remarkably  the  reciprocating  engine  has  advanced. 
I  have  also  said  that  there  have  since  been  further  advances,  which, 
however,  serve  rather  to  emphasize  the  comparisons  I  have  made  than 
to  invalidate  them.  This  is  because  there  have  been  accompanying 
changes  in  weight  and  other  characteristics  that  leave  the  main  con- 
clusions substantially  unaffected.  Our  debt  to  the  engineers  who, 
aided  by  research,  have  achieved  these  results  is  immense. 

To  the  constant-speed  propeller  the  performance  of  aircraft  must 
also  acknowledge  a  great  debt.  But  the  flying  man  is  even  more 
grateful  for  what  it  has  provided — almost  complete  freedom  from  his 
chief  anxiety,  namely,  the  liability  to  misuse  his  engine.  We  now  look 
forward  confidently  to  new  methods  of  propulsion  for  aircraft.  But 
I  believe  the  propeller  has  a  long  and  useful  future  before  it  and  one 
in  which  research  will  play  an  outstanding  part. 

SUMMARY— THE   TASK   OF  RESEARCH 

I  trust  that  this  short  survey  has  gone  some  way  to  show  why  I  am 
convinced  that  the  research  worker  and  the  engineer  must  work  to- 
gether if  we  are  to  make  significant  progress.  In  his  James  Forrest 
lecture  to  the  Institution  of  Civil  Engineers  in  England,  Dr.  Southwell 
said  that  "Aeronautical  engineering  is  ordinary  engineering  made 
more  difficult."  If  that  was  true  in  1930,  as  I  believe  it  was,  it  is  more 
than  ever  true  now.  We  can  see  clear  prospects  of  great  advances  in 
aircraft  in  size,  in  performance,  and  in  safety.  The  curve  of  improve- 
ment against  time  shows  no  real  signs  of  flattening  out.  But  we  shall 
need  all  our  ingenuity  to  avoid  or  to  overcome  the  barriers  which  we 
can  see  ahead. 

I  think  the  engineer  has  made  good  use  of  the  outstanding  contribu- 
tions of  research  for  aeronautics.  If  at  times  he  has  appeared  slow  to 
appreciate  the  significance  of  new  developments,  he  has  a  good  excuse 
in  his  preoccupation  with  producing  something  on  which  we  can  rely. 
This  is  a  sufficiently  serious  responsibility  and  one  that  he  has  borne 
with  credit.    But  it  is  this  very  preoccupation  that  emphasizes  the  need 


266  ANNUAL   REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

for  employing  as  part  of  an  engineering  organization  men  competent 
to  detect  those  advances  in  knowledge  which  are  potentially  valuable 
and  to  work  out  the  technique  of  applying  them. 

The  research  worker  himself  is  not  blameless  in  this  respect.  We 
can  call  to  mind  the  case  of  Mendel,  the  significance  of  whose  work  in 
genetics  was  not  recognized  until  he  had  been  dead  many  years.  His 
case  is  an  example  of  discovery  not  appreciated  because  it  is  too  far  in 
advance  of  the  general  state  of  development  of  the  science.  Dr.  Lan- 
chester's  books  Aerodonetics  and  Aerodynamics  contained  much 
which  may  perhaps  be  regarded  in  the  same  way. 

The  instances  I  have  mentioned  may,  of  course,  be  regarded  as  classic 
examples  of  the  difficulty  of  disseminating  knowledge.  As  the  volume 
of  knowledge  increases,  this  difficulty  grows.  In  the  hall  of  Trinity 
College,  Cambridge,  there  hangs  the  portrait  of  William  Whewell, 
sometime  Master.  It  is  said  that  he  was  the  last  man  to  know  all 
knowledge.    He  died  in  1866.^ 

But  the  research  worker  has,  in  my  view,  a  part  to  play  in  "putting 
across"  the  results  of  research.  It  is  reasonable  to  ask  that  he  should 
put  his  results  in  such  a  form  that  they  can  be  used.  To  those  who 
feel  that  this  is  hardly  worthy  of  so  much  of  their  time  and  attention, 
as  it  certainly  demands  if  it  is  to  be  well  done,  I  would  command 
the  example  of  one  of  the  greatest  workers  in  aeronautics,  Hermann 
Glauert.  Every  one  of  his  outstanding  contributions  to  aerodynamics 
was  finished  in  such  a  form  that  the  method  of  its  application  was 
made  clear.  I  am  not  aware  that  this  in  any  way  detracted  from  the 
value  of  his  work  on  whatever  basis  it  may  be  judged.  And  I  know, 
from  my  long  and  intimate  friendship  with  him,  that  he  regarded 
it  as  the  natural  method,  and  indeed  the  only  one  that  would  satisfy 
his  sense  of  craftmanship. 

PROBLEMS  OF  THE  IMMEDIATE  FUTURE 

If  this  review  leaves  us  confident  of  our  powers  to  use  effectively 
the  results  that  an  alliance  between  research  and  engineering  ingenuity 
can  provide,  as  I  think  it  should,  how  should  we  shape  our  plans  for 
the  future  ?  Let  us  look  for  a  moment  into  what  the  future  may  hold 
for  us  in  one  field  alone :  still  further  improvement  in  performance — 
in  speed  and  in  range. 

Within  the  limits  of  our  present  knowledge  the  most  economical 
way  to  fly  faster  is  to  fly  higher.    Let  us  suppose  that  we  can  extend 

*  Oxford  may  feel  that  their  claim  has  been  overlooked.     It  is  preserved  In  the  rhyme : 

My  name  Is  Benjamin  Jowett 
Everything  that's  known,  I  know  it. 
What  I  don't  know  isn't  knowledge 
And  I  am  Master  of  Balliol  College. 
Towett  died  In  1893. 


RESEARCH  FOR  AERONAUTICS — FARREN 


267 


the  range  of  operation  of  power  plants  so  that  propulsive  power  is 
independent  of  height.  Taking  an  airplane  with  the  characteristics 
of  the  Spitfire  (table  1),  and  assuming  that  6^00^0.022  under  all  con- 
ditions, the  curve  of  speed  against  height  is  shown  in  figure  7  labeled 
A,  The  line  of  sonic  speed,  Mach  number=l,  is  crossed  at  65,000  feet. 
In  practice  the  effect  of  the  compressibility  of  air  begins  to  be  felt  at 
about  M=0.65  at  33,000  feet  at  a  speed  of  about  430  m.p.h.,  and  the 
rapid  rise  of  Cdo  with  M  brings  the  curve  for  greater  heights  down 
to  about  the  level  of  curve  A^.     The  loss  of  speed  is  very  large. 


60O 


TRUE  LEVEL   SPEED  KPK  / 


C  B 


4-00 


300 


200 


O  to  20  30  40  50 

HEIGHT,    THOUSANDS    OF  FEET. 

FiGUBE  7. — True  level  speed  vs.  height,  showing  influ- 
ence of  reduction  of  Cdo  and  of  compressibility. 
Propulsive  power,  4.5  T.  H.  P./sq.  ft.  wing  surface; 
wing  loading,  28  Ibs./sq.  ft. ;  aspect  ratio,  5.6. 

If,  by  devising  forms  that  will  ensure  some  measure  of  laminar 
flow,  we  can  halve  Ct,o  and  at  the  same  time  avoid  compressibility 
effects,  we  get  curve  B.  But  if  compressibility  has  the  same  kind  of 
effect  as  on  the  original  airplane,  the  result  will  be  to  depress  the 
speed  to  curve  Bi.  Similarly,  reducing  Coo  to  one  quarter  of  the 
original  value,  we  get  curves  C  and  C^. 

If  we  are  to  reach  really  high  speeds  economically,  it  is  clear  that 
we  must  devote  at  least  as  much  effort  to  avoiding  or  reducing  the 
effect  of  compressibility  as  to  reducing  the  "low  speed"  value  of  Cbc 
On  the  other  hand,  at  speeds  at  which  it  is  likely  to  be  economical 


268 


ANNUAL   REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 


to  cruise  for  long  distances,  compressibility  will  for  some  time  be 
relatively  unimportant  and  laminar-flow  forms  offer  outstanding 
prospects.  In  round  figures  range  and  economical  cruising  speed  are 
inversely  proportional  to  the  square  root  of  C-do.  If  we  can  halve 
G-Do-)  both  range  and  cruising  speed  will  rise  by  40  percent. 

We  must  not  dismiss  too  lightly  the  possibility  of  cruising  economi- 
cally, at  great  height,  at  very  high  speeds — speeds  at  which  com- 


wiNG  loading;  lb/sqft 


70 


60 


50 


40 


30 


20 


10 


20  30  40 

HEIGHT,  THOUSANDS   OF  FEEIT. 

Figure  8. — Critical  wing  loading  vs. 
height.  True  level  speed  450  m.  p.  h. ; 
flow  laminar  up  to  60  percent  of  chord ; 
airfoil  thickness  IS  to  16  percent. 

pressibility  may  well  have  a  dominating  influence  on  design.  "With  a 
laminar  flow  extending  over  the  majority  of  the  surface  of  the  air- 
plane we  may  reasonably  expect  to  be  able  to  cruise  at  450  m.p.h. — 
a  Mach  number  of  about  0.7.  Considering  the  airfoil  alone,  because 
of  necessary  thickness  and  camber,  sonic  speed  will  occur  at  a  point 
near  the  surface  when  the  lift  coefficient  reaches  a  certain  value. 
Hence,  the  wing  loading  must  not  exceed  a  figure  dependent  on  the 


> 

^ 

\THIC^ 

<ne:ss 

\l6 

K 

V         \ 

RESEARCH    FOR  AERONAUTICS — FARREN  269 

height.  At  the  heights  at  which  it  is  likely  that  such  speeds  will  be 
economical,  from  the  power  aspect,  calculation  suggests  that  rather 
low  wing  loadings  will  be  required.  Figure  8  shows  the  results  of 
some  preliminary  calculations  on  this  point.  The  wing  loading  cor- 
responding to  the  critical  conditions  is  sensitive  both  to  airfoil  thick- 
ness and  to  height.  For  example,  assuming  60  percent  of  laminar 
flow,  15-percent  thickness,  and  a  camber  appropriate  to  the  lift  co- 
efficient, the  critical  wing  loading  at  35,000  feet  is  28  pounds  per  square 
foot;  or  for  a  16-percent  thickness,  20  pounds  per  square  foot.  At 
30,000  feet  the  corresponding  loadings  are  44  and  35.  If  these  calcula- 
tions are  sound,  the  effect  on  the  general  economics  of  the  situation 
will  be  marked.  Here  is  another  reason  to  justify  extensive  theoretic 
and  experimental  work  in  this  field. 

Thus  we  see  both  the  barriers  to  progress  which  now  face  us  and 
the  potential  rewards  that  will  be  ours  if  we  can  succeed  in  surmount- 
ing them.  I  return  to  my  main  theme — the  research  worker,  the 
designer,  the  constructor,  and  the  user  must  join  forces  and,  each 
fortified  by  the  confidence  and  help  of  the  others,  plan  the  work  that 
is  needed  to  provide  the  information,  pursue  the  investigations  in 
the  conviction  that  the  aim  is  worthy  of  the  effort  demanded,  and 
apply  the  results  to  produce  better  airplanes. 

From  aerodynamics  we  demand  not  merely  the  bare  solution  of  the 
problem  of  forms  providing  laminar  flow,  relatively  immune  from 
effects  of  compressibility.  We  require  specific  information  covering 
the  whole  airplane,  including  its  propulsion,  stability,  and  control. 
It  may  be  that  the  whole  lay-out  of  the  aircraft  will  be  different  from 
that  to  which  we  have  been  accustomed.  It  is  for  the  aerodynamic 
people  to  say,  but  they  must  base  their  opinions  on  a  sound  foundation 
of  experiment. 

From  structural  research  we  require  to  know  what  schemes  of 
structural  design  are  most  likely  to  provide  the  necessary  precision 
of  form  and  superficial  smoothness  and  how  to  cope  with  new  strength 
and  stiffness  requirements.  Aerodynamics  must  supply  information 
on  the  loads  that  will  be  met  in  flight,  and  much  thought  must  be  given 
to  the  meteorologic  conditions  that  will  be  encountered. 

In  the  future  it  will  be  impossible  to  consider  the  airplane  engine 
and  the  airplane  as  separate  enterprises  with  conflicting  requirements. 
The  thermodynamic  problems  will  be  aerodynamic  also.  Their  joint 
solution  will  throw  up  more  than  enough  of  the  design  problems  at 
which  the  power-plant  engineer  excels. 

Will  the  transformation  of  the  energy  of  the  fuel  into  thrust  de- 
mand a  propeller  or  a  jet  or  a  combination?  There  is  no  single 
answer.  It  will  depend  on  the  duty  of  the  airplane.  But  the  propeller 
designer  will  find  that  his  task  will  tax  all  his  ingenuity. 


270  ANNUAL  REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

Upon  the  airplane  designer  will  fall  the  burden  of  combining  into 
a  working  proposition  the  contributions  of  all  his  collaborators.  He 
will  need  to  provide  for  pressurized  cabins,  ice-free  surfaces,  and 
the  many  indispensable  aids  to  control,  navigation,  take-off,  and 
landing. 

To  the  user  the  prospects  are  such  that  he  should  spare  no  pains  in 
encouraging  the  research  worker  and  the  engineer  in  their  difficult 
tasks.  He  must  support  them  to  the  full  in  obtaining  the  resources, 
in  men  and  material,  which  will  be  essential  for  solving  their  prob- 
lems. And  he  must  contribute,  as  a  member  of  the  team,  the  opera- 
tional information  that  will  guide  their  efforts  at  all  stages. 

The  experimental  resources  that  such  work  demands  are  large. 
They  must  be  generously  planned  to  provide  the  greatest  possible 
scope  and  flexibility.  It  will  take  time  to  devise  and  to  create  them, 
and  during  this  time  we  shall  inevitably  meet  further  difficulties  whose 
exact  nature  we  cannot  yet  foresee.  We  may  be  confident  in  our  ability 
to  adapt  and  to  improvise,  but  we  must  ensure  that  the  basic  equip- 
ment is  on  an  adequate  scale. 

THE    MANAGEMENT    OF    RESEARCH    FOR    AERONAUTICS 

I  have  left  until  last  such  remarks  as  I  have  to  make  on  an  aspect 
of  planning  research  for  aeronautics  to  which  you  may  feel  I  should 
have  paid  more  attention — namely,  the  organization  and  management 
of  the  work  on  the  scale  that  the  scope  and  complexity  of  the  prob- 
lems demand.  In  what  I  said  earlier  I  have  emphasized  my  belief 
in  the  value  of  the  independent  small  team  of  workers,  who  necessarily 
work  on  a  small  scale  with  relatively  small  equipment,  and  on  one 
or  at  most  a  few  problems.  But  we  must  recognize,  perhaps  reluc- 
tantly, that  we  have  problems  to  solve  which  cannot  be  handled  suc- 
cessfully in  that  way. 

It  is  not  merely  the  large  size  and  complexity  of  the  equipment 
required  which  forces  us  to  face  the  task  of  managing  large  research 
undertakings.  It  is  rather  that  the  many  problems  we  must  attack 
are  interdependent,  and  that  success  in  dealing  with  them  depends 
on  assembling  and  coordinating  the  efforts  not  only  of  a  team  but 
of  many  teams  of  workers.  As  in  any  large  undertaking  we  have  to 
break  the  work  down  into  parts.  Each  part  is  the  primary  responsi- 
bility of  a  group  of  specialists  under  a  leader.  But  the  parts  must 
be  welded  into  a  whole,  and  in  this  welding  lies  the  problem  of 
management. 

I  believe  that  the  problem  is  best  approached  not  from  the  top  but 
from  the  bottom — from  the  point  of  view  of  the  individual  member  of  a 
team.  What  does  he  need  in  order  that  he  may  do  the  best  that  is  in 
him?     In  my  experience,  he  needs  the  following: 


RESEARCH   FOR  AERONAUTICS — FARREN  271 

(1)  A  clear,  unambiguous  statement  of  the  ultimate  objective. 
This  must  be  more  than  a  statement  of  the  specific  problem.  It  must 
relate  it  to  the  general  picture  of  which  it  is  a  part.  Thus  he  will 
know  why  the  work  is  being  done. 

(2)  An  opportunity  to  give  his  own  views  on  the  value  of  the  under- 
lying ideas.  The  basic  plan  must  be,  in  part,  his  own.  Thus  he 
will  start  with  a  sound  conviction  that  the  plan  is  a  good  one. 

(3)  An  immediate  leader  in  whom  he  has  confidence,  who  will 
inspire  him,  help  him,  and  keep  him  up  to  date  in  all  the  relevant 
parallel  work  on  related  problems.  Thus  he  will  retain  the  good 
spirits  in  which  he  starts. 

(4)  Sufficient  resources  to  enable  his  work  to  progress  at  what  is, 
in  his  judgment,  a  speed  commensurate  with  the  importance  of  the 
objective.  Thus  he  will  feel  that  the  value  of  his  work  is  recognized 
in  the  only  way  that  means  anything  to  him. 

This  formula  can,  in  my  experience,  be  applied  to  groups  of  work- 
ers under  a  central  management  or  to  separate  establishments  under 
a  central  direction.  And  the  difficulties  that  one  meets  in  applying 
it  arise  not  from  its  shortcomings  but  from  conscious  or  unconscious 
neglect  of  its  essentials. 

Looked  at  in  this  way,  such  questions  as  the  ideal  size  of  research 
establishments  cease  to  be  of  any  great  significance.  Just  as  a  team 
must  have  a  leader  who  knows  all  about  the  work  being  done  by  its 
members,  so  a  group  of  teams  must  have  a  leader  who  is  recognized 
by  them  to  know  enough  about  their  work  for  him  to  be  able  to  guide 
it  to  its  common  objective.  The  limit  of  economical  size  of  a  com- 
plete unit  is  set  not  by  some  arbitrary  formula  but  by  the  simple  fact 
that  no  one  man  can  know  enough  about  work  in  more  than  a  few 
fields  to  be  able  to  inspire  real  confidence  in  his  team  leaders  or 
their  teams.  The  control  of  large  equipment,  the  management  of 
numbers  of  skilled  industrials,  and  the  commonplace  daily  problems 
of  facilities  are  matters  of  consequence,  but  they  are  not  the  real  de- 
termining factors.  In  any  event  they  are  well  understood  and  can 
be  broken  down  and  shared  among  a  properly  balanced  staff. 

I  would  summarize  my  views  on  this  question  as  follows.  There 
is  no  single  or  simple  formula  by  which  to  determine  the  best  method 
of  handling  research.  But  I  believe  there  are  a  few  simple  prin- 
ciples in  the  light  of  which  each  particular  situation  may  be  reviewed 
and  a  good  solution  found. 

CONCLUSION 

You  will  see  that  my  experience  has  led  me  to  the  view  that  the 
record  of  science  and  engineering  in  aeronautics  is  a  creditable  one. 
It  justifies  us  in  demanding  the  means  of  extending  our  efforts  into 


272  ANNUAL  REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

those  new  fields  that  we  can  now  clearly  see.  The  task  of  organizing 
and  managing  the  work,  of  devising  and  constructing  the  equipment, 
and,  above  all,  of  leading  those  upon  whose  efforts  success  will  in 
the  end  depend  is  one  of  absorbing  interest. 

What  the  world  will  make  of  our  efforts  is  a  matter  on  which  I 
regard  it  as  unprofitable  to  speculate,  at  any  rate  here  and  at  this 
time.  I  am  an  engineer  in  a  world  where  good  engineering,  skillfully 
used,  means  survival  and  bad  engineering  means  the  end  of  what  I 
believe  to  be  a  good  way  of  living.  So  I  am  content  for  the  time 
being  to  confine  my  efforts  to  the  work  in  hand  and  to  leave  phil- 
osophic speculations  on  its  value,  on  some  absolute  scale  which  I  con- 
fess eludes  me,  to  those  who  can  find  time  or  inclination  for  it.  For 
this  reason  I  have  confined  my  attention  primarily  to  research  for 
aeronautics  as  used  in  war.  There  is  another  reason — I  have  spent 
the  best  part  of  my  life  on  work  with  this  as  its  first  aim  in  the  con- 
viction that  it  had  to  be  done. 

But  I  am  an  incurable  optimist.  I  believe  that  we  shall  succeed 
in  our  present  effort — in  which  the  share  of  research  is  to  provide 
information  by  which  aircraft  and  their  equipment  can  be  steadily 
improved  and  used  to  greater  effect.  When  we  have  achieved  our 
immediate  aim,  I  do  not  doubt  that  much  of  our  work  will  be  put  to 
uses  that  are  more  to  my  taste  and  to  yours. 

In  the  end,  however,  it  is  with  the  scientific  and  technical  advances 
in  the  means  of  flight  that  we  are  here  concerned.  So  far  we  have 
had  a  mere  40  years  in  which  to  show  what  we  can  do.  It  has  been  my 
purpose  to  point,  in  the  light  of  my  experience,  to  what  we  must  do 
now  to  discharge  the  responsibility  that  is  laid  on  us  so  that  those 
who  will  follow  us  may  find  a  fair  field  in  which  to  explore  the  end- 
less vista  of  opportunity  which  will  lie  before  them. 


HUMAN  LIMITS  IN  FLIGHT ' 


By  Beyan  H.  C.  Matthews,  C.  B.  E.,  M.  A.,  Sc,  D.,  F.  R.  S. 
Head  of  the  R.  A.  P.  Physiological  Laboratory,  Consultant  in  Physiology 

to  the  R.  A.  F. 


[With  3  plates] 


A  modern  aircraft  will  climb  in  a  few  minutes  to  heights  at  which 
the  air  is  so  thin  that  it  will  no  longer  support  life.  It  can  turn  and 
maneuver  so  fast  that  the  pilot  may  easily  be  rendered  unconscious 
from  the  mechanical  forces  which  it  imposes  on  his  body,  and  in  an 
aircraft  which  is  moving  rapidly  in  three  planes  of  space  the  pilot 
can  be  subjected  to  stresses  beyond  the  limits  which  the  human  body 
can  stand. 

The  adaptation  of  which  the  human  body  is  capable  to  new  sur- 
roundings and  conditions  can  play  a  considerable  part  in  fitting  man 
to  these  new  conditions;  for  example,  airsickness  which  many  suffer 
on  first  flying  in  rough  air  or  doing  aerobatics,  in  most  people  soon 
passes  off  and  they  become  adapted  to  motions  which  at  first  perplex 
and  incapacitate  them,  though  a  few  never  become  completely  adapted. 
But  there  are  several  stresses  placed  on  man  in  aircraft  that  cannot  be 
met  by  any  unconscious  adaptation,  which  require  equipment  specially 
designed  to  meet  them.  Some  of  the  necessities  are  obvious,  such  as 
windscreens  to  protect  the  man  from  the  great  wind  pressures  at 
high  speed  and  a  heat  supply  from  the  engine  or  special  clothing  to 
keep  him  warm  in  the  Arctic  cold  of  the  stratosphere.  His  senses  must 
be  extended  by  a  set  of  blind-flying  instruments  so  that  he  may  know 
his  altitude  and  movement  in  space  when  in  clouds  or  at  night.  He 
must  learn  to  believe  the  instruments  against  his  senses  for  these  are 
no  longer  a  reliable  guide  when  he  may  be  moving  at  varying  speeds 
in  any  direction,  in  fact  they  will  often  be  wrong.  The  human  limit 
of  visual  range  by  day  and  especially  by  night  is  of  paramount  impor- 
tance in  flying. 

But  beside  the  stresses  from  wind  pressure,  cold,  vibration,  and 
noise,  the  pilot's  body  must  also  be  protected  from  other  less  obvious 
stresses  and  here  I  propose  to  deal  particularly  with  the  two  greatest 

1  Keprinted  by  permission  from  the  Proceedings  of  the  Royal  Institution  of  Great 
Britain,  vol.  32,  pt.  3,  1943. 

273 


274  ANNUAL   REPORT   SMITHSONIAN   INSTITUTION,    1944 

stresses  which  an  aircraft  puts  upon  the  pilot — those  due  to  accelera- 
tion or  rapid  change  of  motion  and  those  due  to  high  flying  in  the 
rarefied  air  of  the  upper  atmosphere. 

In  the  last  hundred  years  man  has  increased  the  speed  at  which  he 
can  travel  more  than  tenfold,  but  there  is  no  reason  to  suppose  he  is 
approaching  any  human  limit  in  speed  for,  provided  that  he  is  pro- 
tected from  wind  pressure  by  a  closed  cockpit  and  that  the  motion 
does  not  change  rapidly  in  direction,  there  is  no  more  mechanical  stress 
on  the  pilot  than  if  he  were  sitting  on  the  ground. 

If  the  human  body  is  moving  uniformly  there  is  no  force  acting  on 
it  other  than  that  due  to  gravity,  recognized  as  weight.  But  when  the 
motion  changes  in  either  magnitude  or  direction,  large  forces  come 
into  play;  for  example,  while  launching  an  airplane  by  catapult. 
During  this  linear  acceleration  the  pilot  has  the  sensation  of  being 
driven  backward  against  his  seat  by  forces  equaling  several  times  his 
own  weight.  This  is  seen  in  the  retracting  of  the  skin  of  his  face 
which  bares  the  teeth  like  a  snarling  dog.  In  this  case,  the  accelera- 
tion acts  transversely  on  the  body  and  lasts  only  a  few  seconds  and  in 
this  direction  the  pilot  can  easily  withstand  many  times  the  accelera- 
tion of  gravity  provided  his  head  and  shoulders  are  well  supported. 

When  a  fast-moving  airplane  changes  its  direction  and  turns,  air- 
plane and  pilot  are  both  subjected  to  very  large  forces.  The  phenome- 
non known  as  blacking-out  came  into  prominence  in  the  Schneider 
Trophy  races ;  pilots  found  that  in  turning  at  high  speed  their  vision 
became  blurred  and  that  for  a  few  seconds  in  the  turn  they  frequently 
became  blind.  This  is  now  a  common  event  in  aircraft  and  is  well 
understood  by  fighter  pilots. 

When  an  airplane  travels  in  a  curved  path  in  turning  or  pulling  out 
of  a  dive  a  large  centrifugal  force  tends  to  force  the  airplane  and  pilot 
away  from  the  center  of  the  circle.  The  magnitude  of  this  force  in- 
creases with  the  square  of  the  speed  and  decreases  as  the  radius 
increases.  Subjectively,  a  pilot  experiences  a  great  increase  in  weight 
of  all  parts  of  his  body  as  the  centrifugal  force  tries  to  drive  his  body 
out  through  the  bottom  of  the  airplane.  The  magnitude  of  the  acceler- 
ation acting  on  the  pilot  is  expressed  in  terms  of  ^,  the  force  due  to 
gravity  normally  acting  on  the  body  which  causes  it  to  have  its  normal 
weight.  Thus  in  a  turn  producing  4:g  or  four  times  the  force  of  grav- 
ity, if  the  pilot's  seat  were  fixed  to  a  spring  balance  it  would  register 
four  times  his  normal  weight  and  the  pilot  and  all  parts  of  his  body 
become  extremely  heavy.  This  is  seen  in  the  sagging  of  the  soft  part 
of  the  face  which  occurs  in  a  tight  turn  (pi.  1).  A  turn  at  300  miles 
per  hour  and  1,000  feet  radius  produces  Qg,  and  a  pilot  in  effect  weighs 
about  half  a  ton  and  his  blood  virtually  becomes  as  heavy  as  molten 
iron.    The  blood  is  normally  being  pumped  to  the  pilot's  head  by  his 


HUMAN   LIMITS    IN    FLIGHT — MATTHEWS 


275 


heart  but  as  its  virtual  weight  increases  the  heart  has  difficulty  in 
maintaining  the  blood  supply  to  the  head.  The  brain  and  the  eyes  can 
only  function  for  a  few  seconds  without  their  normal  blood  supply 
and  loss  of  vision  in  blacking-out  is  due  to  failure  of  the  circulation  in 
the  retina  of  the  eye.  If  the  acceleration  is  still  greater,  the  whole 
blood  supply  of  the  brain  fails  and  the  pilot  becomes  unconscious. 

Blacking-out  is  a  warning  that  the  blood  pressure  in  the  cerebral 
arteries  is  getting  low.  If  the  control  column  is  eased  forward,  the 
airplane  straightens  out,  the  centrifugal  force  ceases  and  within  a  few 


IS 
5 

DATA  FROM' 

'o  AMtSrftOMj 
^o  RUFF 

SHOFCN 

y 

.i.i  1 1 

n 

IBiiiiii] 

1111 

""Wtm 

J 

Illllll 

I 

1 

O 

so                 20                 30                 40        5        SO 
DURATION  IN  SECONDS 

HUMAN  UMTT  OF  TOLERANCE  OF  ACCaERATION 
ACTWG  VERTICALLY  ON  A  MAN  SEATED 

FiGUBE  1. — ^Approximate  relationship  between  duration  of  vary- 
ing degrees  of  acceleration  and  occurrence  of  loss  of  vision 
(lower  curve)  and  loss  of  consciousness  (upper  curve). 
(Data  from  various  sources.) 

seconds  the  circulation  returns  to  normal.  While  this  happens  in  the 
head  the  deficit  of  blood  tends  to  gravitate  to  the  legs  and  the  phenom- 
enon can  be  regarded  as  the  head  losing  blood  to  the  feet. 

This  draining  of  the  blood  from  the  head  takes  time.  The  graphs 
in  figure  1  illustrate  the  limits  of  tolerance  of  acceleration — the  greater 
the  acceleration  the  less  the  time  that  the  pilot  can  retain  his  sight. 

Many  measures  have  been  taken  to  reduce  the  effect  of  centrifugal 
force  on  the  pilot ;  much  may  be  done  by  posture  and  seating ;  if  the 
pilot's  attitude  is  crouched  with  his  legs  raised,  the  distance  through 


276  ANNUAL  REPORT   SMITHSONIAN   INSTITUTION,    1944 


which  the  heart  has  to  raise  the  blood  to  his  head  can  be  reduced  and 
the  loss  of  it  to  his  feet  is  again  less  if  the  feet  are  high.  Another 
method  of  lessening  the  effect  of  this  force  which  may  be  mentioned 
is  to  place  the  pilot  in  the  prone  position.  The  heart  and  head  are 
then  nearly  at  the  same  height  and  a  man  in  this  position  can  withstand 
some  lOp',  but  this  posture  is  a  very  fatiguing  and  inconvenient  one 
for  the  control  of  an  aircraft,  though  it  is  reminiscent  of  the  very 
earliest  airplanes  in  which  the  pilot  frequently  lay  prone.  The  effect 
of  posture  on  blacking-out  is  shown  diagrammatically  in  figure  2. 


LINE  OF 
FLIGHT 


i^ 


\ 

v^^ 


M 


m 


POSTURE 


AQCELERATION  ACTING  UP  TO 
3-4   SECONDS 


JiMil 


3-4    SECONDS 


^ 


3-4    SECONDS 

»  % 


UP  TO      3     MINUTES 


UP  TO    3     MINUTES 


EFFECT  ON  POSTURE  ON  BLACKING  OUT 
FiGUBE  2. — ^Effect  of  posture  on  the  tolerance  of  acceleration.     (Data  from  Ruff.) 

The  engineer  has  produced  machines  that  are  so  strong  and 
maneuverable  that  they  can  subject  the  pilot  to  forces  beyond  his 
tolerance  and  the  useful  limit  in  design  for  maneuverability  at  high 
speed  changes  from  being  an  engineering  limit  to  being  a  human 
limit.  It  would  be  useless  for  the  aircraft  designer  to  produce  an 
airplane  so  strong  and  maneuverable  that  it  could  turn  with  a 
centrifugal  acceleration  of  20g  because  the  pilot  would  not  be  con- 
scious to  control  it  under  these  conditions ;  the  ability  to  out-turn  the 
enemy  has  an  important  tactical  advantage  in  dog  fighting,  but  to 
achieve  this  it  is  now  necessary  to  look  to  the  man  rather  than  the 
machine.     Figure  3  illustrates  how  the  human  limit  makes  it  impos- 


HUMAN   LIMITS    IN    FLIGHT — MATTHEWS 


277 


sible  for  a  fast  airplane  to  follow  a  slow  one  in  a  tight  turn;  both 
pilots  are  subjected  to  5^. 

The  most  important  stress,  however,  to  which  man  is  subjected  in 
aircraft  is  that  resulting  from  the  thinness  of  the  air  at  great  alti- 
tudes. The  air  pressure  at  ground  level  is  14.7  Ib./sq.  in.  It  has 
fallen  to  one-half  at  18,000  feet  and  to  only  one-fifth,  about  2%  Ib./sq. 
in.,  at  40,000  feet.  The  effects  of  altitude  on  man  are  those  resulting 
from  the  lowered  atmospheric  pressure. 

The  disabilities  which  a  man  suffers  at  lowered  pressure  first  came 
into  prominence  on  the  surface  of  the  earth  as  "mountain  sickness." 


Turns  producing 
5  times  '^'  on  pilots 


S^SECONDS 


2I60  ft 


S*'T  Jtr^^^  SECONDS 


FiGUBE   3.- 


-Showing  how  human  tolerance  of  acceleration  makes  it  impossible 
for  a  fast  airplane  to  follow  a  slow  one  in  a  tight  turn. 


Later  the  term  "balloon  sickness"  was  given  to  the  troubles  experi- 
enced in  high  balloon  ascents  at  the  beginning  of  the  last  century; 
long  before  airplanes  had  become  practical  flying  machines,  the 
problems  of  high  altitudes  had  been  encountered  because  early  balloon 
ascents  carried  the  balloonists  to  heights  at  which  the  air  would 
hardly  support  life  and  at  that  time  their  knowledge  of  how  to  over- 
come this  was  lacking. 

Plate  2,  figure  2,  shows  the  first  successful  flight  when  Montgolfier's 
balloon  ascended  from  Versailles  in  1T83  carrying  a  sheep,  a  duck,  and 
a  cock.    After  the  safe  return  of  these  animals  to  earth,  Montgolfier 


278  ANNUAL  REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 


himself  went  up  some  hundreds  of  feet.  Two  years  later  the  French 
scientist  Charles  reached  a  height  of  13,000  feet  with  a  hydrogen 
balloon. 


ALTTUDE  PRESSURE  GRAPH 


PRESSURE  CABIN 

OR  SUIT 

ESSENTIAL 


ADDITIONAL 

OXYGEN 

ESSENTIAL 


ADDITIONAL  OXYGEN 
NECESSARY  IF  FUCHT 
OF  OVER  ONE  HOUR 


O^NO 


ADDITIONAL 
OXYGEN 
NECESSARY 


200         400  600       760 

ATMOSPHERIC  PRESSURE  IN     mm.Hg. 

Figure  4. — Relationship  between  altitude  and  atmospheric  pressure.    (I.  C.  A.  N. 

scale. ) 


Figure  5  shows  the  upward  progress  of  man's  exploration  of  the 


air. 


It  is  necessary  to  emphasize  the  difference  between  rapid  ascent 
from  ground  level,  as  in  an  airplane,  and  slow  ascent  in  climbing 


HUMAN    LIMITS    IN    FLIGHT — MATTHEWS 


279 


mountains.  In  the  latter  case,  weeks  are  spent  at  15,000-18,000  feet  to 
become  acclimatized  to  the  thin  air.  Great  changes  occur  throughout 
the  climber's  bodily  processes  which  enable  him  to  live  at  altitudes 
which  are  fatal  to  a  "sea  level"  man.  Acclimatization  is  soon  lost  on 
return  to  ground  level,  so  it  is  not  possible  to  make  much  use  of  this 
in  flying. 

Climbers  have  reached  28,000  feet  on  Mount  Everest,  but  in  con- 
trast to  this  the  first  serious  high-altitude  accident  occurred  in  1875 
when  Tissandier  with  two  companions  went  up  in  the  hydrogen  bal- 


STRATOSPHERE 

-50°c.    -70'f.     I02°o(  frost 


D 


U.S.  ARMY 

72.400 

1935 


D 


PICCARD 

57.600 

1934 


Vadam 

•^54 

JuSwain 


PEZZI 

>56000 
^1938 


54.000    1937 


5OOO0    1936 


J^DONATI 


40000 


.  -   ^47  400    1934 
J^UWINS 

44.000    1932 


35000 


JuGARROS 


(XO 


laOOO    1912      < 


MONTGOLFIER 
1783 


4,LATHAM 
»^1400    1909 


EARTHS      SURFACE 


Figure  5. — Balloon  and  aircraft  altitude  records.  ( Heights  to  the  nearest  100  feet. ) 

loon  Zenith.  The  balloon  ascended  to  about  26,000  feet  and  the 
occupants  became  unconscious.  They  became  conscious  again  when 
the  balloon  descended  to  20,000  feet  but  then  threw  out  ballast  and 
the  balloon  rapidly  ascended  to  about  28,000  feet.  All  became  un- 
conscious and  when  Tissandier  regained  consciousness  the  balloon  was 
at  about  19,000  feet,  descending  rapidly,  but  his  two  companions  were 
dead.  This  accident  focused  a  great  deal  of  attention  on  the 
physiological  problems  of  altitude,  and  to  investigate  these  Paul  Bert 
constructed  a  steel  chamber  from  which  the  air  could  be  removed  by 
a  pump  to  simulate  altitude  conditions  at  ground  level.  Since  then 
a  great  deal  of  research  has  been  carried  out  in  such  decompression 

619830—45 19 


280  ANNUAL  REPORT   SMITHSONIAN   INSTITUTION,    1944 

chambers,  both  on  mountains  and  in  aircraft,  on  the  nature  of  alti- 
tude sickness  and  the  ways  of  overcoming  it. 

Plate  3,  figure  1  shows  a  modern  decompression  chamber  at  an 
R.  A.  F.  Medical  Service  research  unit.  In  this  a  man  can  be  taken 
to  a  pressure  equal  to  that  at  30,000  feet  in  less  than  a  minute,  and  it 
is  capable  of  producing  pressures  down  to  a  small  fraction  of  a  pound 
to  the  square  inch. 

Plate  3,  figure  2  shows  a  small  type  of  decompression  chamber  of 
which  many  are  in  service,  which  will  take  six  men  to  any  altitude 
required  so  that  they  can  become  familiar  with  their  breathing 
apparatus  and  the  disasters  that  may  befall  them  if  they  do  not  use 
it  correctly. 

For  life,  man  needs  food,  water,  and  air.  He  can  live  without  food 
for  weeks,  without  water  for  days,  but  without  air  he  can  survive 
only  a  few  minutes. 

At  increasing  altitudes,  although  the  proportion  of  oxygen  in  the 
air  remains  one-fifth,  the  density  of  the  mixture  becomes  less  and  a 
certain  pressure  of  oxygen  is  essential  for  living  cells  to  function 
normally.  At  an  altitude  of  42,000  feet  if  the  lungs  are  filled  with  air, 
they  contain  less  than  one-sixth  of  the  normal  quantity  of  oxygen  and 
this  is  insufficient  to  support  life.  Much  of  the  Battle  of  Britain  was 
carried  out  in  an  atmosphere  in  which  a  pilot  unassisted  with  breathing 
apparatus  would  be  dead  in  a  few  minutes.  However,  long  before  this 
height  is  reached  oxygen  lack  makes  its  presence  felt  in  the  impaired 
intelligence  and  mental  performance  of  the  pilot.  As  oxygen  want 
comes  on,  judgment  is  lost,  gross  errors  are  made,  intelligence  fails, 
muscular  control  is  lost  and  this  is  followed  by  unconsciousness. 
Moreover,  oxygen  want  is  very  insidious  because  the  sufferer  is  often 
almost  unaware  of  it.  At  20,000  feet  a  man  without  oxygen  may  do 
irrational  things;  oxygen  want  resembles  drunkenness  both  in  its 
symptoms  and  in  that  the  sufferer  is  confident  that  he  is  normal  and 
much  resents  any  suggestion  to  the  contrary. 

It  would  clearly  be  dangerous  to  send  an  aircraft  up  to  25,000  feet 
unless  it  was  ensured  that  the  crew  were  protected  from  oxygen  want. 
Much  research  on  the  practical  protection  of  flying  personnel  from  the 
effects  of  altitude  has  been  carried  out  by  the  R.  A.  F.,  particularly  by 
the  Medical  Branch  which  directs  research  in  this  very  important  side 
of  the  pilot's  welfare.  The  importance  of  this  is  emphasized  by  the 
following  story  of  a  recent  incident  which  occurred  over  Ger- 
many. A  pilot's  breathing  apparatus  became  disconnected  and  the 
pilot  thereupon  told  the  crew  that  he  was  going  to  land.  He  put  down 
his  wheels  and  tried  to  land  on  a  cloudbank  at  about  18,000  feet.  He 
then  told  the  crew  over  his  intercommunication  system  that  they  were 
below  ground  level  and  he  was  going  to  get  out,  whereupon  the  navi- 


HUMAN   LIMITS    IN    FLIGHT — MATTHEWS  281 

gator,  realizing  what  had  happened,  was  in  time  to  stop  him  from 
climbing  out  of  the  machine,  take  over  the  controls  and  reconnect  the 
pilot's  breathing  apparatus.  It  is  easy  to  see  that  such  an  incident 
might  not  always  have  a  happy  ending.  The  effects  of  oxygen  want 
may  often  be  extremely  amusing  but  clearly  there  is  no  place  for  such 
events  in  the  dangerous  and  difficult  work  of  high-altitude  flying. 

There  are  two  ways  in  which  altitude  effects  can  be  overcome.  The 
first  is  to  increase  the  amount  of  oxygen  in  the  air  which  the  pilot 
breathes  by  mixing  oxygen  from  gas  cylinders  with  it,  thus  giving  the 
pilot  a  mixture  rich  in  oxygen  or  even  pure  oxygen  to  breathe.  In  this 
way  when  the  pressure  is  one-quarter  of  an  atmosphere  at  33,000  feet 
if  his  lungs  are  filled  with  pure  oxygen  he  will  not  suffer  from  any 
symptoms  of  oxygen  lack.  To  this  end  the  pilot  always  wears  an 
oxygen  mask,  which  also  carries  a  microphone  for  his  communication 
with  the  crew  or  ground. 

The  second  alternative  is  to  increase  the  amount  of  oxygen  in  the 
pilot's  lungs  by  compressing  the  air  in  them.  In  an  engine  the  loss 
of  power  from  oxygen  lack  is  overcome  by  compressing  the  thin 
air  with  a  supercharger,  but  it  is  not  possible  to  supercharge  the  lungs 
so  easily  as  the  pressures  required  would  burst  them.  The  pilot  must 
therefore  be  completely  surrounded  by  air  at  increased  pressure. 
This  can  be  done  either  with  a  pressure  suit  something  like  a  diving 
dress  or,  if  the  cabin  is  sealed  and  made  strong  enough  for  it  to 
withstand  a  raised  air  pressure,  produced  by  a  pump  attached  to  the 
engine.  The  air  around  the  pilot  can  then  be  kept  at  14  Ib./sq.  in, 
and  the  atmosphere  he  breathes  can  be  exactly  like  that  at  ground 
level.  However,  it  is  clear  that  for  military  use  such  a  pressure 
cabin  is  very  vulnerable,  though  for  civil  use  it  is  the  ideal  method 
in  high  flying  because  the  passenger  is  not  inconvenienced  by  a  mask 
on  his  face  and  need  not  be  aware,  by  any  change  in  the  air  pressure, 
that  he  has  left  the  ground.  Some  pressure  cabins  are  in  use  in  civil 
airlines  in  America.  The  pressure  cabin  has  other  advantages  over 
the  oxygen  mask  besides  preventing  lack  of  oxygen.  At  heights  up 
to  36,000  feet  a  man  can  avoid  oxygen  lack  by  breathing  pure  oxygen, 
but  above  44,000  feet  even  breathing  pure  oxygen  he  would  become 
unconscious.  Moreover  the  vapor  pressure  of  blood  equals  the  at- 
mospheric pressure  at  63,000  feet  so  if  a  man  could  reach  this  pressure 
his  blood  would  boil  and  his  lungs  be  filled  with  steam.  At  heights 
above  40,000  feet  it  becomes  necessary  not  only  to  breathe  pure  oxygen 
but  also  to  increase  the  pressure  acting  on  man.  Plate  2,  figure  1 
shows  the  machine  and  pressure  suit  in  which  Flight  Lieutenant 
Adam  broke  the  world's  altitude  record  by  reaching  54,000  feet  in 
1937.  The  suit  was  blown  up  to  some  2^/2  Ib./sq.  in.  pressure  and 
filled  with  pure  oxygen.    In  it  man  could  survive  even  in  a  vacuum. 


282  ANNUAL  REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

Thus  the  effects  of  oxygen  want  can  be  completely  overcome  up  to 
altitudes  of  some  8  miles  by  breathing  pure  oxygen  and  this  is  done 
in  military  aircraft  of  all  nations.  Above  this  height  pressure  must 
be  applied  in  addition.  In  the  altitude-record  balloon  ascents  by 
Professor  Piccard  and  by  the  United  States  Army,  closed  gondolas 
at  raised  pressure  were  used. 

Figure  6  illustrates  the  time  elapsing  between  cutting  off  the  oxygen 
supply  to  a  man  and  his  becoming  unconscious  at  various  heights. 
From  this  it  will  be  realized  how  quickly  a  pilot  must  act  should  his 
oxygen  supply  fail  at  high  altitudes. 


20000 


Figure  6. — Time  between  changing  from  breathing  oxygen  to 
breathing  air  and  the  occurrence  of  unconsciousness.  (After 
Ruff.) 

The  psysiological  abnormalities  at  altitude  are  not  entirely  solved 
by  breathing  oxygen  as  there  are  effects  on  the  body  at  low  pressure 
in  addition  to  oxygen  lack.  At  ground  level  the  air  pressure  drives 
nitrogen  into  the  blood  which  dissolves  in  appreciable  quantity.  If 
now  the  pressure  on  the  man  is  rapidly  reduced  before  this  nitrogen 
can  escape,, it  will  form  bubbles  in  his  blood  vessels  and  stop  the 
circulation.  The  possibility  that  something  of  the  sort  might  occur 
in  animals  at  low  pressures  was  envisaged  by  Robert  Boyle  in  1670 
who  placed  a  viper  under  a  bell-jar  and  pumped  out  the  air;  when 
the  pressure  was  reduced  he  saw  a  bubble  within  the  eye  of  the  viper. 


HUMAN   LIMITS    IN    FLIGHT — MATTHEWS  283 

Bubbles  forming  in  the  body  fluids  have  long  been  a  difficulty  in  deep 
diving  where  men  have  been  subjected  to  much  increased  pressures  of 
air.  The  body  fluids  then  dissolve  a  large  quantity  of  nitrogen  and 
if  the  diver  comes  to  the  surface  too  rapidly  it  cannot  escape  from  his 
lungs  in  time  to  prevent  bubbles  forming  and  he  gets  decompression 
siclaiess  or  "bends"  (caisson  disease,  compressed-air  illness),  with 
severe  pain,  cramps,  occasionally  unconsciousness  and  even  death.  A 
diver  can  get  severe  bends  coming  up  from  a  depth  where  the  pressure 
is  4  atmospheres  to  the  surface  where  it  is  only  1  atmosphere,  but  for- 
tunately an  airman  does  not  get  into  such  serious  difficulties  if  he 
goes  from  ground-level  to  one-quarter  ground-level  pressure  at  33,000 
feet.  Bends  as  they  occur  in  the  air  are  rarely  experienced  at  alti- 
tudes below  25,000  feet.  They  come  on  slowly  and  are  rarely  of  a 
serious  nature.  Unconsciousness  can  result  if  the  warning  symptoms 
of  pain  in  the  joints  are  neglected.  The  pains  are  cured  almost 
instantaneously  if  descent  is  made  to  about  25,000  feet  where  the  air 
pressure  compresses  the  nitrogen  bubbles  sufficiently  to  drive  them  back 
into  solution  in  the  blood. 

Much  research  has  been  carried  out  on  men  in  decompression  cham- 
bers to  find  ways  of  alleviating  these  effects.  One  method  is  to  breathe 
pure  oxygen  before  ascent,  so  replacing  the  nitrogen  in  the  blood  with 
oxygen.  The  oxygen  is  then  used  up  in  the  tissues  before  it  can  form 
bubbles.  This  method  has  long  been  used  to  displace  nitrogen  from 
the  blood  in  diving. 

There  are  other  disturbances  to  man  with  rapid  changes  of  altitude 
resulting  from  the  change  in  air  pressure.  Behind  the  ear  drum  is  a 
cavity  filled  with  air  which  communicates  through  a  small  canal  with 
the  throat  and  it  is  necessary  for  air  to  leave  and  enter  it  with  ascent 
and  descent  lest  the  ear  drum  be  collapsed.  The  canal  to  the  throat 
will  normally  open  on  swallowing  and  in  a  dive  a  pilot  clears  his  ears 
almost  unconsciously,  but  should  he  fail  to  do  so  or  have  severe  catarrh, 
he  may  damage  his  ear  drums.  Enclosed  gas  elsewhere  in  the  body,  as 
in  the  sinuses  surrounding  the  nose,  has  to  equalize  its  pressure  as  the 
altitude  changes  or  severe  pain  may  result.  Again  on  ascent  the  gas 
normally  present  in  the  intestines  expands  to  a  larger  and  larger  vol- 
ume as  the  outside  pressure  falls  when  climbing  but  this  is  rarely  a 
serious  problem. 

Thus  the  human  safety  limit  in  height  is  some  10,000-16,000  feet 
breathing  air  and  40,000-42,000  feet  breathing  oxygen ;  heights  much 
in  excess  of  the  latter  are  only  achieved  by  enclosing  the  pilot  in  an 
artificial  atmosphere. 

But  it  is  clear  that  starting  with  fit  pilots  on  the  ground  much  must 
be  done  to  keep  them  efficient  in  the  air  and  the  efficiency  of  the  man 
may  often  be  of  even  greater  importance  than  that  of  the  machine. 


284  ANNUAL   REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

We  know  that  in  the  Battle  of  Britain  quality  in  men  and  machines 
overcame  weight  of  numbers  and  although  always  greatly  outnum- 
bered, the  R.  A.  F.  by  efficiency  and  courage  were  able  to  rout  the 
Luftwaffe.  To  maintain  that  efficiency  in  the  air  and  at  high  altitudes 
is  no  mean  problem.  That  it  is  done  is  the  result  of  scientific  research 
during  the  last  70  years  into  life  at  great  altitudes  and  the  successful 
application  of  what  has  been  discovered  to  the  particular  problems  of 
the  pilot.  I  should  like  this  lecture  to  be  considered  a  tribute  to  all 
those  scientists  from  Paul  Bert  onward  and  to  many  officers  of  the 
R.  A.  F.  who  have  contributed  so  much  to  the  solution  of  high-altitude 
flying  and  in  particular  to  those  medical  officers  who  have  lost  their 
lives  in  this  war  in  flying  experiments. 


Smithsonian  Report,  1944. — Matthews 


Plate  1 


1.  Man  During  Straight  and  Level  Flight. 


i 

-■4 

^mi 

2.   In  a  Tight  Turn  producing  acceleration  of  4ljg  15  Seconds  later. 


Smithsonian  Report,  1 944.— Matthews 


PLATE   3 


1       INTERIOR  OF   AN    R.    A.    F.    DECOMPRESSION    CHAMBER    LOOKING    IN    FROM    ONE 

OF  THE  Glass  portholes. 


2.  TR.  A.  F.  Mobile  Decompression  Chamber. 
This  is  self-contained  with  an  engine-driven  pump,  oxygen  cylinders,  and  controls  operated  from  the  left- 
hand  cab. 


TRANS-ARCTIC  AVIATION 


By  ELMiat  Plischke,  Lieutenant  (j.  g.),  U.  S.  N.  R. 


Frequently  it  is  wise  and  profitable  to  spend  a  few  moments  in 
speculation  on  the  potentialities  of  the  future.  Many  improvements 
are  bound  to  be  occasioned  by  the  necessities  of  the  war,  not  the  least 
of  which  is  the  impressive  development  in  aviation.  The  technological 
advancements  being  perfected  for  war  purposes  today  doubtless  will 
revolutionize  commercial  aviation  after  the  termination  of  hostilities. 
One  of  the  most  logical  results  is  the  linking  of  the  continents  by  a 
network  of  air  routes  traversing  the  Arctic  Basin. 

Belief  in  the  physical  practicability  and  in  the  commercial  value  of 
trans-Arctic  aviation  was  first  manifested  about  the  time  of  World 
War  I,  and  in  1919,  W.  Brun,  a  German,  proposed  the  organizing  of 
regular  flights  from  the  European  capitals  via  Archangel,  the  Arctic 
Basin,  and  Nome  or  Unalaska,  to  either  Yokohama,  Vancouver,  or 
San  Francisco.  A  few  years  later,  in  1923,  Maj.  Gen.  Sir  Sefton 
Brancker,  Director  of  Civil  Aviation  for  Great  Britain,  enthusiasti- 
cally declared  in  a  speech  at  Sheffield  that  the  carrying  of  mails  from 
England  to  Japan  by  way  of  the  Arctic  was  a  probability  of  the  next 
10  years.  In  connection  with  the  preparations  for  the  flight  of  the 
dirigible  Shenandoah  to  explore  the  polar  "white  spot"  between 
Alaska  and  the  North  Pole,  Rear  Admiral  William  A.  Moffett,  Chief 
of  the  Bureau  of  Aeronautics  of  the  United  States  Navy,  stated  in 
1924  that  polar  air  routes  connecting  England,  Japan,  Alaska,  and 
Siberia  are  possibilities  of  the  near  future. 

Many  writers  have  since  expressed  their  belief  in  the  future  of 
trans-Arctic  flying.  But  perhaps  the  most  vocal  of  these  exponents  is 
the  polar  explorer  and  publicist,  Vilhjalmur  Stefansson,  who  has  been 
pointing  out  the  positional  importance  of  the  Arctic  Basin  for  the  past 
20  years.  On  a  map  which  has  the  North  Pole  as  its  center,  he  explains, 
the  Arctic  constitutes  a  small  hub  from  which  the  land  masses  radiate 
like  spokes  of  a  great  wheel,  thus  lying  in  the  central  part  of  a  circular 
region  enclosed  for  the  most  part  by  northerly  extensions  of  rich  and 
densely  populated  modern  countries.    By  the  logic  of  its  position,  it 

^  Reprinted  by  permission  from  Economic  Geography,  vol.  19,  No.  3,  July  1943.  All 
assertions  and  opinions  are  purely  those  of  the  author  and  are  in  no  wise  to  be  construed 
as  reflecting  the  views  of  the  Navy  Department. 

285 


286  ANNUAL  REPORT   SMITHSONIAN   INSTITUTION,    1944 

therefore  should  be  one  of  the  great  transportation  crossroads  of  the 
world. 

A  glance  at  the  globe  is  sufficient  to  illustrate  the  significance  of 
these  statements.  Geographers  also  have  designed  a  so-called  "polar 
projection,"  prepared  by  laying  a  geometric  plane  on  the  Pole  at  right 
angles  to  the  earth's  axis,  and  depicting  the  globe  with  the  North  Pole 
as  the  center  and  with  the  South  Pole  as  the  outer  circumference. 
Parallels  of  latitude  are  ruled  off  at  equal  intervals  in  concentric 
circles  and  meridians  of  longitude  are  straight  radial  lines.  As  a 
result,  the  northern  continents  surround  the  central  Arctic  Basin  and 
the  Antarctic  Continent  represents  an  outer  lacy  fringe.  This  projec- 
tion is  particularly  interesting  if  population  density  is  indicated,  for, 
with  the  exception  of  India  and  China,  the  areas  of  densest  population 
— ^between  which  most  aerial  communication  is  likely  to  develop— lie 
immediately  around  the  Arctic. 

Table  1. — Comparative  distances* 

New  York  to  Moscow  :  Miles 

Steamship  and  railroad — via  Hamburg  and  Berlin__^ 5,  600 

Air — via  London  and  Berlin 5,  000 

Arctic — via  Greenland  and  Iceland 4, 600 

New  York  to  Tokyo : 

Steamship  and  railroad — via  San  Francisco 8,000 

via  Panama  Canal 11,  200 

Air — via  San  Francisco  and  Honolulu 8,800 

Arctic — via  Hudson  Bay,  Victoria  Island,  and  Beaufort  Sea 5,900 

San  Francisco  to  Moscow : 

Steamship  and  railroad — via  New  York,  Hamburg,  and  Berlin 8,  300 

via  Tokyo  and  Vladivostok 15,  500 

Air — via  New  York,  London,  and  Berlin 7,  600 

via  Honolulu  and  Tokyo 10,  900 

Arctic — via  EUesmere,  northern  Greenland,  Spitsbergen,  and  North 

Cape    (Norway) 5, 650 

San  Francisco  to  London  : 

Steamship  and  railroad— via  New  York 6,  425 

Air— via  New  York 6,  025 

Arctic — via  Hudson  Bay,  Baffin  Island,  Greenland,  and  Iceland 5, 150 

San  Francisco  to  Bergen  : 

Steamship  and  railroad — via  New  York 7,  000 

Air — via  New  York  and  London 6,  750 

Arctic — via  BafBn  Island  and  central  Greenland 4,  750 

London  to  Tokyo : 

Steamship  and  railroad — via     Hamburg,     Berlin,     Moscow,     and 

Vladivostok 12, 000 

via  New  York  and  San  Francisco 11, 250 

Air — via   Moscow 6,  200 

via  New  York,  San  Francisco,  and  Honolulu 12, 275 

Arctic — via  North  Cape  (Norway)  and  Novaya  Zemlya 5,  500 

•All  distances,  given  in  statute  miles,  are  approximate,  because  of  the  Inadequacy  and 
inconsistencies  of  available  tables,  maps,  and  charts. 


TRANS-ARCTIC   AVIATION — PLISCHKE 


287 


TRANS-ARCTIC  FLYING  DISTANCES 

The  distances  of  air  travel  between  many  major  locations  through- 
out the  world,  especially  within  the  Northern  Hemisphere,  can  be 
markedly  reduced  if  trans- Arctic  air  routes  are  pursued,  as  illustrated 
by  the  accompanying  tables. 

The  distance  between  New  York  and  Moscow  is  about  1,000  miles 
shorter  via  the  Arctic  Basin  and  its  peripheral  landed  areas.  From 
Seattle  to  Calcutta  the  distance  is  almost  5,000  miles  shorter,  while 
over  6,000  miles  is  saved  along  the  polar  route  from  London  to  Tokyo. 
Similarly,  the  distances  between  New  York  and  Tokyo  and  between 
San  Francisco  and  either  Moscow  or  London  is  thousands  of  miles 
shorter  via  the  Arctic. 

Further  implications  of  polar  air  geography  are  of  striking  interest. 
From  North  Cape  (Norway)  it  is  just  as  far  to  Washington,  D.  C,  as 
it  is  to  Detroit,  Chicago,  Des  Moines,  or  Seattle.  Chicago  is  as  close 
to  every  capital  of  Europe  as  it  is  to  Buenos  Aires.  Milwaukee,  De- 
troit, and  other  great  midwestern  war  production  centers,  are  closer 
to  Russia  by  air  than  are  any  of  the  great  seaports  of  the  United  States. 


Table  2. — Trans-Arctic  long-distance  flying 


From- 


To- 


MUes 

Hours 

4,900 

16 

5,050 

16 

4,150 

13 

5,500 

18 

5,845 

19 

8,000 

26 

4,650 

15 

,  4,  000 

13 

7,600 

25 

3,475 

11 

4,600 

15 

4,000 

13 

5,900 

19 

4,750 

15 

5,  150 

17 

5,650 

18 

4,500 

15 

7,225 

24 

Minutes 


Berlin 

Chicago 

Detroit 

London 

Los  Angeles-- 
Minneapolis- _ 

Montreal 

New  York 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

San  Francisco 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Seattle 


Tokyo 

Moscow 

Murmansk 

Tokyo 

Murmansk 
Bombay__- 

Igarka 

Berlin 

Chungking 

London 

Moscow 

Murmansk 

Tokyo 

Bergen 

London 

Moscow 

Tokyo 

Calcutta.  _ 


20 
50 
50 
20 
29 
40 
30 
20 
20 
35 
20 
20 
40 
50 
10 
50 


50 


The  saving  in  mileage  and  time  by  following  these  Arctic  airlanes 
is  considerable.  At  300  miles  per  hour — which  is  by  no  means  an 
impossible  rate  of  speed  in  the  light  of  recent  increases  in  flying 
rates — transports  can  easily  carry  their  passengers  and  cargoes  be- 
tween Berlin  and  Tokyo,  Chicago  and  Moscow,  Montreal  and  Igarka, 
New  York  and  Berlin  or  Moscow,  and  San  Francisco  and  London  or 
Tokyo  in  less  than  half  the  time  it  takes  a  crack  train  to  miake  a 
nonstop  run  from  New  York  to  San  Francisco  at  80  miles  an  hour. 


288         ANNUAL  REPORT  SMITHSONIAN   INSTITUTION,    1944 

Planes  also  can  bridge  the  gap  between  New  York  and  Chungking, 
Minneapolis  and  Bombay,  or  New  York  and  Tokyo  in  considerably 
less  time  than  the  special  express  train  will  require  to  cross  our  coun- 
try. Finally,  at  300  miles  per  hour,  wherever  one  may  happen  to  be, 
no  spot  on  the  once  wide  globe  is  farther  away  than  42  flying  hours. 
Unbeknown  to  most  of  us,  much  already  has  been  done  to  utilize 
and  develop  these  northern  routes.  Returning  from  his  globe- 
girdling  tour  some  months  ago,  Wendell  Willkie  flew  from  China  to 
the  United  States,  not  by  way  of  Australia  and  Honolulu  as  might 
very  well  be  expected,  but  rather  via  Nome  (Alaska)  and  Edmonton 
(Alberta).  Strict  censorship  veils  the  full  extent  of  the  action  taken 
in  promoting  polar  aviation,  but  we  are  informed  that  millions  of 
dollars  have  been  spent,  and  that  Arctic  routes  are  constantly  being 
flown.  Preparations  also  are  being  made  by  the  Government  of  the 
United  States  to  sponsor  and  protect  American  interests  in  postwar 
aviation. 

ARCTIC  FLYING  CONDITIONS 

But  it  is  frequently  believed  that  flying  conditions  in  the  Arctic  will 
prevent  the  establishment  of  dependable  commercial  traffic.  True, 
flying  conditions  in  the  polar  regions  are  necessarily  different  in  many 
respects  from  what  they  are  in  more  temperate  climates.  Neverthe- 
less, upon  closer  analysis  it  appears  that  most  of  the  difficulties  can 
be  surmounted. 

It  is  stated  that  the  most  ardent  exponents  of  transpolar  aviation 
consider  average  flying  conditions  over  the  Arctic  throughout  the 
year  to  be  better  than  they  are  over  the  North  Atlantic,  while  the 
most  pessimistic  writers  consider  them  probably  worse,  but  con- 
querable. Stefan  sson,  one  of  the  most  optimistic  of  the  publicists, 
notes  that  scientists  were  virtually  unanimous  by  1930  in  agreeing 
that  Arctic  flying  in  Alaska,  to  be  more  specific,  is  as  safe  as  it  is  in 
Michigan.  This,  he  alleges,  is  suggested  by  Pan  American  Airways 
reports  to  the  effect  that  its  flyers  generally  are  as  well  satisfied  with 
their  work  in  Alaska  as  in  Brazil,  that  over  half  the  pilots  on  its 
Alaskan  lines  prefer  January  to  July,  and  that,  assuming  like  equip- 
ment and  ground  service,  schedules  can  be  maintained  through  the 
midwinter  period  with  an  average  regularity  at  least  as  good  as  that  in 
the  northeastern  part  of  the  United  States. 

Temperature  seems  to  be  no  more  of  a  flying  problem  in  the 
Arctic  than  elsewhere.  The  reason  for  this  is  that  planes  now  fly  in 
temperatures  just  as  severe  in  Temperate  and  Torrid  Zones  while 
they  are  at  high  altitudes  following  their  established  air  routes.  As 
a  matter  of  fact,  today  effective  combat  is  waged  at  much  greater 
heights  than  was  believed  possible  a  few  years  ago.  It  is  reported 
in  the  press  that  fighter  planes  now  are  regularly  flying  in  the  low 


TRANS-ARCTIC    AVIATION — PLISCHKE  289 

temperatures  experienced  at  altitudes  of  30,000  and  40,000  feet  or 
more,  and  our  larger  bombers  repeatedly  encounter  temperatures  of 
25°  to  50°  F.  below  zero  without  considering  it  a  limitation  upon  their 
effectiveness. 

In  the  polar  regions  there  is  less  diurnal  change  and  less  tempera- 
ture variation  than  elsewhere.  Flying  temperature  is  said  to  be 
hazardous  neither  at  extreme  heat  nor  at  extreme  cold,  but  at  an 
intermediate  range  in  the  vicinity  of,  and  especially  just  below,  the 
freezing  point  of  fresh  water,  for  it  is  at  this  temperature  that  ice 
forms  on  the  aircraft  and  weighs  it  down.  Such  freezing  is  not  very 
troublesome  in  the  Tropics  except  at  high  altitudes,  and  even  in  the 
polar  regions  icing  is  less  of  a  problem  than  it  is  in  the  northern  half 
of  the  Temperate  Zone — where  air  lines  function  regularly  according 
to  well-integi-ated  schedules. 

Various  technological  improvements  were  devised  to  prevent,  or 
at  least  substantially  reduce,  the  formation  of  an  ice  covering  on 
the  wings  and  fuselage  of  a  plane.  This  is  evidenced  by  the  fact 
that  fighter  planes  are  constantly  flying  through  the  lower  aerial 
zones  saturated  with  the  moisture  which  causes  the  icing,  and  perhaps 
especially  by  the  fact  that  effective  aerial  warfare  is  being  waged 
in  the  foggy  and  moist  atmosphere  surrounding  the  Aleutian  Islands 
and  the  shipping  lanes  to  Murmansk.  Planes  also  are  used  for  recon- 
naissance purposes  at  low  altitudes  by  the  Soviets  along  the  Northern 
Sea  Koute  between  our  northwestern  coasts  and  the  Arctic  ports  of 
the  Soviets. 

A  number  of  polar  explorers,  including  Richard  E.  Byrd,  who 
has  flown  in  both  polar  regions,  contend  that  polar  flying  is  practi- 
cable only  at  certain  times  of  the  year.  The  spring  months,  from 
March  to  May,  are  said  to  be  best  suited  for  aviation  in  the  Arctic, 
because  the  snow  is  still  hard  and  smooth  and  there  is  less  fog  than 
there  is  at  other  times  of  the  year.  But  this  objection  seems  to  be 
concerned  more  with  landing  and  taking  off  than  with  flying  itself, 
and  it  certainly  does  not  apply  to  long-range  nonstop  flying. 

At  first  glance  it  would  seem  that  a  genuine  problem  of  polar  avia- 
tion is  the  prevention  of  oil  from  freezing  and  the  difficulty  of  start- 
ing the  motors  in  severe  temperatures.  But  oil  will  not  freeze  while 
the  motor  is  operating  and  can  be  preheated  before  the  motor  is 
started.  The  problem  of  starting  the  motor  in  sub-zero  temperatures 
was  solved  some  15  years  ago,  when  it  was  learned  that  fireproof 
hoods  or  special  coverings  can  be  used  to  keep  motors  warm  when 
a  landing  is  made,  as  well  as  for  starting  a  cold  engine.  A  tube  leads 
from  this  hood  down  to  a  heater  which  conducts  heat  up  to  the  motor, 
or  powerful  warming  lamps  may  be  fitted  to  the  motor.  In  this  man- 
ner the  motor  can  be  preheated  to  any  temperature,  and  multi- 


290  ANNUAL  REPORT   SMITHSONIAN   INSTITUTION,    1944 

motored  planes  are  jBtted  with  so-called  "communicators,"  rendering 
it  possible  to  warm  one  motor  by  the  action  of  another. 

The  greatest  obstacle  to  Arctic  flying  is  poor  visibility  due  to  low- 
lying  clouds  and  fog.  In  the  46-hour  flight  of  the  Norge  from  King's 
Bay  (Spitsbergen)  via  the  North  Pole  to  the  northern  coast  in  Alaska, 
16  hours — or  about  35  percent  of  the  time — were  spent  in  fog.  Such 
fog  is  a  common  occurrence  in  the  polar  regions,  especially  where 
warm  air,  inflowing  from  lower  latitudes  over  open  water,  meets  cold 
air  over  pack  ice  or  glacier-covered  land,  as  is  the  case  in  Arctic  areas 
during  the  summer  months.  Almost  all  floating  ice  is  said  to  be  ac- 
companied by  fog,  but  when  the  ice  is  firmly  attached  to  land,  as  it 
is  in  the  wintertime,  the  atmosphere  is  relatively  free  from  fog. 
Fog  therefore  seems  to  be  a  seasonal  problem,  but  it  does  appear  in 
winter  in  the  region  of  the  Bering  Sea  and  the  Aleutian  Islands,  where 
the  warm  Japan  Current  enters  the  Arctic,  and  along  the  southern 
edge  of  the  Arctic  pack  north  of  Europe  where  the  warm  Gulf  Stream 
encounters  it. 

But  fog  in  the  Arctic  is  less  dense  and  lower  lying  than  it  is  else- 
where. Since  it  seldom  rises  to  a  height  of  over  3,000  feet,  planes 
can  fly  over  it  with  little  difficulty.  It  is  also  thin  so  that  planes 
can  cruise  at  low  altitudes,  and  because  there  are  no  obstacles  like 
mountains,  except  over  landed  areas  such  as  Greenland,  Spitsbergen, 
and  parts  of  Alaska  and  Siberia,  the  Arctic  pilot  can  see  through  the 
fog  and  still  retain  sufficient  horizontal  vision.  When  Arctic  areas 
are  properly  mapped  and  a  greater  number  of  radio  stations  are  in 
operation  to  give  reliable  bearings  to  the  polar  flyer  at  all  points 
along  his  route,  it  will  no  longer  be  necessary  to  fly  by  rivers  and  other 
landmarks,  as  is  now  the  case. 

Opinion  seems  to  be  somewhat  divided  as  to  whether  dependable 
regular  and  emergency  landing  facilities  are  available  in  the  polar 
regions.  On  the  one  hand,  it  is  believed  that  Arctic  waters  provide 
dangerous  landing  fields,  for,  although  the  water's  surface  often 
appears  clear  from  above,  it  may  be  filled  with  small  lumps  of  par- 
tially submerged  ice  which  can  easily  wreck  a  plane  as  it  tries  to 
land.  Because  of  the  movement  of  Arctic  ice,  moreover,  openings 
fail  to  remain  open,  so  that  a  plane,  as  it  alights  upon  the  water, 
may  rapidly  be  hemmed  in  and  crushed  by  the  ice.  In  the  summer 
months  driftwood  also  endangers  an  attempt  to  land  upon  the  surface 
of  the  water. 

As  far  as  landing  upon  the  pack  ice  is  concerned,  it  is  estimated 
that  perhaps  90  percent  of  this  surface  is  too  rough  to  be  used  suc- 
cessfully, although  there  occasionally  are  some  stretches  of  level 
ice  upon  which  a  plane  may  safely  alight.  But  even  if  the  landing 
is  achieved  without  mishap,  it  frequently  is  more  hazardous  to  take 


TRANS- ARCTIC    AVIATION — PLISCHKE  291 

off  from  such  surfaces,  especially  because  high  speeds  are  now  neces- 
sary. 

Stefansson  seems  to  be  somewhat  more  optimistic  concerning  nat- 
ural Arctic  landing  facilities.  He  claims  that  the  Arctic  and  the 
northern  third  of  the  Temperate  Zone  excel  the  rest  of  the  world  in 
number  and  quality  of  emergency  landing  fields,  noting  that  there 
are  millions  of  lakes  which  provide  suitable  spots  for  landing  with 
pontoons  or  skis.  These  many  landing  fields,  he  continues,  have  given 
polar  flying  a  greater  safety  percentage  than  exists  in  other  zones, 
even  in  the  Tropics.  On  the  Arctic  pack  ice  there  are  few  sections 
where  good  landing  fields  are  more  than  20  miles  apart,  there  gener- 
ally being  a  choice  of  two  or  more  within  the  gliding  range  of  a  plane 
if  its  motors  stop  at  an  altitude  of  a  mile  or  more.  In  support  of  this 
contention,  Stefansson  asserts  that  during  a  single  decade  at  least  54 
such  emergency  descents  were  made  in  every  sort  of  weather,  outstand- 
ing among  which  was  the  third  descent  of  George  H.  Wilkins,  under- 
taken at  night  in  a  blizzard  when  he  alighted  upon  the  ice  pack  100 
miles  off  the  northern  tip  of  Alaska.  No  life  was  lost  in  any  of  these 
descents,  while  the  distance  covered  amounted  to  over  90,000  miles. 
Again,  no  lives  were  sacrificed  in  the  search  for  the  Russian  flyer  Lev- 
anevsky  in  1937,  in  which  some  50,000  miles  were  flown. 

Contrary  points  of  view  are  held  concerning  the  suitability  of  the 
ice  cap  of  Greenland  as  a  polar  landing  field.  One  group  of  writers 
contends  that,  despite  a  prolonged  search  undertaken  by  the  Danish 
Government,  there  is  no  known  natural  landing  field  in  all  Greenland. 
The  ice  cap  is  described  as  an  undulating  plain,  difficult  of  access  be- 
cause it  is  girdled  by  a  ring  of  mountains  which  must  be  flown  over 
and  which  usually  constitute  one  of  the  greatest  hazards  of  aviation 
everywhere.  In  addition,  there  are  steep,  jagged  fissures  into  which 
ice  pours  through  the  mountains  as  glaciers.  Unless  the  plane  is  espe- 
cially equipped  for  a  perilous  overland  journey,  an  emergency  landing 
is  apt  to  leave  the  hapless  party  exposed  to  the  bitter  elements  on  the 
ice  cap.  Recently  two  daring  aerial  rescues  of  15  stranded  American 
Army  flyers  were  disclosed  in  the  press,  but  both  accounts  leave  no 
doubt  whatever  as  to  the  dangers  encountered. 

The  opposite  point  of  view  argues  that  Greenland's  ice  cap  is  the 
world's  largest  and  finest  natural  landing  field.  It  is  said  to  form  a 
continuous  and  nearly  perfect  emergency  airdrome  1,500  miles  long 
and  up  to  600  miles  wide.  Local  gales  along  its  coasts  probably  can  be 
offset  by  selecting  nonwindy  flying  lanes.  The  use  of  the  southern 
part  of  the  island  as  a  route  by  which  military  planes  are  f  e'rried  across 
the  Atlantic  seems  to  justify  this  opinion,  at  least  in  part. 

The  majority  of  these  hazards  attending  polar  flying  may  rapidly 
be  eliminated  through  the  perfection  of  technological  and  other  im- 


292  ANNUAL  REPORT   SMITHSONIAN   INSTITUTION,    1944 

provements.  Since  most  of  the  obstacles  are  mechanical,  they  apply  to 
flying  elsewhere  as  well.  Once  they  are  overcome,  the  Arctic  will 
possess  the  inestimable  advantage  of  shorter  distances.  Even  the 
problem  of  fog  can  be  at  least  partially  overcome  by  the  development 
of  suitable  radio  facilities,  supplemented  with  appropriate  polar  map- 
ping, which  can  itself  be  done  by  planes. 

As  long-distance  flying  increases  in  both  extent  and  security,  there 
is  little  to  gainsay  the  future  of  trans-Arctic  aviation.  Many  aerial 
feats,  which  were  believed  to  be  visionary  but  a  short  time  before  the 
outbreak  of  World  War  II,  are  already  looked  upon  as  commonplace. 
Who  can  predict  what  will  be  possible  within  the  next  decade  or  two 
by  a  fleet  of  superplanes,  such  as  the  famous  82-ton  B-19,  with  a  wing- 
spread  greater  than  the  height  of  a  17-story  building,  with  fuel  tanks 
containing  11,000  gallons  of  gasoline,  and  with  a  range  of  almost 
10,000  miles — which  can  carry  it  on  a  nonstop  flight  from  San  Fran- 
cisco via  New  York  to  London  and  back  to  New  York,  or  from  Minne- 
apolis to  Bombay.  Current  improvements  in  design  and  construction 
appear  to  herald  fleets  of  mammoth  100-ton  cargo  and  passenger  planes 
possessing  a  size  and  flying  range  never  dreamed  of  a  few  years  ago. 

TERRITORIAL  JURISDICTION 

It  is  such  aerial  potentialities  as  these  that  impel  writers  and  gov- 
ernments to  turn  anxious  eyes  toward  the  appropriable  landed  areas 
that  remain  in  the  Far  North.  The  successful  establishment  of  trans- 
polar  aerial  communication  will  necessitate  the  construction  of  flying 
lanes,  landing  bases,  and  radio  and  meteorological  stations.  Since  the 
ice  in  the  Arctic  is  in  constant  motion  and  cannot  be  relied  upon  for 
the  erection  of  permanent  facilities,  polar  landed  territory  will  become 
of  supreme  importance.  The  establisliment  of  flying  auxiliaries  by 
the  nationals  of  a  state  unquestionably  will  rouse  their  government  to 
acquire  the  territorial  jurisdiction  necessary  to  preserve  and  maintain 
these  facilities  properly.  The  race  for  polar  territory  therefore  prom- 
ises to  be  very  close  at  hand. 

Under  the  recognized  principles  of  international  law,  unpossessed 
territory  (terra  nullius)  in  the  Arctic,  as  well  as  elsewhere,  can  be 
acquired  juridically  only  by  effective  occupation  or  by  prescription. 
By  occupation  is  meant  the  intention  to  possess  the  territory  in  ques- 
tion and  both  the  administration  of  state  acts  and  the  exercise  of 
police  power  in  sufl&cient  strength  to  protect  life  and  property  and 
render  exceptional  a  breach  of  the  laws  of  the  occupying  state.  Pre- 
scription means  the  exercise  of  state  authority  over  such  a  length 
of  time  as  is  necessary  under  the  influence  of  historical  development 
to  create  the  general  conviction  that  the  present  situation  is  in  con- 
formity with  the  international  order.     Contrary  to  popular  belief. 


TRANS-ARCTIC    AVIATION — PLISCHKE  293 

discovery  does  not  accord  a  perfect  title  to  new  territory,  but  merely 
affords  an  inchoate  title  which  must  be  substantiated  by  effective  occu- 
pation within  a  reasonable  length  of  time. 

A  recent  Soviet  school  of  thought  has  proposed  a  new  theory  to 
govern  the  acquisition  of  polar  territory  in  the  Arctic.  It  is  known 
as  the  sector  principle,  according  to  which  a  subjacent  polar  state 
automatically  possesses  all  territory,  discovered  and  undiscovered, 
lying  to  the  north  of  its  mainland  and  within  the  area  bounded  by 
an  extension  of  its  longitudinal  extremities  to  the  Pole.  Thus,  the 
Arctic,  like  a  huge  pie,  is  sliced  into  a  small  number  of  sectors,  one 
accruing  to  each  of  the  following  peripheral  states:  Norway  (Spits- 
bergen), Finland,  the  Soviet  Union,  the  United  States  (Alaska), 
Canada,  and  Denmark  (Greenland  and  Iceland).  But  this  sector 
principle  enjoys  no  validity  under  international  law  and  has  been 
recognized  only  in  the  municipal  law  of  the  Soviet  Union.  The  other 
five  Arctic  states  have  either  refrained  from  committing  themselves 
upon  the  principle,  denied  its  validity  by  implication,  or  openly  re- 
jected it  in  their  state  papers.  Even  the  Soviet  Government  has  not 
made  any  attempt  to  rely  upon  polar  sectorism  in  its  international 
affairs. 

What,  then,  is  the  juridical  status  of  the  territory  in  the  Arctic 
which  is  so  important  for  the  development  of  postwar  air  transport? 

In  some  instances  the  reply  is  relatively  simple.  Thus,  the  entire 
island  of  Greenland  belongs  to  Denmark,  as  acknowledged  in  a  series 
of  declarations  made  by  the  United  States,  Great  Britain,  France,  and 
Japan,  1916-1920,  and  by  the  Eastern  Greenland  Arbitration  of  1933 
between  Denmark  and  Norway  which  recognized  the  Eirik  Kaudes 
Land  area  as  belonging  to  the  former.  But,  according  to  the  recent 
announcements  by  President  Franklin  Delano  Roosevelt  and  Secre- 
tary of  State  Cordell  Hull,  the  island  lies  in  the  Western  Hemi- 
sphere and  therefore  comes  under  the  aegis  of  the  Monroe  Doctrine, 
which  prohibits  non-American  states  from  acquiring  the  island.  By 
and  large,  the  same  is  true  of  Iceland,  except  that  it  enjoys  an  unusual 
autonomous  constitutional  position  with  relation  to  the  Danish 
Crown. 

Spitsbergen,  together  with  Bear  Island,  was  recognized  as  Nor- 
wegian territory  by  the  Spitsbergen  Treaty  of  February  9,  1920, 
following  at  least  a  quarter  century  of  dispute  involving  Germany, 
Great  Britain,  Norway,  Russia,  Sweden,  and  the  United  States.  Nor- 
way also  possesses  Jan  Mayen  Island,  having  formally  announced  the 
extension  of  its  jurisdiction  over  the  island  on  May  8,  1929. 

Since  1920  the  Soviets  have  taken  a  more  aggressive  course  of  action 
in  the  Arctic  than  has  any  other  state.  Despite  the  decree  of  April 
15.  1926,  incorporating  the  sector  principle  into  its  municipal  law 


294  ANNUAL  REPORT   SMITHSONIAN   INSTITUTION,    1944 

the  Government  of  the  U.  S.  S.  R.  nevertheless  has  adopted  an  active 
policy  of  effective  occupation,  settlement,  and  administration  for  the 
islands  to  the  north  of  its  mainland.  Thus,  a  number  of  important 
institutions  were  organized,  especially  the  AU-Union  Arctic  Institute 
for  the  scientific  study  of  the  Arctic,  and  the  Central  Administration 
of  the  Northern  Sea  Route  (Glavsevamorput)  which  exercises  eco- 
nomic, administrative,  and  judicial  supervision  in  the  Arctic  islands. 
A  scientific  method  of  exploration,  annexation,  and  colonization  is 
being  pursued.  In  addition,  some  200  Arctic  scientific  radio  and 
meteorological  stations  were  erected,  of  which  about  75  are  located 
on  the  islands.  Finally,  with  the  assistance  of  an  elaborate  state- 
owned  system  of  icebreaker  and  aerial  reconnaissance  service,  the 
difficult  Northern  Sea  Route,  which  parallels  the  northern  shores  of 
the  Soviet  mainland,  is  regularly  traversed  by  a  fleet  of  public  cargo 
vessels,  the  annual  shipping  amounting  to  approximately  500,000  tons 
prior  to  the  outbreak  of  hostilities  between  Germany  and  the 
U.  S.  S.  R. 

In  view  of  this  active  display  of  jurisdictional  action  on  the  part 
of  the  Soviet  Government,  no  pretensions  have  been  raised  by  other 
states  to  territory  lying  within  the  limits  of  the  Soviet  sectoral  decree, 
except  those  entertained  by  Canada  and  Norway  with  respect  to 
Wrangel  Island  and  Franz  Josef  Land  respectively.  But  the 
U.  S.  S.  R.  has  in  any  case  established  continuous  settlements  on 
Wrangel  Island  since  1926  and  has  been  sending  annual  parties  to 
Franz  Josef  Land  to  supply  and  maintain  a  network  of  permanent 
stations  established  there. 

No  known  territory  lies  to  the  north  of  Alaska,  and  for  some  years 
the  United  States  has  raised  no  serious  pretensions  to  any  Arctic 
possessions.  But  considerable  interest  was  at  one  time  centered  in 
Wrangel  Island  and  a  number  of  smaller  islands  lying  to  the  north 
of  the  eastern  tip  of  Siberia,  including  especially  Herald,  Jeannette, 
Henrietta,  and  Bennett  Islands.  To  the  north  of  Canada,  the 
American  Government  displayed  some  interest  in  Ellesmere  Island 
and  at  least  on  one  occasion  refrained  from  applying  to  the  Canadian 
Government  for  licenses  to  fly  over  the  Sverdrup  Islands  (Axel 
Heiberg,  Amund  Ringnes,  Ellef  Ringnes,  and  a  number  of  surround- 
ing smaller  islands),  which  is  required  under  Canadian  law  and 
which  would  have  acknowledged  our  recognition  of  Canadian  juris- 
diction over  these  islands.  As  far  as  Greenland  is  concerned,  the 
American  Government  always  has  been  actively  interested.  Upon 
the  insistence  of  Secretary  of  State  William  H.  Seward,  a  valuable 
report  was  prepared  on  the  island  as  early  as  the  1860's  with  a  view 
to  possible  annexation ;  in  1910  there  was  some  discussion  of  the  ces- 
sion of  the  island  by  Denmark  to  the  United  States  in  exchange  for 


TRANS-ARCTIC    AVIATION — PLISCHKE  295 

the  Philippine  Islands,  which  in  turn  were  to  be  ceded  by  the  Danish 
Government  to  Germany  in  return  for  northern  Schleswig;  6  years 
later  the  American  Government  agreed  not  to  object  to  an  extension 
of  Danish  jurisdiction  over  the  entire  island ;  and,  finally,  within  the 
last  few  years  Greenland  was  acknowledged  to  constitute  a  part  of  the 
Western  Hemisphere  and  is  therefore  subject  to  our  special  interests 
under  the  Monroe  Doctrine. 

The  Dominion  of  Canada  claims  all  the  known  islands  lying  to 
the  north  of  her  mainland.  This  pretension  has  not  always  been 
respected,  as  indicated,  so  that  for  the  past  15  years  a  serious  effort 
has  been  made  to  subject  the  entire  island  empire — as  embraced  within 
the  jurisdiction  of  the  Northwest  Territories  and  Yukon  Branch 
of  the  Canadian  Department  of  Interior — to -effective  state  adminis- 
tration. This  is  promoted  particularly  by  the  establishment  of  Royal 
Canadian  Mounted  Police  posts  on  the  fringe  of  the  islands  area,  by 
extensive  police  patrols  centered  about  these  posts,  by  an  earnest 
attempt  to  enforce  the  Canadian  legal  system  in  the  vast  region,  and 
by  the  exploits  of  the  Annual  Arctic  Patrols,  which  man  and  supply 
the  posts.  The  Dominion,  like  the  Soviet  Union,  therefore  is  seeking 
to  establish  an  absolute  juridical  title  to  the  polar  territory  adjacent 
to  its  mainland. 

In  this  manner,  Denmark,  Norway,  the  U.  S.  S.  R.,  and  the 
Dominion  of  Canada  possess,  or  claim  to  possess,  all  known  territory 
within  the  Arctic  Basin.  Moreover,  under  international  law,  states 
enjoy  all  rights  of  jurisdiction  over  the  air  space  superjacent  to  their 
domains,  and  the  air  routes  which  traverse  the  Arctic  will  cross 
the  territory  of  these  four  states.  If  their  pretensions  to  the  territory 
are  acknowledged  as  valid  under  law,  they  will  be  in  a  position  to 
control  the  major  share  of  the  trans- Arctic  air  lanes.  On  the  other 
hand,  if  their  claims  are  controverted,  serious  jurisdictional  disputes 
may  arise,  as  was  the  case  with  Spitsbergen,  Wrangel  Island,  and 
eastern  Greenland. 

To  avert  such  controversies,  it  would  seem  advisable  for  the  post- 
war conference  of  states  to  establish  a  practicable  solution  for  the 
international  control  of  the  matter.  The  problem  of  territorial 
jurisdiction  should  be  solved  in  advance  by  an  international  under- 
standing through  the  establishment  of  specific  principles  of  law, 
as  was  effected  at  the  Berlin  Conference  of  1884-1885,  when  the 
majority  of  the  Powers  recognized  the  principle  of  effective  occupa- 
tion as  essential  for  the  juridical  acquisition  of  African  coastal  lands. 
This  is  a  matter  of  first  magnitude  and  should  be  resolved  before  a 
host  of  jealously  regarded  vested  interests  are  created.  At  present, 
potential  disputes  are  largely  legal  in  nature  and  therefore  are  amen- 
able to  justiciable  solution.     But  if  proprietary  interests  with  exten- 

619830—45 20 


296         ANNUAL  REPORT  SMITHSONIAN   INSTITUTION,    1944 

sive  financial  backing  are  permitted  to  develop,  the  matter  of  resolu- 
tion will  be  infinitely  more  diflScult.  Experience  has  shown  beyond 
a  shadow  of  doubt  that  disputes  involving  important  economic  and 
political  interests  are  far  more  difficult  to  solve  than  are  those  of  a 
purely  juridical  nature. 

A  series  of  multilateral  air  law  agreements  also  will  have  to  be 
decided  upon,  and  it  might  be  profitable  if  an  international  body 
were  established  to  administer  such  problems  as  reconnaissance,  the 
surveying  and  laying  out  of  transport  lanes,  the  allocation  of  fran- 
chises, the  adoption  and  enforcement  of  administrative  air  regula- 
tions, and  the  like.  But  these  suggestions  can  readily  be  agreed  upon 
if  the  jurisdictional  issues  are  settled. 

On  a  number  of  occasions  it  has  been  proposed  that  remaining 
unoccupied  polar  territory  be  recognized  as  belonging  to  the  Society 
of  States  (i.e.,  as  res  communis  rather  than  as  territory  belonging  to 
no  state,  res  nullius).  Then  no  state  could  legally  acquire  a  valid 
title  to  the  territory  and  no  title  of  an  individual  state  would  be 
valid  as  against  the  others.  Naturally  this  applies  only  to  island 
territory,  and  does  not  include  those  islands  already  consigned  to 
a  particular  state  by  international  agreement — as  was  the  case  with 
Greenland  and  Spitsbergen — and  those  islands  which  can  be  con- 
sidered as  appertaining  to  a  state  by  virtue  of  prescriptive  rights. 
All  remaining  Arctic  island  territory  should  be  internationalized, 
to  be  administered  either  by  the  League  of  Nations  or  its  future 
counterpart,  by  some  special  international  administrative  agency,  or 
by  some  qualified  individual  state  as  a  mandate. 


OUR  PETROLEUM  RESOURCES 


By  Waixace  E.  Pbatt 
Standard  Oil  Company  (New  Jersey) 


As  "a  nation  on  wheels"  we  came  long  ago  to  rank  petroleum,  the 
source  of  lubricants  and  liquid  fuels,  close  to  the  top  of  our  list  of 
essential  commodities.  Recently,  as  a  nation  at  war-  utilizing  petro- 
leum as  raw  material  for  indispensable  plastics  and  synthetics,  includ- 
ing rubber,  and  even  for  the  TNT  of  our  bombs  and  high-explosive 
shells,  we  have  accorded  it  a  still  more  important  place  in  our  national 
economy.  Barring  the  conquest  of  some  new,  revolutionary  form  of 
energy,  petroleum  must  continue  to  be  one  of  America's  paramount 
necessities. 

What,  then,  of  petroleum  for  the  future?  We  all  realize  that  the 
petroleum  resources  of  the  earth  are  a  waning  asset ;  so  far  as  the  needs 
of  mankind  are  concerned  there  is  no  renewal  of  supply.  How  large 
are  the  reserves  available  to  us  and  where  are  they  situated  ? 

The  following  quotation  is  typical  of  recent  press  comment  on  the 
subject  of  our  petroleum  reserves  in  the  United  States :  "This  nation's 
proved  reserves  of  petroleum  now  bulk  some  twenty  billion  barrels,  a 
quantity  equal  to  our  present  peace-time  requirements  for  a  period  of 
about  15  years.  Over  the  last  three  years  our  discoveries  of  new  re- 
serves have  consistently  failed  to  balance  our  annual  consumption." 
These  oversimplified  figures,  though  entirely  accurate,  lend  themselves 
readily  to  misinterpretation.  Many  people  conclude  from  them  that 
15  years  hence  we  will  have  no  gasoline  for  our  automobiles.  They 
even  fear  critical  shortages  of  petroleum  products  for  present  war 
needs.  The  misunderstanding  might  in  some  degree  be  dispelled  if 
the  facts  were  niore  fully  revealed. 

The  statement  quoted  leads  to  the  assumption  that  our  20  billion 
barrels  of  proved  reserves  in  the  United  States  constitute  our  total 
remaining  resources  in  petroleum.  Yet  in  fact  our  total  resources  far 
exceed  our  proved  reserves.  In  the  first  place  much  petrolemn  remains 
to  be  discovered  in  the  United  States.  Less  than  half  the  total  area 
promising  for  petroleum  has  been  thoroughly  explored.    In  much  of 

^  Reprinted  by  permission  from  the  American  Scientist,  vol.  32,  No.  2,  April  1944. 

297 


298  ANNUAL  REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTIIUTION,    1944 

the  region  already  producing,  only  the  upper  layers  of  the  petroleum- 
bearing  rocks  have  been  tapped  by  the  wells  so  far  drilled.  Underlying 
the  beds  from  which  petroleum  is  now  being  withdrawn  in  many  of 
our  great  oil  fields  there  remain  thousands  of  feet  of  rocks,  still  un- 
touched by  the  drill,  which  may  very  well  yield  petroleum  when  they 
are  tested. 

Our  total  past  discoveries  of  petroleum  in  the  United  States  amount 
to  about  48  billion  barrels.  We  have  explored  great  areas  which  most 
of  us  have  agreed  were  of  little  promise.  Yet  our  past  experience  has 
proved  that  from  1  to  2  percent  of  the  total  area  in  which  we  may 
reasonably  hope  to  find  petroleum  actually  produces  when  thoroughly 
tested.  If  our  average  experience  in  the  area  already  thoroughly 
explored  is  valid,  then  thorough  exploration  of  the  entire  area  in  the 
United  States  in  which  it  is  reasonable  to  expect  to  find  petroleum 
should  yield  as  much  additional  petroleum  as  we  have  already  found. 

Moreover,  the  statement  under  consideration  overlooks  the  fact  that 
in  addition  to  the  20  billion  barrels  of  liquid  petroleum  reserves  we 
have  also  in  the  United  States  proved  reserves  of  natural  gas  equiva- 
lent in  energy  content  to  about  17  billion  barrels  of  petroleum.  Nat- 
ural gas  is  really  petroleum  in  another  form  and  with  modem  tech- 
nique is  readily  convertible  into  liquid  fuels,  although  the  cost  of 
conversion  is  still  somewhat  higher.  We  should  not  overlook  our 
reserves  of  petroleum  in  the  form  of  natural  gas. 

Again  the  statement  ignores  the  fact  that  the  American  petroleum 
industry,  operating  abroad  over  the  last  30  years,  has  developed  addi- 
tional petroleum  resources  in  other  countries.  The  remaining  proved 
reserves  in  these  oil  fields  easily  amount  to  another  20  billion  barrels 
or  more.  These  reserves  in  the  hands  of  American  nationals  in  other 
countries  have  always  been  available  to  the  American  consuming  pub- 
lic in  normal  times,  and  they  constitute  an  important  supplementary 
proved  reserve  of  petroleum. 

The  current  discussions  of  the  amount  of  our  petroleum  reserves 
seldom  touch  on  the  facts  that  in  the  past  we  have  usually  recovered 
only  about  40  percent,  or  less,  of  the  total  volume  of  petroleum  origi- 
nally present  in  our  oil  fields,  and  that,  on  the  basis  of  this  past  expe- 
rience, proved  reserves  are  customarily  estimated  at  about  40  percent 
of  the  total  volume  of  petroleum  in  the  natural  reservoirs  in  which  the 
estimates  apply.  Our  estimates  of  reserves  include  only  the  petroleum 
that  we  know  from  experience  will  flow  more  or  less  spontaneously  into 
the  wells  that  are  drilled.  The  sum  of  our  estimates  of  proved  reserves 
plus  the  petroleum  already  discovered  in  this  country,  some  48  billion 
barrels,  represents,  therefore,  a  total  original  volume  of  about  120 
billion  barrels.  After  the  estimated  volume  of  our  proved  reserves 
has  been  completely  recovered  there  will  still  remain  underground  in 


OUR  PETROLEUM  RESOURCES — PRATT  299 

our  depleted  oil  fields  some  70  billion  barrels  of  petroleum.  With 
improved  methods  of  secondary  recovery  much  of  this  additional  re- 
serve is  certain  to  be  reduced  to  possession  and  utilized  over  the  long 
future. 

In  summary,  then,  the  total  proved  reserves  of  petroleum  in  the  oil 
fields  already  discovered  by  Americans,  at  home  and  abroad,  are  of  the 
order  of  40  billion  barrels.  Associated  with  these  reserves  of  liquid 
petroleum  there  are  proved  reserves  of  natural  gas,  or  gaseous  petro- 
leum, equivalent  in  available  energy  to  an  additional  17  billion  barrels, 
or  more,  of  petroleum.  Thus  we  have  a  minimum  proved  reserve  of 
57  billion  barrels  of  petroleum  in  the  hands  of  the  American  petroleum 
industry.  And  after  this  entire  reserve  has  been  exhausted  there  will 
remain  in  the  ground  in  all  the  oil  fields  in  the  United  States  from 
which  our  past  supplies  have  been  withdrawn  an  additional  70  billion 
barrels  or  so  which  we  may  certainly  hope  ultimately  to  reclaim  in 
part  by  improved  methods  of  recovery. 

As  to  the  decline  in  the  rate  of  discovery  of  new  oil  fields  in  the 
United  States,  it  should  be  realized  that  our  normal  oil-finding  effort 
has  been  a  war  casualty.  The  failure  to  discover  a  larger  number  of 
new  oil  fields  is  largely  due  to  the  fact  that  finding  oil  has  been  sacri- 
ficed to  other  objectives  which  we  have  felt  were  more  important  to 
the  national  welfare  in  time  of  war.  Crude-oil  prices  were  at  low 
levels  when  we  entered  the  war.  Proved  reserves  had  been  increasing, 
there  was  little  incentive  to  risk  capital  in  exploration,  a  hazardous 
venture  at  best.  In  the  midst  of  this  depressed  situation  war  broke  out 
and  denied  to  the  petroleum  industry  the  critical  materials,  the  man- 
power, and  the  price  increases  that  were  essential  to  stimulate  explora- 
tion. Except  for  these  restrictions  "wildcatting"  by  the  thousands  of 
small  independent  enterprises  that  constitute  the  mainstay  of  our  oil- 
finding  industry  would  have  been  multiplied  and  our  national  discov- 
ery rate  would  certainly  have  maintained  a  higher  level.  Oil  finding 
is  an  increasingly  difficult  undertaking  in  this  country  at  best,  but 
during  the  recent  emergency  we  have  simply  failed  to  sustain  normal 
exploratory  activities. 

A  significant  fact  which  may  be  deduced  from  the  statement  we 
have  quoted  is  that  our  ordinary  peacetime  consumption  of  petroleum 
in  the  United  States  amounts  to  450  gallons  per  capita  annually. 
Compare  this  figure  with  the  annual  consumption  for  the  average 
citizens  of  the  rest  of  the  world,  which  is  15  gallons;  or  with  80 
gallons  for  the  average  citizen  of  the  United  Kingdom,  or  50  gallons 
for  the  average  Russian.  We  use  30  times  as  much  petroleum  per 
capita  as  the  rest  of  the  world  uses ! 

Petroleum  in  the  modern  world  is  potential  energy.  With  our 
machines  it  is  converted  into  mechanical  work.    High  standards  of 


300         ANNUAL  REPORT  SMITHSONIAN   INSTITUTION,    1944 

living  result  from  a  large  per  capita  production  of  goods.  The  cul- 
ture of  ancient  Greece  was  founded  on  the  labor  of  human  slaves. 
Our  high  standards  of  living  rest  largely  upon  the  mechanical  work 
done  for  us  by  petroleum.  The  consumption  of  petroleum  in  this 
country  provides  us  with  the  work  equivalent  of  more  than  4  billion 
able-bodied  men  laboring  8  hours  a  day,  6  days  a  week,  year  in  and 
year  out!  In  effect  our  petroleum  provides  us  with  an  average  of 
36  strong,  able-bodied  slaves  for  every  man,  woman,  and  child  in  the 
United  States;  for  the  average  American  family,  petroleum  does  the 
work  of  a  staff  of  144  servants ! 

This  fortunate  condition,  America's  abundant  supply  of  petroleum, 
is  due,  we  are  commonly  asked  to  believe,  to  the  fact  that  our  country 
has  been  blessed  with  unusually  rich  natural  resources  of  petroleum. 
This  is  a  mistaken  idea  and  to  accept  it  is  to  ignore  an  even  more 
precious  heritage  with  which  as  a  nation  we  have  been  blessed. 

We  have  produced  more  than  60  percent  of  the  petroleum  the 
world  has  consumed  so  far.  But  this  does  not  mean  that  we  possess 
60  percent  of  the  world's  petroleum.  Outside  the  United  States  ex- 
ploration for  petroleum  has  hardly  begun.  The  fact  is  that  most  of 
the  really  rich  petroleum  resources  of  the  earth  lie  outside  our  na- 
tional boundaries.  In  comparison  with  them  the  quality  of  our  do- 
mestic resources  appears  rather  meager.  The  areas  of  first-class 
promise  for  petroleum  over  the  earth's  surface  aggregate  some  6 
million  square  miles;  of  this  total,  about  15  percent,  or  less  than  1 
million  square  miles,  are  included  within  the  boundaries  of  the  United 
States.  When  the  petroleum  resources  of  the  earth  have  finally  been 
fully  developed  it  will  probably  have  been  established  that  less  than 
15  percent  of  the  total  petroleum  in  the  earth's  crust  lay  beneath  the 
surface  of  the  United  States. 

What  we  in  America  have  been  blessed  with  is  a  native  genius 
which,  in  combination  with  our  political  and  social  concepts,  has  en- 
abled us  to  explore  for  petroleum  more  effectively  and  to  discover 
the  hidden  resources  in  our  country  more  rapidly  than  any  other 
people  on  earth.  Our  abundance  of  petroleum  has  come  to  us  be- 
cause we  dug  down  into  the  earth  all  over  the  land  uiitil  we  found  it. 
No  other  nation  has  made  any  comparable  effort  to  develope  its  petro- 
leum resources. 

To  the  task  of  oil  finding,  in  addition  to  the  method  of  applied 
science  and  a  flair  for  industrial  organization,  we  have  brought  the 
spirit  of  the  pioneer.  To  an  ingenuity  which  enabled  us  to  design 
and  operate  the  ponderous  mechanical  equipment  required  to  drill 
and  recover  petroleum  from  wells  of  unprecedented  depth,  we  have 
added  the  frontiersman's  characteristic  risk-taking  instinct.  Driven 
by  this  instinct,  equipped  with  this  machinery,  we  have  gone  about 


^ 


OUR  PETROLEUM  RESOURCES — PRATT  301 

over  our  country  searching  for  petroleum,  setting  up  hundreds  of 
independent  wildcatting  enterprises,  drilling  thousands  of  explora- 
tory wells  every  year  for  a  generation.  Our  geographic  frontiers 
having  been  subdued,  we  have  searched  out  a  new  frontier  in  the 
vertical  dimension,  beneath  the  surface  of  the  earth.  The  conquest 
of  this  new  frontier  has  brought  us  our  abundance  of  petroleum  and 
the  high  living  standards  that  it  sustains. 

Every  nation  has  this  same  vertical  frontier  but  no  other  nation  has 
explored  it  as  we  have.  Over  much  of  the  earth,  where  the  natural 
obstacles  are  no  more  formidable  than  those  we  have  surmounted, 
political  and  social  barriers  have  prevented  the  effective  development 
of  petroleum  resources.  We,  too,  might  have  failed  had  we  not  en- 
joyed our  traditional  freedoms.  Kestrictions  by  the  State  on  the 
right  to  drill  exploratory,  wells.  State  ownership  of  minerals,  State 
monopoly  of  rights  to  explore — any  of  these  restraints  would  have 
gravely  handicapped  the  search  for  petroleum  we  have  carried  out 
in  the  United  States.  Even  the  presence  of  a  landed  gentry  with 
unbroken  ownership  over  large  areas,  in  contrast  to  our  widely 
divided  ownership  in  small  tracts,  would  have  seriously  retarded 
our  efforts.  Our  methods  could  not  have  been  employed  successfully 
in  any  other  than  an  atmosphere  of  democratic  free  enterprise. 

If  the  wells  we  drill  into  the  earth  are  successful  they  usually  en- 
counter petroleum  in  the  pores  and  small  voids  of  marine  sedimentary 
rocks.  The  petroleum  is  derived,  we  believe,  from  the  organic  re- 
mains of  former  marine  life.  Sedimentary  rocks  are  the  muds,  sands, 
and  oozes  that  have  accumulated  on  the  floors  of  seas  in  past  geologic 
ages.  The  hardening  of  these  materials  into  rock  has  taken  place 
slowly  under  the  pressure  of  the  load  of  later  sediments  deposited  on 
top  of  them. 

The  search  for  the  petroleum  resources  of  the  earth,  taking  account 
of  this  theory  of  origin,  should  be  directed  to  those  regions  where 
in  the  past  marine  sediments  rich  in  organic  matter  have  been  laid 
down  in  great  depth  and  volume.  Marine  life,  the  source  of  organic 
matter,  abounds  in  surface  waters  near  shore,  and  marine  sediments 
also  are  deposited  in  greatest  volume  near  shore,  where  the  streams 
from  the  adjacent  land  drop  their  load  of  mud  and  sand.  But  for 
sediments  to  accumulate  to  a  great  depth  it  is  necessary  for  the  sea 
floor  to  subside  as  fast  as  the  load  of  sediments  is  laid  down  upon  it ; 
otherwise  the  area  fills  up  and  becomes  land,  and  sedimentation 
ceases.  Hence  the  search  for  petroleum  turns  to  the  unstable  belts  of 
the  earth's  crust  where  there  is  delicate,  prompt  response  to  any  change 
in  load. 

Also  it  is  necessary  for  the  organic  matter  that  results  from  abun- 
dant marine  life  to  be  preserved  until  it  sinks  to  the  bottom  and  is 


302         ANNUAL  REPORT  SMITHSONIAN   INSTITUTION,    1944 

actually  entombed  in  the  accumulation  of  sediments.  It  must  not  be 
destroyed  by  oxidation  or  devoured  by  the  marine  scavengers  that 
normally  feed  upon  such  materials. 

There  are  two  common  environments  frequently  recurring  in  earth 
history  in  which  organic  matter,  falling  to  the  bottom  of  the  sea,  is 
effectively  preserved  for  burial  in  the  accumulating  sediment:  seas 
into  which  fine  muds  pour  so  rapidly  that  the  stagnant  bottom  waters 
are  too  foul  to  permit  the  presence  either  of  oxygen  or  of  marine 
scavengers;  and  "desiccating"  seas,  those  land-locked  bodies  of  water 
all  but  cut  off  from  the  ocean  proper,  which  are  subjected  to  con- 
tinuous evaporation  so  intense  that  they  become  highly  concentrated 
and  the  various  salts  normally  dissolved  in  sea  water  are  precipitated, 
settle  out,  and  accumulate  as  "evaporites" — limestone,  dolomite,  salt, 
anhydrite,  etc. — on  the  sea  floor.  The  waters  of  such  seas  become  so 
salty  that  no  life  and  very  little  oxygen  are  found  in  them,  except 
in  the  surface  layer  which  is  diluted  by  rainfall  and  by  constant  or 
periodic  inflow  of  fresh  sea  water  from  the  adjacent  ocean. 

When  we  survey  the  earth  for  evidence  of  conditions  in  the  past 
which  would  best  fulfill  these  specifications  for  rich  and  extensive 
petroleum  resources,  our  attention  is  soon  drawn  to  the  unstable  belts, 
covered  much  of  the  time  by  shallow  seas,  which  lies  around  the  mar- 
gins of  the  main  continental  platforms,  between  them  and  the  great 
oceanic  deeps.  We  note  particularly  the  shallow  depressions  in  the 
earth's  crust,  which  throughout  much  of  the  earth's  history  have  sep- 
arated the  several  continents  at  their  points  of  closest  approach. 

The  best  known  of  these  troughs  or  depressed  segments  between  the 
continental  masses  is  the  region  now  occupied  in  part  by  the  Persian 
Gulf,  the  Mediterranean,  Red,  Black,  and  Caspian  Seas,  lying  between 
the  continents  of  Africa,  Europe,  and  Asia ;  another  conspicuous  basin 
occupied  by  land-locked  seas  is  the  site  of  the  Gulf  of  Mexico  and  the 
Caribbean  Sea  between  the  continents  of  North  and  South  America 
in  the  Western  Hemisphere ;  a  third  is  the  shallow  island-studded  sea 
lying  between  the  continents  of  Asia  and  Australia  in  the  Far  East. 

Through  one  geologic  cycle  after  another  these  intercontinental  de- 
pressions have  been  filled  with  shallow,  land-locked  seas,  teeming  with 
marine  life,  into  which  sediments  poured  rapidly  from  the  land  on  all 
sides.  Frequently,  too,  these  depressions  have  been  the  sites  of  "des- 
iccating" seas.  The  earth's  crust  beneath  them  is  unstable  or  mobile 
and  yields  readily  to  stresses.  Altogether  these  depressed  zones 
between  the  continents  seem  admirably  constituted  to  serve  as  natural 
reservoirs  for  the  petroleum  resources  of  the  earth ;  and  as  soon  as  we 
look  for  petroleum  in  these  regions  we  find  abundant  evidence  of  its 
presence. 


OUR  PETROLEUM  RESOURCES — PRATT  303 

The  earliest  historical  records  of  the  Near  East  refer  to  bitumen, 
burning  springs,  eternal  fires,  and  other  phenomena  which  unmistak- 
ably indicate  petroleum  and  natural  gas  escaping  at  the  surface.  In 
modern  times  this  region  has  developed  the  outstanding  petroleum 
reserve  of  the  earth,  Russia's  greatest  oil  fields  are  situated  here,  as 
are  the  famous  oil  fields  of  Iran  and  Iraq,  owned  largely  by  the  British. 
Arabia,  where  exploration  was  undertaken  for  the  first  time  by  Ameri- 
cans only  a  few  years  ago,  has  already  built  up  very  large  proved  re- 
serves of  petroleum,  and  undoubtedly  other  important  discoveries  will 
follow.  The  important  oil  fields  of  Egypt  and  Rumania  fall  within 
this  area. 

Next  to  the  Near  East  in  importance  are  the  environs  of  the  Gulf  of 
Mexico  and  the  Caribbean  Sea  in  the  Western  Hemisphere.  Around 
the  northern  shore  of  the  Gulf  of  Mexico  are  situated  fully  one-half 
of  the  total  proved  reserves  of  the  United  States.  The  tremendous 
past  production  of  Mexico,  Colombia,  and  Venezuela  has  come  from 
the  land  fringe  along  the  western  and  southern  margins  of  this  region. 
Further  exploration  in  all  these  countries  is  certain  to  yield  many  new 
discoveries. 

In  the  shallow  depression  between  the  continents  of  Asia  and  Aus- 
tralia in  the  Far  East  are  the  great  oil  fields,  owned  largely  by  the 
British  and  Dutch,  on  the  large  islands  of  Borneo,  Sumatra,  Java,  and 
New  Guinea. 

If  we  accept  the  prewar  estimates  of  the  Russians  that  their  proved 
reserves  of  petroleum  are  of  the  order  of  45  billion  barrels,  the  total 
proved  reserves  for  the  earth  may  be  safely  placed  at  somewhat  more 
than  100  billion  barrels.  Fully  90  percent  of  these  proved  reserves 
lie  in  these  three  intercontinental  depressions,  and  it  is  generally  con- 
ceded that  these  regions  also  include  the  best  territory  by  far  for 
further  exploration  for  petroleum. 

There  is  a  fourth  great  depressed  segment  of  the  earth's  crust  be- 
tween continents  which,  except  for  the  forward-looking  Russians,  has 
escaped  any  real  consideration  so  far  by  the  world's  petroleum  indus- 
try. This  region  lies  between  the  continents  of  North  America,  Eu- 
rope, and  Asia.  It  covers  the  North  Pole  and  is  occupied  by  the  Arctic 
Sea,  a  land-locked  body  of  water  into  which  sediments  have  been 
transported  by  the  streams  draining  three  continents  throughout  much 
of  geologic  time.  We  are  accustomed  to  think  of  the  waters  covering 
the  North  Pole  as  the  Arctic  Ocean  and  our  maps  commonly  designate 
them  as  an  ocean,  but  they  are  in  reality  a  land-locked  sea,  a  fact  long 
recognized  by  the  Russians  and  other  European  peoples. 

Evidences  of  petroleum  are  conspicuous  at  many  places  along  the 
coasts  which  encircle  the  Arctic  Sea.  Near  Point  Barrow  in  northern- 
most Alaska  there  are  copious  oil  seepages.    At  Fort  Norman,  65° 


304  ANNUAL   REPORT   SMITHSONIAN   INSTITUTION,    1944 

north  latitude,  on  the  lower  Mackenzie  River,  in  northwestern  Canada, 
a  major  oil  field  has  recently  been  developed.  On  the  islands  north  of 
the  mainland  of  western  Canada  seepages  of  petroleum  from  the  rocks 
hi  the  surface  were  noted  by  Stef ansson  during  his  Arctic  explorations. 
At  numerous  localities  marked  by  surface  escapes  of  petroleum  and 
natural  gas  along  the  Arctic  coast  of  Siberia,  over  a  distance  of  3,000 
miles,  Russian  engineers  have  been  engaged  for  years  exploring  for 
and  producing  petroleum. 

The  geological  character  of  the  Arctic  region  and  the  evidences  of 
petroleum  in  the  rocks  that  make  up  the  coasts  of  the  Arctic  Sea  both 
justify  the  belief  that  this  region  will  eventually  prove  to  contain  some 
of  the  important  petroleum  resources  of  the  earth. 

As  long  ago  as  1888  Edward  Orton,  a  distinguished  geologist  en- 
gaged in  a  study  of  the  petroleum  resources  of  the  State  of  Ohio 
observed:  "It  is  obvious  that  the  total  amount  of  petroleum  in  the 
rocks  underlying  the  surface  *  *  *  jg  large  beyond  computa- 
tion." Since  Orton's  time  we  have  extended  our  exploration  for  pe- 
troleum much  more  widely  over  the  earth  and,  although  we  have  not 
as  yet  even  begun  to  exhaust  the  possibilities,  we  have  already  learned 
much  to  substantiate  his  conviction  that  the  total  amount  of  petroleum 
in  the  rocks  underlying  the  surface  "is  large  beyond  computation." 
Nevertheless  the  belief  persists  that  our  petroleum  resources  are  on 
the  verge  of  exhaustion.  Even  though  we  have  been  obliged  repeat- 
edly to  revise  upward  our  previous  estimates  of  their  probable  volume, 
we  still  fear  imminent  shortages  of  petroleum  products.  Will  nothing 
we  have  learned  serve  to  dispel  this  extreme  pessimism  ? 

Petroleum  and  coal,  our  mineral  fuels,  are  fossil  sunlight  of  2,000 
million  years  of  earth  history.  In  our  natural  resources  of  coal  there 
is  preserved  for  us  part  of  the  energy  of  the  light  which  has  bathed 
the  land ;  in  petroleum  we  recapture  some  of  the  energy  of  the  sunlight 
which  fell  upon  the  adjacent  waters.  The  coal  resources  of  the  earth 
we  have  measured,  and  we  can  calculate  their  volume  with  reasonable 
accuracy,  a  minimum  quantity  which  runs  into  thousands  of  billions 
of  tons — 7,500  billion  long  tons.  But  the  petroleum  resources  of  the 
earth,  which  we  cannot  as  yet  measure,  we  refuse  to  think  of  as  more 
than  a  few  tens  of  billions  of  tons — less  than  one-third  of  1  percent  of 
our  proved  coal  resources.  Why  do  we  believe  there  is  so  much  less 
petroleum  than  coal  in  the  earth  ?  Was  the  life  in  the  old  seas  so  much 
less  abundant  than  that  on  the  land  ? 

In  recent  years  Parker  Trask  and  others  have  made  extensive  inves- 
tigations of  the  sedimentary  rocks  of  the  earth.  We  know  that  of  the 
present  land  surface,  some  60  million  square  miles,  more  than  one-third 
is  composed  of  sedimentary  rocks ;  that  is  to  say,  an  area  of  22  million 
square  miles  of  the  present  land  surface  of  the  earth  has  been  covered 


OUR   PETROLEUM    RESOURCES — PRATT  305 

•by  seas  at  times  in  the  past.  Of  this  total  area  of  former  sea  floors  the 
rocks  comprising  about  6  million  square  miles  are  of  a  general  charac- 
ter which  make  them  of  first-class  promise  for  petroleum;  they  are 
present  in  great  depth  and  are  otherwise  favorable  for  the  occurrence 
of  petroleum.  The  remaining  area  of  16  million  square  miles  may 
also  contain  petroleum,  but  its  general  character  is  less  promising  and 
it  is  rated  of  secondary  importance. 

Among  other  characteristics  of  sedimentary  rocks  Trask  sought  to 
determine  the  organic  content.  In  this  research  he  examined  the  rocks 
which  constitute  the  floors  of  existing  seas  as  well  as  those  of  former 
sea  floors.  The  rocks  from  the  floor  of  the  deep  ocean  proved  to  contain 
but  little  organic  matter.  But  rocks  formed  in  seas,  near  shore,  were 
found  to  be  much  higher  in  organic  content.  Of  the  rocks  now  forming 
on  the  floor  of  the  Black  Sea,  for  example,  organic  matter  constitutes 
more  than  35  percent  by  weight.  In  the  rocks  from  the  floors  of  former 
seas  Trask  found  the  organic  content  to  range  up  to  10  percent  by 
weight,  averaging  1.5  percent.  Trask  estimated  the  average  organic 
content  of  the  rocks  in  the  floors  of  all  present  seas  at  2.5  percent  by 
weight. 

Do  these  estimates  promise  enough  organic  matter  to  constitute 
source  material  for  petroleum  resources  larger  than  we  customarily 
reckon  on?  Let  us  confine  our  attention  to  the  area  of  sedimentary 
rocks  of  first-class  promise  for  petroleum,  some  6  million  square  miles, 
excluding  the  remaining  16  million  square  miles  entirely.  Let  us 
consider  only  that  portion  of  the  first-class  area  which  is  within  easy 
reach  of  the  oil  man's  drill,  eliminating  all  possible  resources  more 
than,  say,  7,000  feet  beneath  the  surface,  despite  the  fact  that  a  large 
proportion  of  our  present  supply  of  petroleum  comes  from  greater 
depths.  Let  us  apply  to  this  restricted  portion  of  the  sedimentary 
rocks  of  first-class  promise  for  petroleum  only  the  average  organic 
content  estimated  for  the  floors  of  all  existing  seas. 

Even  on  this  minimum  basis  we  obtain  an  estimated  quantity  of 
organic  matter  so  large  as  to  baffle  comprehension — a  quantity  200 
times  greater  in  weight  than  the  total  coal  resources  of  the  earth! 
If  only  one-half  of  1  percent  of  this  organic  matter  had  been  con- 
verted into  petroleum,  concentrated  and  preserved  for  us  in  the 
natural  reservoirs  of  the  earth's  crust,  our  total  petroleum  resources 
would  equal  our  total  coal  resources.  If  only  one-tenth  of  1  percent 
had  been  so  preserved  for  us,  our  total  petroleum  resources  would  still 
be  60  times  greater  than  all  the  petroleum  we  have  so  far  discovered : 
that  is,  all  our  past  consumption  plus  all  our  proved  reserves. 

In  view  of  these  figures  it  is  not  unreasonable  to  suspect  that  the 
problem  we  face  is  not  a  dearth  of  petroleum  in  the  earth's  crust  so 
much  as  our  failure  to  explore  adequately  and  develop  the  resources 


306  ANNUAL  REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

that  are  as  yet  undiscovered.  If  we  now  set  ourselves  to  the  task 
all  over  the  earth  as  effectively  as  we  have  already  done  in  our  coun- 
try we  should  be  able  to  establish  tremendous  additional  reserves.  At 
any  rate,  if  our  total  petroleum  resources  are  as  limited  as  we  fear  they 
may  be,  the  explanation  does  not  lie  in  any  original  lack  of  organic 
source  material  in  the  sedimentary  rocks  of  the  earth's  crust.  A  very 
small  fraction  of  the  organic  matter  originally  present  in  the  most 
promising  rocks  would  have  sufficed  as  raw  material  for  a  great  deal 
more  petroleum  than  we  have  as  yet  discovered. 

REFERENCES 
Gedeoitz,  N.  a. 

1937.  Outlook  for  oil  in  the  Arctic  sector  of  western  and  central  Siberia. 

17th  Intemat.  Geol.  Congr. 
Heeoy,  W.  B. 

1941.  Petroleum   Geology.     Geology,   188S-1938,   Fiftieth   Ann.   vol.,   Geol. 

Soc.  Amer.,  pp.  511-548. 

ILIJNG,  V.  C. 

1938.  The  origin  of  petroleum.     The  Science  of  Petroleum,   vol.   1,   pp. 

32-38.     Oxford  Univ.  Press,  London. 
LlND,  S.  C. 

1938.     On  the  origin  of  i)etroleum.     The  Science  of  Petroleum,  vol.  1,  pp. 
39-41.     Oxford  Univ.  Press,  London. 
Nalivkin,  D.  V. 

1937.  Oil  in  the  Arctic.    Arctica,  vol.  5,  pp.  3-8. 
Paige,  S.,  Foban,  W.  T.,  and  Gilluly,  J. 

1925.     A  reconnaissance  of  the  Point  Barrow  region,  Alaska.     U.  S.  Geol, 
Surv.     Bull.  772. 
Smibnov,  L. 

1935.     The  problem  of  oil  occurrence  in  the  Soviet  Arctic.    Arctica,  vol.  3. 
Trask,  p.  D. 

1938.  Petroleum  source  beds.     The  Science  of  Petroleum,  vol.  1,  pp.  42-45. 
Trask,  P.  D.,  and  Patnode,  H.  W. 

1942.  Source  beds  of  petroleum.     Amer.  Assoc.  Petrol.  Geol.,  Tulsa,  Okla. 
Wateeschoot  van  deb  Gbacht,  W.  a.  J.  M.  van. 

1938a.     The   stratigraphical    distribution    of    petroleum.     The    Science    of 

Petroleum,  vol.  1,  pp.  58-62. 
1938b.     The    geographical    distribution    of    petroleum.     The     Science    of 

Petroleum,  vol.  1,  pp.  63-65. 


WOODS  AND  TREES  ^ 

PHILOSOPHICAL  IMPLICATIONS  OF  SOME  FACTS  OF  SCIENCE 


By  Frederick  H.  Krecker 
Ohio  University,  Athens,  Ohio 


Some  of  you,  I  am  sure,  are  wondering  why  a  zoologist  should 
presume  to  discuss  a  subject  which  apparently  lies  within  the  domain 
of  the  botanist.  Of  course  to  be  strictly  zoological  I  might  have 
used  the  words  formicaries  and  ants,  but  no  one  before  me  has  said, 
"One  can't  see  the  formicary  for  the  ants,"  and  I  do  not  presume  to 
establish  a  saying. 

I  have  had  considerable  experience  instructing  the  general  arts 
college  student,  the  student  who  takes  zoology  as  a  college  require- 
ment and  without  thought  of  continuing  in  the  field  beyond  the  limits 
of  the  course.  Each  year  at  about  this  season,  after  all  the  tumult 
and  the  shouting  of  instruction  have  died  down,  in  the  wee  small 
hours  of  the  fading  academic  year,  I  take  stock  and  ask  myself  in 
troubled  seriousness,  "What  have  I  conveyed  to  my  charges?"  Facts, 
most  certainly ;  but  facts  without  their  significance  are  as  food  with- 
out vitamins.  One  is  filled  but  does  not  thrive.  Hence,  I  query, 
have  I  been  content  to  show  to  my  students  merely  the  trees  of  fact, 
each  after  each  in  all  their  intricacy  of  detail,  or  have  I  also  taken 
them  to  a  vantage  point  and  shown  them  the  beauty  and  majesty  of 
the  forest?  Have  I,  in  other  words,  taken  full  advantage  of  the 
opportunities  which  President  Brown  of  Denison  at  our  last  meet- 
ing so  eloquently  ascribed  to  the  instructors  of  science.  You  will 
remember  that  in  the  course  of  his  remarks  he  humorously  itemized 
the  tongue-twisting  terms  that  met  his  gaze  as  he  reviewed  the  requisi- 
tions of  his  scientific  staff.  President  Brown,  however,  saw  beyond 
the  terms  and  the  facts  they  represent.  He  saw  them  as  a  means, 
not  as  ends.  Unfortunately,  some  members  of  our  scientific  fra- 
ternity, not  to  mention  the  man  in  the  street,  see  only  the  terms. 
Nothing  is  so  revealing,  so  pathetically  revealing,  as  the  desperate 
efforts  the  casual  acquaintance  makes  to  find  a  common  ground  of 

^  Address  of  the  retiring  president  of  the  Ohio  Academy  of  Science  delivered  at  the 
annual  meeting  of  the  Academy  held  in  Columbus,  Ohio,  April  30,  1943.  Reprinted  by 
permission  from  the  Ohio  Journal  of  Science,  vol.  43,  No.  4,  July  1943. 

307 


308  ANNUAL  REPORT   SMITHSONIAN   INSTITUTION,    1944 

conversation  once  he  discovers  you  are  a  zoologist.  All  too  often  he 
amusingly,  likewise  tragically,  attempts  to  recall  a  name — oh,  yes, 
he  says,  I  studied  zoology  once.  Let  me  see,  what  is  the  name  for 
oysters  and  clams?  *  *  *  That  man  has  seen  the  trees.  I  won- 
der whether  he  was  ever  shown  the  woods ;  whether  he  was  trained  in 
anything  but  bare  facts.  And  I  wonder  too  whether,  perhaps  still 
more  unfortunately,  the  significance  of  significances  was  ever  appre- 
ciated by  his  instructors. 

The  trees  and  not  the  woods  loomed  large  in  the  remarks  made  by 
a  colleague  of  mine,  a  purveyor  of  the  humanities,  on  the  occasion  of 
a  round-table  discussion  between  a  faculty  group  and  students  on  the 
ever-recurring  topic  of  science  and  religion.  The  immediate  ques- 
tion at  issue  was  the  relation  of  scientific  facts  to  religion.  My  col- 
league was  of  the  opinion  that  the  two  could  be  in  no  wise  related. 
By  way  of  illustration  he  pointed  to  the  facts  of  meteorology ;  certain 
conditions  of  temperature,  moisture,  atmospheric  movement  we 
know  result  in  rain.  How  can  that  knowledge  possibly  have  any 
connection  with  religion,  he  queried.  The  answer,  as  we  well  know, 
is  simple.  This  certainty  of  results  which  the  meteorological  facts 
represent  takes  much  of  the  mystery  and  consequent  uncertainty  out 
of  the  comings  and  goings  of  the  weather.  To  just  that  extent  we 
feel  secure  and  in  harmony  with  the  powers  that  ride  the  storm. 

My  colleague's  query  did  double  duty.  It  revealed  the  barren  trees 
of  both  science  and  religion  but  the  woods  of  neither.  The  funda- 
mental yearning  which  the  appeal  to  religion  strives  to  fulfill  is 
the  yearning  for  security,  a  yearning  which  grips  all  of  us.  We 
tremble  before  the  overpowering  uncertainties  of  enveloping  fate, 
the  unknowable,  and  strive  to  achieve  a  harmonious  relationship 
through  religious  experience.  The  woods,  which  apparently  neither 
the  scientific  nor  the  religious  experiences  of  my  colleague  had 
revealed  to  him,  were  that  just  as  the  all-compelling  quest  manifested 
through  religion  is  the  quest  for  security,  so  the  all-embracing  fruit 
of  science  is  to  afford  security ;  the  security  that  frees  from  the  bonds 
of  uncertainty  and  superstition  and  soothes  the  troubled  soul  with 
the  peace  that  passeth  understanding. 

This  doctrine  of  security,  the  teaching  that  we  live  in  an  environ- 
ment ordered  by  dependable,  understandable  principles  is  as  old  as 
science  itself,  the  leit  motif  that  has  threaded  its  guiding  way  through 
scientific  thought  throughout  the  ages  from  the  times  of  the  early 
Ionian  teachers  to  the  present.  As  F.  H.  Pike  ^  reminds  us  in  a  pub- 
lished note  within  the  year,  "One  great  change  which  occurred  in  the 
period  from  Thales  to  Plato  was  the  substitution  of  a  world,  perhaps 
even  a  universe,  of  law  for  the  older  world  of  caprice."    And  with  it 

*  Science,  AprU  24, 1942. 


WOODS   AND   TREES — KRECKER  309 

there  was  born  a  new  thing,  "science,"  which  as  Burnet^  so  aptly 
definies  in  his  survey  of  Greek  philosophy  is  "thinking  about  the 
world  in  the  Greek  way." 

To  return  to  my  colleague  and,  I  fear,  to  many  others  like  him, 
what  a  woeful  void  there  must  have  been  in  what  he  reaped  from 
science,  perhaps  also  in  the  guidance  offered  him  by  his  mentors. 
One  is  moved  to  paraphrase  the  biblical  interrogation,  what  doth  it 
profit  a  man  to  gather  the  facts  of  science  and  lose  its  soul  ? 

One  group  of  scientific  facts,  its  bare,  gaunt  trees  stripped  of  their 
pleasing  foliage,  tells  us  that  every  particle  of  matter  is  attracted 
by  every  other  particle  in  proportion  to  the  product  of  the  masses  and 
inversely  as  the  square  of  the  intervening  distances.  These  few 
words  represent  a  vast  number  of  subsidiary  facts  and  a  prodigious 
amount  of  painstaking  effort  in  their  formulation.  It  is  known  to  all 
who  mull  them  over  that  they  explain  the  floating  of  a  mote  of  dust 
to  the  ground  and  in  the  same  breath  the  grand  movement  of  the 
planets  through  space.  I  am  wondering,  however,  how  many  of  those 
who  have  burnt  the  midnight  oil  in  mastering  these  facts,  how  many 
of  our  students,  indeed  perhaps,  how  many  of  their  instructors  and 
how  many  of  our  friends  in  the  humanities  like  my  colleague  of  the 
religious  discussion  have  been  taken  to  a  mountain  top  from  which 
they  have  been  able  to  see  that  these  same  facts  have  served  also  as  a 
guidepost  in  our  quest  of  the  ultimate,  in  molding  man's  interpretation 
of  his  universe,  in  orienting  himself  in  time  and  space;  that  they  have 
been  one  of  the  things  which  has  helped  to  satisfy  man's  wonder,  the 
awesome  wonder  that  comes  over  one  as  he  gazes  into  the  depths  of  a 
star-studded  winter  sky  where  wonder  leads  to  wonder  and  one  is 
moved  to  breathe  the  thought,  "What  is  man  that  thou  art  mindful 
of  him?" 

As  Sir  James  Jeans  *  points  out,  "The  law  of  gravity  was  important 
not  so  much  because  it  told  us  why  an  apple  fell  to  the  ground  or  why 
the  earth  and  planets  moved  around  the  sun  as  because  it  suggested 
the  whole  of  Nature  was  governed  by  hard  and  fast  laws — in  the  light 
of  Newton's  work — Man  began  to  see  that  he  was  free  to  work  out 
his  own  destiny  without  fear  of  disturbuance  from  interfering  gods, 
spirits,  or  demons."  Or  again  to  partly  paraphrase  Dampier,"  New- 
ton's reduction  of  the  phenomenon  of  gravity  to  mathematical  terms, 
coupled  with  the  work  of  Copernicus  and  Galileo,  in  one  grand  sweep 
validated  terrestrial  mechanics  in  celestial  spaces  and  eliminated  with 
finality  the  Aristotelian  and  medieval  doctrine  that  "the  heavenly 
bodies  are  divine,  incorruptible  and  different  in  kind  from  our  im- 

»  Early  Greek  philosophy,  4th  ed.,  1930. 

*  Scientific  progress. 

■  Sir  William  Dampier,  A  history  of  science,  1938. 


310  ANNUAL   REPORT   SMITHSONIAN   INSTITUTION,    1944 

perfect  world."  The  effect  was  even  deeper  and  struck  at  the  very 
roots  of  religious  beliefs  in  that  it  was  made  "impossible  any  longer 
to  gaze  into  heaven  just  above  the  sky,  and  to  shudder  at  the 
rumblings  of  hell  beneath  the  ground."  Consequently,  as  Brett  ^  com- 
ments, "The  seat  of  religious  belief  was  thus  moved  from  the  heart 
to  the  head ;  mysticism  was  excommunicated  by  mathematics,  *  *  * 
the  way  was  opened  for  a  liberal  Christianity  which  might  ultimately 
supersede  traditional  beliefs." 

Incidentally  a  statement  like  that  is  indeed  comforting  to  a  zool- 
ogist. It  lifts  from  his  shoulders  some  of  the  burden  placed  there  by 
the  populace  for  having  undermined  ancestral  beliefs. 

Biology's  central  contribution  to  human  thought  has  been  the  doc- 
trine of  organic  evolution.  This  doctrine  has  brought  coherence  and 
order  and  significance  to  a  multitude  of  otherwise  apparently  discon- 
nected facts  and  theories  within  the  field  of  biology  itself  and  has 
opened  up  wide  vistas  of  vision  in  other  fields  as  well.  It  is  undoubt- 
edly superfluous  to  mention  this  to  a  scientific  assemblage  such  as  this, 
but  there  are  scientists,  even  biologists,  who  tend  to  belittle  the  impor- 
tance of  evolution  in  the  scheme  of  instruction.  And  here  again  I  am 
moved  to  wonder  whether  we  see  the  woods  as  we  look  at  the  trees; 
whether  we  consider  the  fact  of  the  evolutionary  origin  of  animals 
and  plants  as  an  end  in  itself  and  the  meticulous  details  of  evidence 
as  ends  in  themselves  or  whether  we  look  upon  them  as  means  to  a 
broader  end.  As  ends  in  themselves  they  are  probably  pleasant  bed- 
time stories,  if  you  like  that  kind  of  story.  They  are  facts  and  add 
to  one's  store  of  such  things,  if  your  hobby  is  making  a  collection.  If 
that  is  the  spirit  in  which  one  presents  the  matter  embellished  for  good 
measure  with  much  precise  detail,  I  fear  that  in  the  words  of  the  phi- 
losopher, Irwin  Edman,  once  applied  to  some  of  the  humanities,  it 
will  be  shortly  "dying  of  anemia,  of  archeological  hardening  of  the 
arteries  and  will  become  a  corpse  handled  conscientiously  by  solemn 
morticians." 

As  means  to  an  end  the  formulation  of  the  doctrine  of  organic  evo- 
lution, like  the  formulation  of  the  principles  of  gravity,  has  served  as 
the  factual  basis  for  a  reorientation  of  human  conceptions.  If  Newton 
paved  the  way  for  a  liberalized  Christianity,  Darwin  has  paved  the 
way  for  a  liberalized  sociopolitical  outlook.  The  doctrine  of  organic 
evolution  has  once  and  for  all  destroyed  the  concept  of  the  immutabil- 
ity of  human  institutions  as  well  as  of  animal  bodies.  It  has  destroyed 
finality.  If  man  as  an  animal  is  the  product  of  change,  his  institution, 
the  state,  as  a  sociopolitical  organization  is  not  immutable.  What 
served  the  purposes  of  our  fathers  may  not  of  necessity  serve  ours. 
And  so  also  have  we  been  conditioned  to  discard  the  concept  of  absolu- 

*  O.  S.  Brett,  Sir  Isaac  Newton,  1929. 


WOODS   AND   TREES — KRECKER  311 

tism  in  the  field  of  economics.  With  changing  times  come  changing 
economic  principles. 

Organic  evolution  with  its  handmaiden,  natural  selection,  has  de- 
stroyed the  sociological  equalitarianism  of  the  French  Revolution. 
All  men  may  be  equal  before  the  law ;  they  are  not  equal  before  the  bar 
of  life.  Gone,  too,  is  the  categorical  dictum  as  a  basis  for  morality 
and  in  its  place  has  come  racial  experience,  those  standards  which  have 
survival  value  for  the  race.  Morality  in  this  light  comes  to  mean 
allegiance  to  that  code  which  will  enable  one's  countrymen  to  live  and 
to  have  life  more  abundantly.  For  those  who  may  mourn  the  passing 
of  the  categorical  standard,  let  me  say  that  racial  survival  is  a  far 
more  exacting  standard  than  one  which,  perchance,  permits  of  com- 
pensation by  doing  penance.  The  youthful  monkey  merrily  swinging 
from  limb  to  limb  who  misjudges  his  mark  gets  no  second  chance  and 
leaves  no  descendants.  It  is,  indeed,  easier  for  a  camel  to  pass  through 
the  needle's  eye  than  to  cheat  the  laws  of  life. 

There  is  tonight  no  time,  even  if  this  could  be  considered  an  appro- 
priate place,  in  which  to  trace  all  the  ramifications  of  our  racial  expe- 
rience as  a  standard  by  which  we  may  order  our  lives.  However,  I 
should  like  to  enlarge  upon  one  phase  of  our  experience  which  does 
appear  to  be  peculiarly  applicable  to  the  present  state  of  world  affairs. 
Julian  Huxley,^  in  discussing  man's  achievements  points  out,  as  have 
others,  that  "the  next  step  of  greater  control  must  be  over  man  him- 
self *  *  *  through  (among  other  methods)  doing  away  with 
nationalistic  drives  and  superimposing  an  international  form  of  gov- 
ernment on  the  world."  To  a  biologist  there  straightway  comes  the 
question,  what  evidence  have  we  that  cooperation  is  any  more  success- 
ful than  isolation  as  a  biological  method  ?  Has  not  the  arch  isolation- 
ist, Amoeba,  survived  for  millions  of  years  and  have  not  thousands  of 
other  rugged  individualists  been  successful  among  the  animal  hordes  ? 
That  interrogation  immediately  poses  another — what  is  success  ?  And 
to  answer  one  must  differentiate  between  survival  and  mastery.  An 
animal,  all  of  us,  may  survive  through  a  variety  of  devious  subterfuges 
and  expedients,  the  common  mark  of  which  is  that  they  entail  sub- 
servience. However,  success  in  fullest  measure  is  mastery  over  condi- 
tions. If  organic  evolution  has  any  significance  it  is  the  story  of  how 
living  material  has,  through  the  cooperative  actions  of  its  subdivided 
units,  approached,  if  it  has  not  yet  attained,  mastery. 

I  am  fully  aware  of  the  fact  that  organic  evolution  does  not  of  neces- 
sity proceed  along  a  straight-line  principle,  that  life  has  followed  a 
thousand  and  one  devious  pathways  and  on  occasion  has  even  retro- 
gressed ;  but  the  fact  remains,  nevertheless,  that  at  each  level  on  which 

''  Man  stands  alone,  1940. 
619830 — 45 21 


312  ANNUAL   REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

there  has  been  a  closer  approach  to  mastery  that  approach  has  been 
accompanied  by  a  greater  division  of  labor  and  a  closer  coordination 
of  the  constituent  units  until  in  man,  the  master,  they  have  become 
woven  into  an  intricate  pattern  of  cooperating  parts.  At  the  opposite 
extreme  lies  an  ineffectual,  single-celled  droplet  of  living  material 
exemplified  by  Amoeba.  Organic  evolution  is  thus  history,  as  much  a 
part  of  our  history  as  is  the  history  of  the  written  word,  and  as  such, 
in  fulfilling  one  of  its  functions,  it  points  out  the  road  we  have  trod 
and  lights  the  way  that  lies  ahead. 

I  am  a  zoologist,  but  for  a  moment  I  should  like  to  turn  historian, 
that  man  who  has  been  termed  by  Schlegel  a  prophet  looking  back- 
ward, and  as  such  a  prophet  refresh  your  memories  by  briefly  tracing 
the  steps  of  this  story  as  others  have  done  before  me. 

It  can  begin  with  Amoeba,  a  creature  which  epitomizes  individual- 
ism. Not  even  in  the  commonly  shared  function  of  reproduction  is  it 
dependent  upon  another  for  assistance.  A  thousand  and  one  changes 
have  been  rung  on  this  isolationist-individualist  theme  among  its  fellow 
protozoans,  each  change  having  brought  survival  but  no  shred  of 
mastery. 

One  of  the  early  mutations  leading  out  of  the  protozoan  doldrums 
was  that  which  resulted  in  causing  proliferating  cells  to  remain  clus- 
tered together,  and  as  such  clusters  to  cooperate  in  the  form  of  tubular 
units ;  a  condition  exemplified  in  varying  degrees  by  the  Porif era  and 
the  Coelenterata.  The  rewards  were  those  that  come  from  numbers 
and  elementary  divisions  of  function.  This  condition  was  followed 
by  an  innovation  which  resulted  in  dense,  compact  and  solid  masses 
of  cells  being  able  to  exist  as  a  single  unit  exemplified  by  our  friends 
and  tormentors,  the  flatworms.  This  state  of  affairs  was  accompanied 
by  greater  diversification  in  the  constituent  units  and  preeminently 
by  rectilinear  locomotion. 

The  next  steps — three  of  them — in  this  mutating  series  were  par- 
ticularly significant ;  the  development  of  distance  receptors,  the  device 
which  produced  essentially  compound  animals,  and  the  accompanying 
delegation  of  authority  to  subcenters  which  thus  made  possible  the 
rapid  and  efficient  control  so  characteristic  of  the  metameric  groups. 

Metamerism  is  as  far  as  life  has  gone  in  the  way  of  physically  com- 
pounding units.  The  compounding  has  continued  but  on  the  psycho- 
logical level,  or  social  level  if  you  wish.  If  we  are  to  consider 
psychological  reactions  as  a  specialized  manifestation  of  physiological 
states,  the  continued  compounding  which  we  term  our  social  organiza- 
tion is  fully  as  much  a  physiological  process  as  were  the  physical 
unions  just  outlined  and  as  such  must  be  considered  a  direct  con- 
tinuation of  this  compounding  tendency,  a  continuation  made  pos- 
sible by  the  development  of  distance  receptors. 


I 


WOODS    AND   TREES — KRECKER  313 

In  saying  this,  I  am  mindful  of  those  who  maintain  that  social 
organization  is  not  comparable  to  corporate  organization.  I  am  in- 
clined to  think  the  difference  is  not  so  much  a  matter  of  principle 
as  of  means.  In  the  one  case  the  constituent  units  have  been  held  to- 
gether by  bonds  of  physical  contact,  in  the  other  they  have  been  as 
firmly  held  by  the  influence  of  distance  receptors.  Emerson,^  the 
ecologist,  has  recently  expressed  the  view  that,  "Regardless  of  how 
one  interprets  the  unity  of  the  more  complex  human  societies,  the 
human  family,  and  other  family  systems,  are  real  cooperative,  supra- 
organismic  entities.  *  *  *  Society  is  merely  a  manifestation  of 
fundamental  life  attributes  which  are  shared  with  other  biological 
systems  (e.  g.,  multicellular  organisms)  and  the  division  between  the 
social  and  the  non-social  is  not  sharp."  Jennings  ^  goes  further  and 
points  out  that  there  is  much  to  be  said  in  favor  of  the  conclusion 
that  "mankind  is  a  single  great  organism  temporarily  divided  into 
pieces — the  individuals."  Through  this  device  the  essential  benefits 
of  physical  union  are  retained  and  become  enriched  by  the  advantages 
to  be  derived  from  mobile  units.  The  study  of  organic  evolution  is, 
indeed,  from  one  standpoint  essentially  a  study  in  populations. 
Much  can  be  said  in  support  of  the  conclusion  emerging  from  such 
a  study,  that  in  its  animal  phases  at  least  unitary  masses  of  proto- 
plasm, whether  these  units  be  cells  or  bodies,  under  similar  conditions 
follow  essentially  similar  principles  of  group  organization. 

The  social  organization  of  the  corporate  population  has,  as  you 
know,  followed  along  two  lines,  the  one  illustrated  by  certain  insects, 
the  other  by  man.  Among  insects  the  culmination  is  reached  by  the 
ants  and  the  termites,  those  individually  defenseless  creatures  and 
toothsome  morsels  for  many  a  foe  which  have  through  cooperation 
lived  from  the  Tropics  to  the  borders  of  the  Arctic. 

Our  own  social  structure  is  an  even  more  intricate  and  widespread 
culmination  of  increasingly  interdependent  component  units  the 
progress  of  which  has  followed  one  unswerving  path  marked  by  the 
milestones  of  free  cells,  tissues,  organs,  organ  systems,  compound 
organisms,  then  families,  tribes,  kingdoms,  empires,  major  alliances, 
and  still  it  holds  its  course  into  the  future.  Faintly  outlined  as  yet 
but  apparently  on  our  course  lies  some  type  of  world  union.  This 
last  prophecy  may  be  branded  an  ultra-utopian  fancy,  but  it  must 
not  be  thought  that  the  pyramiding  of  units  I  have  just  traced, 
whether  in  the  field  of  physical  union  or  sociopolitical  associations, 
came  without  a  struggle,  without  false  starts  that  led  up  blind  alleys 
or  ended  in  stark  failure. 


'  A.  E.  Emerson,  Denison  Univ.  Bull.,  December  1941. 
•  Journ.  Soc.  Philos.,  January  1937. 


314  ANNUAL  REPORT   SMITHSONIAN   INSTITUTION,    1944 

For  those  who  may  be  faint-hearted,  the  fact  to  be  kept  in  mind  is 
that  with  all  the  difficulties  that  beset  the  way,  union  was  eventually 
accomplished,  that  with  each  union,  with  each  sacrifice  of  self,  with 
each  restriction  of  liberty,  there  has  been  a  stride  toward  greater  mas- 
tery, toward  a  fuller,  more  abundant  life  for  the  whole.  At  one  ex- 
treme is  individualism,  represented  by  Amoeba,  beholden  by  neither 
jot  nor  tittle  to  anyone,  groveling  withal  in  the  slime  and  swept  hither 
and  yon  by  every  whim  of  nature.  At  the  other  extreme  are  millions 
of  interdependent  cells  united  in  the  form  of  men  who,  in  turn,  through 
their  combined  efforts  have  overcome  the  sufferings  of  famine,  the 
scourge  of  pestilence,  the  barriers  of  distance,  the  mysteries  of  the  air, 
yes,  even  the  intricacies  of  creative  synthesis.  Optimism  for  the  future 
is  well  expressed  in  the  words  of  the  paleontologist,  Lull,^°  who  writes, 
"The  great  heart  of  nature  beats,  its  throbbing  stimulates  the  pulse  of 
life,  and  not  until  that  heart  is  stilled  forever  will  the  rhythmic  tide 
of  progress  cease  to  flow." 

Among  the  social  insects  the  price  paid  to  the  group  for  the  benefits 
of  cooperative  action  is  that  the  individual  be  born  to  a  class  and  have 
stamped  upon  him  unalterably  the  form  of  his  station  in  life — worker, 
soldier,  king  or  queen — there  to  remain  toiling  dutifully  without  will 
or  choice  that  the  group  may  survive.  That  is  strait- jacketed,  in- 
flexible efficiency,  not  inviting  to  those  of  us  outside  the  pale  of  Nazi 
or  Fascist  rule.  It  has,  moreover,  fallen  short  of  control,  probably 
because  its  morphological  inflexibility  is  paralleled  by  inflexibility  of 
nervous  reaction. 

There  is  no  gainsaying  that  one  of  the  most  patent  of  biological  prin- 
ciples requires  that  when  individual  and  species  conflict,  it  is  the 
individual  that  must  give  way  even  to  the  extreme  of  life  itself.  For 
us  the  demands  of  society  are  indeed  becoming  more  and  more  exact- 
ing ;  we  are  individually  being  held  to  a  closer  and  closer  accounting. 
There  is  ever-increasing  regimentation.  But  we  of  the  vertebrate  line 
are  fortunate  in  that  we  belong  to  a  type  of  social  organization  which 
permits  its  members  the  opportunity  of  realizing  their  responsibility 
to  the  group  and  of  doing  their  duty  voluntarilj^^  and  without  compul- 
sion. If  we  but  will,  therein  lies  our  avenue  of  escape  from  the  fate  of 
an  enforced  regimentation  analogous  to  that  of  the  insects. 

The  responsibility  which  rests  upon  us  individually  arises  from  the 
division  of  labor  inherent  in  society.  Each  sequence  in  the  evolution- 
ary progress  of  living  material  from  microscopic  unit  to  dominating 
mass  involved  more  and  more  detailed  division  of  labor  and  with  each 
advance  there  came  increasing  responsibility.  For  instance,  in  an 
unspecialized  body  like  that  of  a  sponge  the  entire  body,  as  you  well 
know,  can  be  taken  apart  cell  by  cell  and  then  the  whole  mass  or  any 

»  R.  S.  Lull,  Organic  evolution,  1929. 


I 


WOODS    AND   TREES — KRECKER  315 

portion  of  it  can  again  take  on  the  form  and  function  of  a  sponge. 
Here,  it  matters  little  whether  any  one  or  a  group  of  cells  fail.  At  the 
opposite  extreme  in  man,  the  loss  of  an  islet  of  cells  in  the  pancreas 
means  death.  Clearly  specialization  and  responsibility  go  hand  in 
hand. 

The  inexorable  demands  of  nature  that  each  do  his  duty  to  his  kind 
need  not  of  necessity  mean  that  before  us  lies  a  future  in  which  we 
shall  be  slaves  to  the  State,  Nazi-fashion.  A  slave  performs  his  duty 
without  choice,  has  no  voice  in  his  fate.  Before  us  lies  the  opportunity 
to  both  exercise  our  choice  and  discharge  our  duty.  If,  however,  we 
do  not  so  choose,  we  shall  have  responsibility  and  no  freedom,  no 
chance  to  direct  our  fate.  There  are  even  now  those  among  us  who 
would  impose  the  prototype  of  insect  rigidity  upon  our  form  of  social 
organization.  Its  most  extreme  exponents  are  the  followers  of  Nazi 
philosophy.  Rauschning"  reports  Hitler  as  declaring,  "There  will 
be  a  master  class  *  *  *  also  a  new  middle  class  *  *  *  and 
the  great  mass  of  the  eternally  disfranchized.  Beneath  them  still  will 
be  *  *  *  the  modern  slave  class.  *  *  *  Universal  education 
is  the  most  corroding  and  disintegrating  poison  that  liberalism  has 
ever  invented  for  its  own  destruction."  Carrel  ^^  has  expressed  some- 
what similar  views,  as  for  instance,  *  *  *  "The  democratic  prin- 
ciple has  contributed  to  the  collapse  of  civilization  in  opposing  the 
development  of  an  elite.  *  *  *  modern  civilization  is  incapable 
of  producing  people  endowed  with  imagination,  intelligence  and  cour- 
^gQ^     *     *     *     ^j-^g  equality  of  their  (man's)  rights  is  unequal." 

It  is  true  that  there  are  biological  differences  among  us  which  cause 
difficulties  in  a  democratic  state,  but  gene  distribution  is  such  that  few 
are  wholly  of  inferior  quality  and  few,  if  any,  of  wholly  superior  stuff. 
The  mechanism  of  transmission  and  interaction  of  genes  further  com- 
plicates the  picture.  And  who  is  to  differentiate  what  is  good  or  how  ? 
As  Jennings  suggests,  "One  of  the  greatest  difficulties  in  the  way  of 
effective  human  action  lies  in  the  lack  of  agreement  as  to  the  end  to  be 
attained.  *  *  *  perhaps  the  greatest  difficulty  of  all  lies  in  the 
lack  of  agreement  as  to  the  individuals  or  groups  that  should  benefit 
by  the  action  to  be  taken." 

The  course  upon  which  the  physically  undifferentiated  and  mobile 
fabric  of  the  vertebrate  social  organization  is  set  does  not  of  necessity 
demand  a  society  strait-laced  and  closely  regimented  in  which  free- 
dom of  action  is  surrendered.  It  does  demand  and  will  exact  the 
surrender  of  action  for  self  alone.  It  does  place  upon  us  unalterably 
responsibility  to  our  fellow  men.  The  failure  on  the  part  of  many  of 
us,  most  of  us  I  fear,  to  realize  this  fact  has  been  an  important  source 

"  The  voice  of  destruction. 
^  Man,  the  unknown. 


316  ANNUAL   REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 


of  our  present  unrest.  With  a  sense  of  allegiance  to  the  group  in  the 
spirit  of  that  larger  self-interest  which  realizes  that  the  greatest  good 
for  the  individual  is  inextricably  bound  up  with  the  good  of  the 
group,  there  need  be  no  fear  of  enforced  regimentation.  Unlike  the 
strait- jacketed  insect  civilization,  such  realization  of  individual  re- 
sponsibility permits  us  freedom  to  pass  from  stratum  to  stratum  as 
the  cast  of  the  genes  may  decide,  and  leaves  us  the  stimulus  of  in- 
dividual initiative.  The  specializations  of  society  without  a  sense  of 
responsibility  lead  to  the  limited  privilege  of  an  unbridled,  cancerous 
growth ;  specialization  with  a  sense  of  the  common  good  leads  to  the 
harmony  of  a  well-ordered  body. 

As  I  come  to  the  end  of  my  remarks  let  me  mention  once  again 
my  thoughts  at  the  close  of  the  academic  year,  my  interest  in  the  trees 
of  fact  and  the  woods  of  significance.  I  have,  as  you  see,  directed 
your  attention  to  but  a  few  examples.  First  among  them  was  the 
very  soul  of  science,  the  sense  of  security  which  scientific  facts  con- 
vey. Second  was  the  influence  of  what  may  appear  to  be  purely  phys- 
ical principles  upon  the  liberation  of  man  from  the  bonds  of  religious 
ignorance ;  third,  the  significance  of  the  facts  of  evolution  as  a  guid- 
ing light  upon  our  way  and  finally  the  significance  of  the  individual's 
obligation  to  the  group.  I  have  discussed  them  because  with  all  the 
immediately  practical  applications  of  fact  that  can  be  made,  which 
are  truly  many  and  important,  such  applications  alone  are  not  suf- 
ficient. The  instructor  in  science  has  not  completely  fulfilled  his  re- 
sponsibility to  those  who  come  to  him  for  guidance  unless  he  has 
pointed  out  the  wider  significances.  These  broader  applications 
which  carry  us  into  the  realm  of  ideas  are  required  to  satisfy  fully 
that  age-long  quest  which  Sir  William  Dampier  has  so  richly  clothed 
in  these  words : 


At    first    men    try    with    magic 
charm 
To  fertilize  the  earth, 
To  keep  their  flocks  and  herds 
from  harm 
And  bring  new  young  to  birth. 

Then  to  capricious  gods  they  turn 
To    save   from   fire   or   flood; 

Their  smoking  sacrifices  burn 
On  altars  red  with  blood. 

Next  bold  philosopher  and  sage 

A  settled  plan  decree. 
And  prove  by  thought  or  sacred 
page 

What  Nature  ought  to  be. 


But  Nature  smiles — a  Sphinx-like 
smile — 
Watching  their  little  day 
She    waits    in    patience    for    a 
while — 
Their  plans  dissolve  away. 

Then  come  those  humbler  men  of 
heart 

With  no  completed  scheme, 
Content  to  play  a  modest  part. 

To  test,  observe,  and  dream. 

Till  out  of  chaos  come  in  sight 
Clear  fragments  of  a  Whole ; 

Man,     learning    Nature's     ways 
aright, 
Obeying,  can  control. 


BIOLOGY   AND   MEDICINE 


By  Asa  Crawford  CHANDLEit 
Professor  of  Biology,  The  Rice  Institute 


My  subject  this  afternoon  is  "Biology  and  Medicine,"  but  I  think 
a  more  accurate  wording  would  be  "Medicine  and  Other  Phases  of 
Biology,"  for  to  my  mind  medicine  is  a  branch  of  biology.  Webster's 
Dictionary  defines  medicine  as  the  science  and  art  dealing  with  the 
prevention,  cure,  or  alleviation  of  disease.  Biology  is  the  science  of 
life.  Disease  might  well  be  defined  as  life  out  of  balance,  and  is  in  a 
strict  sense  a  biological  process.  Whether  it  be  an  attack  by  micro- 
organisms, or  improper  functioning  of  glands,  or  congenital  mis- 
formation  or  maladjustment,  or  injury  by  poison  or  bullets,  disease 
processes  are  in  the  last  analysis  nothing  more  than  cells,  tissues, 
or  organs  that  have  suffered  injury  and  so  not  only  fail  to  perform 
their  normal  functions  but  in  most  cases  interfere  with  the  normal 
functions  of  other  parts,  more  often  than  not  of  the  entire  body. 

Of  the  two  great  divisions  of  medicine  dealing  respectively  with 
treatment  and  with  prevention,  the  former  is  much  the  older.  It  is 
far  easier  to  observe  the  effects  of  treatment  on  a  person  suffering 
from  a  malady  than  it  is  to  understand  why  someone  else  escaped 
it.  Some  knowledge  of  curative  or  alleviative  medicine  was  possessed 
by  our  cave-dwelling  ancestors;  in  fact,  it  is  instinctive  in  many 
lower  animals.  It  gradually  grew  up  as  a  sort  of  folklore  from  a 
slow  process  of  trial  and  error,  added  to  the  instinctive  knowledge  ac- 
quired from  prehuman  ancestors. 

With  the  growth  of  belief  in  the  supernatural,  by  which  man  satis- 
fied his  developing  desire  to  explain  things,  medicine  became  largely 
theological.  Priests  and  physicians  were  one.  They  conceived  disease 
as  the  work  of  devils,  gods,  or  spirits  which  had  to  be  appeased  by 
sacrifices,  confused  or  circumvented  by  charms  or  incantations,  evicted 
by  emetics,  cathartics,  or  bloodletting,  or  enticed  to  escape  by  means 
of  holes  in  the  skull,  nasty  medicine,  or  other  devices.  It  is  since  the 
days  of  our  Pilgrim  Fathers  that  we  have  learned  that  it  is  more  effec- 
tive to  control  typhoid  and  cholera  by  boiling  water  than  by  boiling 
witches. 

Although  belief  in  the  instrumentality  of  demons  and  witches  in 
causing  disease  persisted  for  a  long  time,  since  Hippocrates  more  en- 

1  Public  lecture  delivered  at  The  Rice  Institute  in  the  spring  of  1943.  Reprinted  by  per- 
mission from  The  Rice  Institute  Pamphlet,  vol.  30,  No.  4,  October  1943. 

317 


318  ANNUAL  REPORT   SMITHSONIAN   INSTITUTION,    1944 

lightened  individuals  have  recognized  at  least  some  kinds  of  disease  as 
natural  processes.  From  that  time  to  the  present  medicine  has  been 
primarily  biological  instead  of  theological  or  metaphysical.  Some  of 
the  original  ideas  were,  as  would  be  expected,  very  far  astray;  for 
example,  the  theory  that  Hippocrates  inaugurated  and  Galen  ex- 
panded that  proper  proportions  and  relations  of  four  humors  of  the 
body  were  responsible  for  health  or  disease.  According  to  this  theory 
people  were  sanguine,  phlegmatic,  choleric,  or  melancholic  in  tempera- 
ment depending  upon  which  of  the  four  humors  predominated.  Erro- 
neous as  it  was,  this  theory  was  a  long  step  forward  in  that  it  focused 
attention  on  natural  instead  of  supernatural  causes,  and  on  caring  for 
the  patient  instead  of  appeasing  devils. 

Hippocrates  was  also  an  exponent  of  the  great  biological  principle 
that  nature  is  the  greatest  physician  of  all.  Left  alone,  an  organism 
attempts  to  repair  damages  to  its  parts,  to  adjust  itself  to  any  unbal- 
ance in  structure  or  function  that  has  been  entailed,  and  to  fight  off 
attacks  by  parasites.  The  role  of  the  physician  is  to  aid  the  organism 
in  these  attempts.  In  many  cases  this  involves  nothing  more  than 
augmentation  or  speeding  up  of  natural  biological  processes  that  the 
organism  itself  would  employ,  such  as  stimulation  of  immunity,  sup- 
ply of  additional  antibodies,  provision  of  new  tissue  or  fluid  in  the 
form  of  grafts  or  blood  transfusions,  supply  of  abundant  vitamins, 
regulation  of  hormones,  removal  of  unhealthy  tissue,  and  protection 
against  invasion  by  micro-organisms.  In  some  cases  it  involves  meth- 
ods which  are  entirely  foreign  to  the  natural  processes  of  the  animal 
body,  but  which  aid  and  abet  these  processes,  such  as  the  use  of  stimu- 
lants, anesthetics,  specific  drugs.  X-rays,  radium,  or  heat. 

The  speeding  up  of  natural  processes  of  repair  or  adaptation  is 
applied  biology.  It  involves  a  thorough  knowledge  of  the  normal 
biology  of  the  human  body — its  anatomy  and  all  phases  of  its  physi- 
ology. Strangely  enough,  even  knowledge  of  the  gross  anatomy  of 
the  human  body  was  extremely  sketchy  and  mostly  wrong  up  to  the 
middle  of  the  sixteenth  century. 

Galen,  of  the  second  century  A.  D.,  was  the  father  of  anatomy  for 
years,  but  he  was  a  very  poor  father  and  his  offspring  was  a  very 
hodgepodge  anatomy,  arrived  at  from  observations  on  the  inner 
workings  of  monkeys,  pigs,  dogs,  and  cattle.  For  over  a  thousand 
years  man  was  supposed  to  have  a  segmented  breastbone  like  a 
monkey,  a  liver  divided  into  as  many  lobes  as  a  pig's,  a  uterus  with 
two  horns  like  a  dog's,  a  hipbone  flared  like  that  of  an  ox,  and  a  heart 
with  pores  between  the  right  and  left  ventricles.  If  in  the  meantime 
any  errors  were  discovered  in  Galen's  descriptions  the  fault  was  al- 
ways thought  to  be  either  with  the  patient  or  with  the  later  observer. 
When  Vesalius,  in  the  sixteenth  century,  showed  that  man's  hipbones 
certainly  were  not  flared  as  Galen  described  them,  it  was  thought 


I 


BIOLOGY    AND    MEDICINE — CHANDLER  319 

that  they  had  undergone  a  change  in  the  intervening  centuries  due 
to  the  habit  of  wearing  tight  trousers. 

The  study  of  anatomy  was  retarded  greatly  by  religious  and  civic 
taboos  on  dissection  of  human  bodies,  but  Vesalius  spirited  skeletons 
from  beneath  gallows  and  was  not  above  occasional  clandestine  disin- 
terments. He  made  important  contributions  to  human  anatomy,  and 
did  much  to  start  other  physicians  consulting  nature  instead  of  Galen. 
Vesalius  even  reached  the  threshold  of  the  discovery  of  the  circulation 
of  the  blood,  but  this  great  milestone  in  the  history  of  medicine  was 
planted  by  Harvey  in  the  seventeenth  century.  Probably  no  other 
single  physiological  discovery  has  had  such  profound  consequences. 
What  a  superlative  age  that  was,  to  produce  a  Harvey,  a  Shakespeare, 
and  a  Galileo ! 

In  the  eighteenth  century  advances  were  more  rapid.  It  was  in 
that  century  that  another  great  Englishman,  John  Hunter,  discovered 
that  if  arteries  are  tied  off  the  blood  will  find  and  develop  new  chan- 
nels. Prior  to  that  discovery  aneurisms,  which  were  distressingly 
common,  were  treated,  if  at  all,  by  amputation  of  limbs.  John  Hunter 
also  learned  some  of  the  tricks  of  grafting  skin  and  bones. 

In  the  next  century,  the  nineteenth,  two  other  fundamental  bio- 
logical principles — the  cellular  structure  of  bodies,  and  evolution — 
came  to  light.  Both  of  these  ideas  contribute  so  much  to  our  knowl- 
edge of  the  human  body  and  how  it  works  that  a  full  evaluation  of 
their  significance  in  medicine  would  be  almost  impossible. 

Even  with  all  these  advances  in  anatomy  and  physiology,  nobody 
up  to  the  middle  of  the  seventeenth  century  had  any  good  idea  what 
disease  was  or  whence  it  came.  An  important  forward  step  was  made 
in  1687  when  two  Italian  scientists,  Bonomo  and  Cestoni,  showed  that 
scabies  was  a  disease  caused  by  tiny  mites  burrowing  and  reproducing 
in  the  skin,  and  was  spread  by  transmission  of  the  mites.  This  was  the 
first  demonstration  of  a  specific  cause  for  a  disease,  and  the  first  ex- 
planation of  its  spread,  and  was  a  clean  break  from  the  divine, 
humoral,  or  other  ancient  theories  of  the  spontaneous  origin  of  disease. 

A  few  pioneering  minds,  a  century  or  two  ahead  of  their  times, 
propounded  theories  of  contagion,  and  spread  of  disease  by  dessemina- 
tion  of  poisonous  particles  or  gases,  or  even  by  invisible  living  organ- 
isms, but  there  was  no  experimental  evidence,  and  these  precocious 
ideas  fell  on  barren  ground.  A  true  understanding  of  infectious  dis- 
ease had  to  wait  for  the  discovery  of  micro-organisms  and  some  knowl- 
edge of  their  nature. 

Leeuwenhoek,  a  Dutch  lens  grinder  of  the  seventeenth  century, 
who  invented  a  compound  microscope  capable  of  bringing  bacteria 
within  the  range  of  visibility,  is  sometimes  called  the  father  of  bac- 
teriology, but  I  think  he  might  more  properly  be  called  its  midwife. 
He  was  one  of  the  greatest  explorers  of  all  time.    Magellan  and 


320  ANNUAL  REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

Columbus  are  credited  with  discovering  continents,  but  Leeuwenhoek 
opened  the  door  to  an  entire  new  world.  Wherever  he  looked — in 
soil,  water,  food,  excretions,  or  decaying  materials — he  discovered 
a  host  of  micro-organisms  that  nobody  had  ever  seen  before  or  even 
suspected  of  existing.  Modern  explorers  with  electron  microscopes 
are  having  a  great  time  too,  but  their  discoveries  of  molecules  and 
viruses  and  of  the  minute  anatomy  of  bacteria  is  hardly  to  be  com- 
pared with  the  new  world  that  Leeuwenhoek  found  under  his 
microscope. 

But  I  do  not  think  that  knowledge  of  the  existence  of  insects  makes 
an  entomologist,  or  knowledge  of  the  existence  of  stars  an  astronomer, 
so  I  hesitate  to  consider  Leeuwenhoek  the  father  of  bacteriology. 
That  honor,  I  think,  should  go  to  Pasteur  who,  within  the  lifetime 
of  my  parents,  made  bacteriology  a  science.  He  did  it  by  providing 
final  proof  that  germs,  like  all  other  forms  of  life,  require  parents, 
and  come  only  from  pre-existing  germs.  As  long  as  it  was  thought 
that  germs  developed  spontaneously  from  decomposing  materials  the 
bacteriologist  was  in  as  hopeless  a  position  scientifically  as  a  mathe- 
matician would  be  if  the  sum  of  two  and  two  varied  with  the  weather. 

From  the  standpoint  of  the  control  and  prevention  of  disease  this 
was  undoubtedly  the  most  momentous  discovery  ever  made  by  man, 
for  it  alone  provided  a  solid  foundation  for  practically  all  our  public 
health  work.  On  it  rests  all  our  theory  and  practice  concerning 
contagion  and  infection,  quarantine,  sterilization,  antisepsis,  aseptic 
surgery,  purification  of  water,  pasteurization  of  milk,  and  almost 
everything  else  on  which  modern  practices  of  public  health  and  hygiene 
are  based.  Pasteur  is  rightly  revered  for  his  great  contribution  in 
proving  the  germ  theory  of  disease,  but  this  would  have  been  of  little 
value  or  significance  without  the  final  abolition  of  the  idea  of  spon- 
taneous generation,  which  for  a  long  time  extended  even  to  maggots 
and  mice. 

Pasteur's  fundamental  discoveries  led  almost  at  once  to  practical 
applications.  Lister  in  London  was  quick  to  apply  them  to  surgery, 
and  by  very  generous  application  of  carbolic  acid  to  himself,  the  pa- 
tient, the  bedclothes,  the  air,  and  even  the  floor,  be  brought  about  a 
very  considerable  reduction  in  the  mortality  from  operations,  which 
had  previously  been  about  45  percent  even  in  his  expert  hands. 

During  the  eighteenth  century  Europe  suffered  from  great  epi- 
demics of  childbed  fever — at  one  time  it  got  so  bad  that  in  Lombardy 
it  was  said  that  for  a  year  not  one  woman  lived  after  bearing  a  child. 
Europe's  lying-in  hospitals  for  destitute  mothers  were  humane  in 
spirit  only ;  in  reality  they  were  death  traps.  Oliver  Wendell  Holmes 
proclaimed  childbirth  fever  an  infectious  disease,  carried  from  patient 
to  patient  by  physicians  and  midwives.  Many  physicians  were  in- 
censed at  the  imputation  that  their  hands  were  not  clean,  and  Holmes's 


I 


BIOLOGY    AND   MEDICINE CHANDLER  321 

ideas  didn't  make  much  headway.  It  was  Semmelweis  of  Vienna  who 
finally  dealt  the  death  blow  to  childbed  fever  as  an  epidemic  occur- 
rence, and  proved  that  even  an  eminent  gentleman's  hands  are  not 
always  clean.  It  is  within  the  memory  of  many  in  this  audience  that 
aseptic  surgery  finally  supplanted  Lister's  heroic  antiseptic  measures, 
and  that  surgeons  began  paying  more  attention  to  washing  their  hands 
before  an  operation  than  after  it. 

Some  20  years  after  Pasteur's  demonstrations  of  the  germ  cause  of 
disease  and  the  final  putting  to  rest  of  the  theory  of  spontaneous  gen- 
eration, Robert  Koch  developed  technical  methods  that  made  possible 
the  easy  isolation  and  study  of  particular  kinds  of  germs,  and  then 
discovery  followed  discovery  with  almost  incredible  rapidity.  In  the 
short  space  of  15  or  20  years  the  causes  of  the  majority  of  infectious 
diseases  of  man  and  animals  were  isolated  and  studied.  The  elusive 
and  rather  mysterious  agents  of  disease  that  we  call  viruses,  however, 
had  to  wait  much  longer  for  biologists  and  chemists  to  pry  into  their 
private  affairs,  and  it  is  only  now  that  very  much  progress  is  being 
made. 

An  infectious  disease  is,  however,  an  extremely  complicated  phe- 
nomenon. The  interaction  of  a  parasite  and  its  host  is  not  a  static 
thing  like  the  interaction  of  one  chemical  with  another,  capable  of 
simple  description,  and  following  a  well-defined  course.  We  may  be 
too  prone  to  think,  because  we  know  what  organism  causes  a  disease 
and  something  about  its  biolog}^,  that  we  understand  the  disease  it 
causes.  Nothing  could  be  farther  from  the  truth.  We  are  dealing 
with  the  interaction  of  two  organisms  both  of  which  are  capable  of 
an  amazing  degree  of  adaptation  to  changing  conditions.  Every 
change  or  adaptation  in  one  entails  further  adaptations  in  the  other. 
A  disease  may  be  compared  with  an  organism — it  is  born,  it  grows,  it 
adapts  itself  to  environment,  and  it  finally  dies.  During  its  life  it  is 
influenced  by  a  host  of  environmental  factors  which  may  profoundly 
alter  its  course. 

An  infectious  disease  depends  on  the  presence  of  a  specific  invading 
organism,  but  this  may  be  only  one  of  the  necessary  requisites.  In 
almost  every  epidemic  the  number  of  healthy  carriers — people  who 
temporarily  acquire  a  colony  of  the  germs  but  show  no  evidence  of 
disease — far  exceeds  the  number  of  cases.  In  an  epidemic  of  cerebro- 
spinal meningitis  healthy  carriers  of  the  organism  that  we  say  causes 
it  may  outnumber  the  clinical  cases  20  to  1.  In  most  epidemics  of 
such  diseases  as  diphtheria,  whooping  cough,  dysentery,  and  even 
cholera,  the  ratio  is  from  5  or  10  to  1. 

If  disease  develops  in  only  one-fifth  to  one-twentieth  of  the  people 
reached  by  a  particular  pathogenic  germ,  it  is  evident  that  there  are 
other  factors  playing  very  important  roles  in  its  production.  Among 
these  are  a  proper  balance  of  the  glands  of  internal  secretion,  good 


322  ANNUAL  REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

nutrition,  especially  with  respect  to  vitamins,  and  the  development 
of  specific  immunity  or  resistance.  There  can  be  no  doubt  that  these 
same  factors  play  a  large  part  in  determining  the  course  and  outcome 
of  a  disease  after  it  has  gotten  a  start.  A  physician,  then,  if  he  is  to 
make  the  most  of  his  effort  to  help  in  suppressing  disease,  must  be  far 
more  than  a  dispenser  of  medicine.  He  must,  indeed,  be  familiar  with 
more  phases  of  biology  than  are  most  biologists.  He  must  understand 
anatomy,  histology,  general  physiology,  endocrinology,  embryology, 
psychology,  nutrition,  immunology,  and  even  genetics  in  order  to  have 
a  proper  understanding  of  his  patient,  and  he  must  be  a  bacteriologist 
or  parasitologist  to  understand  the  capabilities  and  vulnerabilities  of 
the  invading  organism. 

Some  relations  of  heredity  and  genetics  to  disease  have  been  known 
for  a  long  time,  but  more  progress  has  been  made  in  genetic  control  of 
disease  in  plants  and  even  in  domestic  animals  than  in  man.  Effects 
of  genetic  constitution  of  human  beings  on  the  course  of  disease  and 
development  of  resistance  are  still  very  little  understood,  and  still  less 
is  known  about  effects  of  genetic  constitution  of  pathogenic  organisms 
and  means  of  altering  it.  Herein  lies  an  almost  untouched  field  with 
vast  possibilities  for  the  future. 

Experimental  breeding  of  mice  has  resulted  in  decreasing  mortality 
from  a  particular  disease  from  82  to  24  percent  in  six  generations,  and 
to  8  percent  over  a  period  of  years.  In  six  generations  of  chickens 
mortality  from  fowl  typhoid  decreased  from  85  to  10  percent.  Recent 
studies  indicate  that  alterations  in  genetic  constitution  comparable  to 
mutations  in  insects  and  plants  occur  also  in  bacteria  and  even  in 
viruses.  In  a  period  of  a  few  hours  many  kinds  of  bacteria  and  viruses 
may  reproduce  in  such  numbers  that  if  their  rate  of  mutation  is  com- 
parable with  that  thought  true  for  fruitflies,  each  gene  the  bacteria 
possesses  should  mutate  at  least  once.  With  even  slightly  favorable 
selection,  replacement  of  the  parent  population  by  mutants  is  possible 
in  short  periods  of  time. 

Viruses  have  many  characteristics  of  genes,  differing  principally  in 
their  ability  to  move  from  cell  to  cell.  There  is  evidence  that  the 
mutation  of  viruses  is  comparable  with  mutation  of  genes.  The  de- 
velopment of  relatively  nonpathogenic  varieties  of  viruses  or  bacteria 
is  the  real  basis  for  the  production  of  effective  vaccines  against  such 
diseases  as  smallpox  and  yellow  fever,  and  probably  for  the  rise  and 
fall  of  epidemics  of  cholera  and  diphtheria.  It  has  recently  been 
discovered  that  the  virus  of  infantile  paralysis  genetically  altered  by 
mouse  adaptation,  when  mixed  with  the  parent  virus,  has  great  power 
to  protect  monkeys  from  paralysis.  What  causes  the  protection  is  not 
yet  known,  but  the  result  of  this  basic  discovery  may  be  very  far 
reaching. 


BIOLOGY    AND   MEDICINE — CHANDLER  323 

Concomitant  with  development  of  knowledge  of  causes  of  infectious 
diseases,  immunology  was  beginning  to  make  its  contributions  to  the 
cure  and  prevention  of  disease.  You  are  all  familiar  with  Jenner's 
discovery  in  1798  of  the  protective  value  of  cowpox  inoculation  against 
smallpox.  As  the  result  of  that  there  is  probably  no  one  in  this  audi- 
ence with  a  pockmarked  face,  whereas  in  Jenner's  day  certainly  one  in 
four  of  you  would  have  been  so  marked  if  indeed  you  were  alive  at  all. 
Jenner,  however,  had  no  notion  of  how  his  method  worked ;  he  merely 
observed  that  it  did,  and  risked  the  ridicule  of  the  medical  world  by 
saying  so,  and  the  life  of  his  own  son  by  testing  it. 

Many  decades  later  Pasteur,  making  the  most  of  an  accidental  obser- 
vation, laid  a  foundation  for  modern  immunology  by  showing  that 
agents  of  disease  can  be  attenuated  by  various  means  to  a  point  where 
they  are  no  longer  capable  of  producing  serious  disease,  but  still  possess 
the  power  of  stimulating  immunity  comparable  with  that  produced  by 
recovery  from  a  real  attack.  Just  as  bacteriology  opened  the  gates  to 
knowledge  of  the  causes  and  means  of  transmission  of  infectious  dis- 
eases, so  the  birth  of  immunology  opened  the  way  to  knowledge  of 
nature's  principal  means  of  combatting  them. 

The  contributions  of  immunology  to  the  cure  and  prevention  of  dis- 
ease are  so  numerous  that  I  can  mention  but  a  few.  As  aids  in  diagnosis 
I  may  mention  the  tuberculin  test  for  tuberculosis  in  cattle  and  man; 
the  Shick  test  for  susceptibility  to  diphtheria ;  the  Dick  test  for  sus- 
ceptibility to  scarlet  fever;  the  scratch  test  for  allergies  to  pollens, 
foods,  or  other  substances ;  the  agglutination  tests  for  typhoid,  dysen- 
tery, cholera,  typhus,  and  many  other  diseases ;  the  Wasserman,  Kahn, 
and  other  tests  for  syphilis;  the  typing  tests  for  the  pneumococci  of 
lobar  pneumonia;  and  many  others  that  are  less  well  known  but  no 
less  useful  when  needed. 

As  therapeutic  aids  I  may  mention  antitoxins  for  diphtheria,  tetanus, 
scarlet  fever,  and  a  number  of  other  diseases,  which  have  made  deaths 
from  some  of  these  diseases  under  ordinary  conditions  nothing  short 
of  criminal  negligence;  the  helpful  injections  of  typed  pneumococcus 
serum  in  pneumonia;  the  use  of  immune  or  convalescent  serum  in 
cerebrospinal  meningitis,  anthrax,  measles,  and  most  recently  influ- 
enza ;  and  the  life-saving  properties  of  antivenin  for  snake  bites. 

As  preventive  aids  I  need  only  call  your  attention  to  the  wonderful 
records  achieved  by  the  use  of  vaccines  against  typhoid,  paratyphoid, 
diphtheria,  and  more  recently  yellow  fever.  This  once  dreaded  dis- 
ease is  now  looked  upon  by  the  United  States  Public  Health  Service 
as  of  less  consequence  than  the  relatively  mild  and  tolerated  dengue 
fever,  merely  because  our  Government  has  a  bank  of  a  million  protec- 
tive doses  of  vaccine  which  it  can  release  if  ever  a  case  occurs  within 
our  borders.  In  recent  years  success  has  also  been  attained  in  produc- 
tion of  vaccines  against  typhus  fever  and  spotted  fever,  the  former  of 


324  ANNUAL  REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

which  has  hitherto  been  the  scourge  of  every  gi-eat  war.  In  the  present 
war  man-made  implements  of  destruction  are  more  deadly  than  ever 
before,  but  there  is  no  question  but  that  this  added  deadliness  is  more 
than  compensated  for  by  protection  from  diseases,  which,  up  to  the  time 
of  the  Spanish-American  war,  always  wrought  more  havoc  than  the 
enemy.  Such  diseases  as  typhoid,  dysentery,  typhus,  tetanus,  and  yel- 
low fever  have  been  shorn  of  their  power  by  protective  vaccinations. 

Closely  related  to  the  field  of  immunology  is  blood  typing,  which 
has  placed  blood  transfusion  on  a  safe  and  sound  footing,  and  made 
it  as  routine  a  procedure  as  anesthesia  or  surgical  asepsis.  In  spite 
of  the  accomplishments  in  the  field  of  immunology  in  recent  years,  I 
think  we  may  confidently  look  forward  to  ever  greater  things  in  the 
years  to  come.  Within  the  past  12  months  success  has  been  attained 
for  the  first  time  in  the  artificial  production  of  antibodies  in  laboratory 
flasks.  This  may  open  the  door  to  future  developments  which  may 
surpass  anything  we  have  yet  been  able  to  hope  for. 

I  wish  now  to  turn  your  attention  to  another  field  of  biology  that 
has  contributed  enormously  to  medicine — the  science  of  endocrinology. 
No  sorcerer  or  magician  of  old  ever  dreamed  of  accomplishing  the 
miracles  that  can  be  performed  today  by  the  application  of  knowledge 
in  this  field.  Osier,  speaking  of  the  effect  of  thyroid  extracts  on  those 
horribly  misshapen,  doltish  creatures  known  as  cretins,  says,  "Not  the 
magic  wand  of  Prospero  or  the  brave  kiss  of  the  daughter  of  Hip- 
pocrates ever  effected  such  a  change  as  that  which  we  are  now  enabled 
to  make  in  these  unfortunate  victims,  doomed  heretofore  to  live  in 
helpless  imbecility — an  unmistakable  affliction  to  their  parents  and 
their  relatives." 

The  science  of  endocrinology  was  born  of  primitive  beliefs  in  organ 
magic.  When  our  remote  ancestors  began  to  indulge  in  the  art  of 
thinking  and  had  reached  the  stage  at  which  they  could  weave  together 
a  number  of  scattered  observations  and  come  out  with  a  general  idea, 
it  was  a  natural  deduction  that  the  kind  of  food  you  ate  was  a  big 
factor  in  determining  what  sort  of  person  you  were.  Tigers  were 
thought  to  be  fierce  because  they  ate  raw  meat;  it  was  overlooked 
that  a  tiger  fed  on  lettuce  and  carrots  would  undoubtedly  be  fiercer 
still,  and  that  a  meat  eater  had  to  be  fierce  to  get  his  meat  whereas  a 
vegetarian  could  afford  to  be  timid  and  fleetfooted.  Such  thoughts, 
traveling  along  a  single  track,  eventually  reached  the  conclusion 
that  courage  could  be  acquired  from  eating  the  hearts  of  courageous 
animals  or  men,  intelligence  from  eating  brains,  and  so  on.  The 
psychological  effects  undoubtedly  provided  ample  circumstantial  evi- 
dence for  the  truth  of  the  assumptions. 

Modern  endocrinology  began  in  1889  when  a  famous  French  scien- 
tist, Brown-Sequard,  claimed  remarkable  rejuvenating  effects  in  him- 


BIOLOGY    AND    MEDICINE CHANDLER  325 

self  from  injection  of  gland  extracts.  His  results,  too,  were  prob- 
ably psychological,  but  his  prestige  was  such  that  his  claims  started 
a  development  in  medicine  that  has  had  more  profound  significance 
than  any  since  Pasteur's  discoveries  of  the  bacterial  origin  of  disease. 
The  human  body  is  a  highly  automatic,  self-regulating  mechanism. 
Nature's  primitive  means  of  regulation  of  the  body  of  an  organism  is 
by  chemical  substances  secreted  by  its  tissues.  Superimposed  on  this, 
later  in  evolution,  is  an  involuntary  nervous  system,  useful  in  making 
rapid  and  temporary  adjustments  that  become  necessary  for  a  body 
with  ever-increasing  activities  and  more  and  more  complicated  rela- 
tions to  its  environment.  Still  later  in  evolution  Nature  added  a 
voluntary  nervous  system  but  very  wisely  refrained  from  giving  it 
control  over  the  internal  regulation  of  the  body.  As  Dr.  Cannon 
remarks,  we  should  be  greatly  bothered  if  in  addition  to  attending 
to  the  business  of  other  people  we  had  to  attend  to  our  own.  The 
internal  affairs  of  the  body  are  too  important  to  be  subject  to  a  well- 
meaning  but  neglectful  and  incompetent  intelligence,  which  would 
as  likely  as  not  be  concerning  itself  with  the  flight  of  a  golf  ball  when 
it  ought  to  be  attending  to  the  rate  of  the  heart  beat. 

The  chemical  method  is  still  the  fundamental  means  of  regulation  of 
the  body.  Chemicals  produced  by  tissues,  which  we  call  hormones,  con- 
trol such  functions  as  growth,  development,  metabolism,  and  reproduc- 
tion, and  adapt  the  body  gradually  to  climatic  fluctuations,  variations 
in  activity,  nutritional  changes,  pregnancy,  lactation,  etc.  The  human 
body  is  one  of  the  most  thoroughly  integrated  and  communistic  or- 
ganizations imaginable,  every  part  sharing,  according  to  need,  with 
every  other  part,  and  each  part  influencing  every  other  part.  It  is  a 
prevalent  view  today  that  every  tissue  and  organ  in  the  body  produces 
hormones  or  hormonelike  substances  that  help  in  the  integration  of  the 
entire  organism.  As  bodies  became  more  complex  during  the  course 
of  evolution,  however,  and  the  regulation  more  difficult,  a  number 
of  special  glands  for  production  of  particularly  potent  hormones  were 
developed.  These  are  what  constitute  the  endocrine  system.  Some  of 
the  glands  are  completely  separate  organs  having  no  other  functions, 
such  as  the  thyroid,  pituitary,  and  adrenals.  Others  have  developed  as 
special  tissues  in  already  existing  organs,  as  in  the  pancreas,  liver, 
and  sex  glands. 

The  potency  of  these  glands  is  almost  incredible.  They  very  largely 
determine  what  we  are  and  how  we  behave.  They  dominate  our  physi- 
cal stature,  our  mental  development,  our  emotional  status,  our  repro- 
ductive activity,  the  rate  at  which  we  live,  and  our  ability  to  make 
use  of  our  food.  They  are  the  architects  of  our  bodies  and  the  mould- 
ers of  our  character.  A  puppy  deprived  of  its  anterior  pituitary  gland 
may  be  converted  from  an  aggressive,  pugnacious  creature  to  a  whimp- 


326  ANNUAL   REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

ering  coward,  and  may  be  returned  to  its  former  state  by  pituitary 
injections.  Injections  of  prolactin  into  rats  with  no  trace  of  maternal 
instincts  will  fill  them  so  full  of  mother-love  that  they  will  even  mother 
baby  squabs  instead  of  eating  them.  One  is  led  to  interesting  specula- 
tion as  to  whether  injections  of  prolactin  might  not  be  a  good  alterna- 
tive to  execution  for  despotic  dictators. 

The  hormones  produced  by  the  endocrine  glands,  some  stimulating 
and  some  inhibitory,  not  only  affect  the  body  as  a  whole  in  many 
complex  ways,  but  they  interact  with  each  other  in  such  an  intricate 
manner  that  we  are  still  very  far  from  ideal  utilization  of  them,  and 
we  may  look  forward  to  a  great  extension  in  the  future.  Yet  even 
now,  only  50  years  from  the  birth  of  the  science,  the  use  of  hormones 
has  revolutionized  a  large  part  of  medical  practice  and  has  given  new 
insight  into  many  physiological  processes,  such  as  metabolic  rate, 
sugar  metabolism,  blood  pressure,  menstrual  disorders,  psychotic  mal- 
adjustments, adiposity,  sexual  aberrations,  and  reproductive  difficulties. 

Now  let  us  turn  to  another  contribution  of  biology  to  medicine — 
knowledge  of  nutrition.  For  lack  of  time  I  will  pass  briefly  over 
many  interesting  discoveries  connected  with  metabolism  of  proteins, 
fats  and  sugars,  utilization  of  minerals,  etc.,  though  in  passing  I 
must  pause  long  enough  to  mention  a  relatively  new  tool  in  physiologi- 
cal research — the  use  of  ions  tagged  by  means  of  atoms  of  unusual 
weight  or  made  radioactive  in  cyclotrons.  By  this  means  it  has  been 
found  that  molecules  in  the  body,  even  those  supposed  to  be  relatively 
stable  in  bones,  teeth,  or  fat,  are  forever  being  shifted  about  and  re- 
placed by  new  ones.  The  body  is  even  less  stable  than  it  was  thought 
to  be. 

The  most  significant  discoveries  in  nutrition,  ranking  close  to  the 
discovery  of  hormones  in  their  importance  to  human  welfare,  were 
those  of  the  vitamins.  Since  the  days  of  leopard-skin  dinner  jackets 
and  struggles  with  cave  bears  instead  of  dictators,  man's  ways  of 
life  have  undergone  many  changes  and  so  have  his  foods.  With  the 
development  of  agriculture  and  civilization  his  food  became  less  varied 
and  more  highly  manipulated.  He  began  to  live  more  extensively 
on  grain,  to  store  food  for  periods  of  famine,  and  to  cook  it.  Later 
he  began  throwing  away  the  vitamin-bearing  parts  of  his  cereals, 
developed  a  taste  for  refined  sugar,  protected  himself  from  sunlight, 
and  often  lived  for  months  without  fresh  fruits  or  vegetables.  Beri- 
beri, scurvy,  rickets,  pellagra,  and  night  blindness  attacked  whole 
populations. 

Except  for  the  cure  of  scurvy  by  eating  lemon  juice  or  hemlock 
leaves  some  200  years  ago,  nothing  definite  was  known  about  these 
nutritional-deficiency  diseases  until  Eijkmann  began  experimenting 
with  diseased  fowls  in  Java  45  years  ago.  Gradually  during  the  last 
30  3^ears  a  whole  alphabet  of  vitamins  has  been  discovered,  but  it  is 


BIOLOGY    AND    MEDICINE CHANDLER  327 

only  within  the  last  decade  that  they  have  been  obtained  in  chemically 
pure  form,  and  synthesized.  Few  people  even  today  realize  the  im- 
portance of  this.  Although  this  country  is  probably  the  best  fed  in 
the  world,  I  do  not  believe  it  is  an  exaggeration  to  say  that  50  and  pos- 
sibly 75  percent  of  the  American  people  do  not  have  optimum  amounts 
of  all  the  vitamins  they  should  have.  They  do  not  have  scurvy  or 
beriberi  or  rickets,  but  they  have  a  host  of  minor  illnesses  or  troubles 
that  they  need  not  have.  Some  British  authorities  have  gone  so  far 
as  to  say  that  99  percent  of  so-called  common  illnesses  are  directly  or 
indirectly  due  to  vitamin  deficiencies.  Allowing  100  percent  expansion 
for  enthusiasm,  the  figue  is  still  impressive. 

The  common  effects  of  vitamin  defieiencies  are  such  things  as  night 
blindness,  susceptibility  to  colds,  unhealthy  teeth,  poor  appetite, 
gloominess,  nervousness,  and  a  tendency  to  fly  into  tantrums.  An 
abundance  of  vitamins  leads  not  only  to  a  state  of  superhealth  in  people 
who  have  always  considered  themselves  reasonably  healthy,  but  it  is  of 
great  help  in  recovery  from  acute  or  chronic  diseases,  repair  of  wounds, 
and  resistance  to  infection.  Even  yet,  many  medical  men  tend  to  look 
upon  synthetic  vitamins  as  medicine  rather  than  supplementary  food, 
but  gradually  this  is  changing,  and  it  is  encouraging  to  see  more  and 
more  foods  fortified  by  added  synthetic  vitamins.  Because  of  this 
and  the  more  even  distribution  of  vitamin-bearing  foods  by  rationing, 
the  general  level  of  nutrition  in  England,  in  spite  of  several  years  of 
war,  is  better  than  it  has  ever  been  before.  It  is  becoming  more  and 
more  so  in  this  country  too. 

The  definition  of  medicine  includes  the  prevention  of  disease  as 
well  as  its  cure  and  alleviation.  Some  attempts  at  preventive  medi- 
cine were  made  when  disease  was  supposed  to  be  caused  by  demons, 
for  it  was  a  natural  inference  that  if  the  demons  could  be  ejected  they 
might  also  be  prevented  from  entering.  With  the  development  of 
the  humoral  theories,  preventive  medicine  was  almost  completely 
forgotten,  since  no  one  had  even  guessed  as  to  how  the  humors  could 
be  kept  in  order  before  they  got  out  of  balance.  Prevention  of  dis- 
ease is  a  phase  of  ecology,  and  involves  knowledge  of  normal  bodies 
and  their  relation  to  their  environment,  including  climate,  atmosphere, 
and  geological  formations,  as  well  as  relations  to  such  fellow  creatures 
as  rats,  mosquitoes,  lice,  hookworms,  amoebae,  and  bacteria,  to  say 
nothing  of  viruses. 

It  is  only  in  very  recent  times  that  anything  whatever  has  been 
known  about  this  phase  of  medicine.  Only  in  a  few  instances  have 
the  processes  of  trial  and  error  that  led  to  curative  and  alleviative 
procedures  led  to  practices  that  prevent  disease.  One  of  the  first 
great  triumphs  in  curative  medicine  was  the  discovery,  in  1640,  of 
the  value  of  extracts  of  cinchona  bark  as  a  cure  for  malaria,  but  it  was 

619830—45 22 


328  ANNUAL  REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

not  until  the  end  of  the  nineteenth  century  that  a  basis  for  the  pre- 
vention of  malaria  was  discovered. 

A  few  practices  of  primitive  people  suggest  attempts,  probably 
unwitting,  to  prevent  disease.  In  India,  for  instance,  I  found  a 
primitive  tribe,  the  Santals,  who  never  drink  water  directly  from  a 
stream  or  pond,  but  from  a  little  hole  in  the  sand  a  foot  or.  so  away, 
thus  practicing  sand  filtration,  one  of  the  prime  tools  of  modern  san- 
itary engineering.  The  unfitness  of  natural  water  for  drinking  was 
recognized  long  ago.  Cyrus  of  Persia  carried  boiled  water  for  his 
troops  2,500  years  ago.  The  low  repute  of  water  as  a  beverage  even 
in  the  unenlightened  middle  ages  is  evidenced  by  a  thirteenth-century 
writer  who,  describing  the  extreme  poverty  of  Franciscan  monks  who 
settled  in  London  in  1224,  exclaimed,  "I  have  seen  the  brothers  drink 
ale  so  sour  that  some  would  have  preferred  to  drink  water."  The 
head-hunting,  carrion-eating  Nagas  of  the  Assam  hills  drink  only  a 
rice  beer,  carrying  starters  with  them  when  they  go  on  trips. 

Preventive  medicine  as  practiced  at  present  has  three  principal  legs 
to  rest  on:  (1)  the  upkeep  of  natural  resistance  by  general  hygienic 
measures,  including  a  proper  hormone  balance  and  optimum  nutrition ; 

(2)  the  artificial  stimulation  of  specific  immunity  or  resistance;  and 

(3)  protection  against  access  of  disease  germs  via  water,  food,  air, 
or  insect  transmission. 

The  general  principles  involved  in  the  first  of  these  have  been  known 
for  a  long  time,  but  the  details  have  only  recently  been  filled  in  by 
the  discoveries  with  respect  to  hormones,  minerals,  and  vitamins  that 
I  have  already  mentioned.  I  have  already  called  your  attention  to 
the  fact  that  in  an  epidemic  only  a  small  percentage  of  the  individuals 
that  are  actually  exposed  develop  a  disease.  The  determining  factors 
are  the  dosage  of  germs  that  gain  access  to  an  individual,  and  the 
natural  resistance  he  has.  The  higher  the  natural  resistance,  the 
greater  the  dosage  he  can  withstand. 

The  second  leg  on  which  preventive  medicine  rests,  artificial  stimu- 
lation of  immunity,  I  have  already  discussed.  On  it  we  depend  very 
largely  for  our  protection  against  smallpox,  diphtheria,  tetanus,  rabies, 
yellow  fever,  spotted  fever,  typhoid  fever,  and  many  other  diseases. 

The  third  leg  on  which  preventive  medicine  rests  —  protection 
against  dissemination  of  germs — I  have  so  far  said  little  about,  but 
here  enormous  strides  have  been  made  within  a  short  space  of  time. 

Famous  in  sanitary  history  is  the  case  of  the  Broad  Street  pump  in 
London  in  1854,  around  which  centered  an  explosive  outbreak  of 
cholera.  After  everything  from  the  chemical  nature  of  the  soil  to 
dust  bins  in  cellars  had  been  investigated,  the  relationship  between 
drinking  water  from  the  well  and  attacks  of  cholera  became  clear 
Nature  had  provided  a  grim  lesson  out  of  which  grew  modern  sani- 
tary engineering.    In  the  intervening  90  years  modern  water  purifi- 


i 


BIOLOGY    AND    MEDICINE CHANDLER  329 

cation  and  sanitary  sewage  disposal  have  developed.  Whereas  in 
1900  the  American  death  rate  from  typhoid  was  36  per  100,000,  today 
it  is  about  1  per  100,000,  and  in  1942  more  than  half  of  our  large  cities 
had  not  a  single  typhoid  death. 

Milk  and  food  sanitation  are  even  more  recent  developments.  Even 
25  years  ago  a  child  ran  the  risk  of  acquiring  disease  every  time  he 
drank  a  glass  of  milk ;  today  the  greater  part  of  the  milk  supply  in 
almost  every  city  is  pasteurized,  and  many  cities  can  boast  of  having 
no  raw  milk. 

Just  60  years  ago  two  American  workers,  Smith  and  Kilbourne, 
laid  the  foundation  stone  for  medical  entomology  when  they  demon- 
strated the  transmission  of  a  disease — Texas  fever  of  cattle — by  means 
of  a  tick.  Five  years  after  that  the  mosquito  transmission  of  malaria 
was  proved  and  then,  at  the  turn  of  the  century,  came  the  brilliant  work 
of  an  American  Army  commission  in  Havana,  proving  the  transmission 
of  yellow  fever  by  mosquitoes. 

Today  medical  entomology  plays  a  large  part  in  our  lives.  By  con- 
trol of  insects,  ticks,  or  mites  we  are  able  to  control,  in  some  cases 
almost  to  exterminate,  many  important  diseases,  including  some  of 
the  most  important.  I  need  only  mention  the  prevention  of  malaria, 
yellow  fever,  and  dengue  by  mosquito  control,  of  epidemic  typhus  and 
relapsing  fever  by  delousing  methods,  of  plague  and  endemic  typhus 
by  control  of  rats  and  fleas,  and  of  dysentery  by  fly  eradication. 

Already  we  have  become  so  accustomed  to  the  benefits  from  all 
these  protective  devices  that  we  take  them  for  granted.  Only  when 
circumstances  interfere  with  their  practice,  as  is  often  the  case  in  war, 
do  we  realize  how  much  we  depend  on  them.  It  was  dysentery,  not 
the  Turks,  that  defeated  the  British  at  Gallipoli,  and  it  was  dysentery 
and  malaria,  not  the  Japs,  that  defeated  our  own  troops  at  Bataan. 

As  we  go  on  into  the  future,  preventive  medicine  will  play  a  larger 
and  larger  part  in  our  lives.  Instead  of  being  a  secondary  and  rela- 
tively unimportant  part  in  the  curriculum  of  our  medical  schools,  I 
predict  that  we  shall  have  many  schools  devoted  primarily  if  not 
exclusively  to  this  fast-growing  branch  of  medical  science,  which  is 
still  so  young  that  it  is  seldom  allowed  to  stand  on  its  own  feet.  The 
subjects  taught  will  be  very  largely  biological  ones,  such  as  medical 
entomology,  helminthology,  protozoology,  bacteriology,  immunology, 
the  newly  developed  field  of  aerobiology,  and  methods  of  sterilization 
and  disinfection  which  are  also  a  branch  of  biology,  since  they  deal 
with  the  destruction  of  life. 

In  addition  to  the  categories  of  discoveries  in  biology  that  I  have 
already  mentioned,  there  are  other  fields  of  biological  research  which 
are  making  valuable  contributions  to  both  preventive  and  therapeutic 
medicine.  I  have  time  only  to  mention  in  passing  a  few  of  the 
discoveries  made  in  the  year  1942. 


330         ANNUAL  REPORT  SMITHSONIAN   INSTITUTION,    1944 

During  the  past  year  great  advances  have  been  made  in  the  long- 
neglected  field  of  aerobiology,  dealing  with  the  distribution  of  pollens, 
fungus  spores,  micro-organisms,  etc.,  through  the  air ;  new  knowledge 
of  the  spread  of  contagion  through  the  air  has  been  obtained,  and 
new  methods  of  control  worked  out,  using  vapors  and  ultraviolet  rays. 
Also  within  the  year  there  have  been  a  number  of  new  biological 
methods  of  controlling  pathogenic  organisms,  including  discovery 
of  an  enzyme-like  substance  in  young  rats,  by  which  tuberculosis  ba- 
cilli may  be  shorn  of  the  waxy  coats  that  protect  them  from  drugs 
and  phagocytes,  and  discovery  of  germ-killing  substances  extracted 
from  molds  and  from  various  types  of  soil  bacteria.  In  the  field  of 
nutrition,  evidence  for  the  need  of  particular  amino  acids  for  special 
functions  in  the  body  have  been  demonstrated,  and  may  pave  the 
way  for  better  control  of  these  functions  in  the  future.  New  methods 
have  been  developed  for  the  study  of  the  ultimate  connections  be- 
tween nerves  and  muscles,  which  may  lead  to  better  control  of  paralysis 
and  muscular  diseases.  Announcement  has  also  been  made  of  the  de- 
velopment of  germ  syrups,  at  negligible  cost,  which  change  the  bac- 
terial life  of  the  human  intestine  so  that,  like  deer  and  cattle,  we  can 
not  only  digest  the  cellulose  of  grass,  leaves,  and  wood,  but  can  also 
synthesize  our  own  supply  of  B  vitamins  within  our  own  bodies.  In 
research  on  cancer,  which  is  one  biological  problem  that  is  still  un- 
solved, a  number  of  significant  advances  have  been  made.  A  few 
more  pieces  have  been  fitted  into  the  mosaic,  bringing  the  final  pic- 
ture a  little  nearer  to  completion.  In  this  field  as  in  that  of  allergies, 
there  is  still  much  to  be  done,  but  there  is  every  reason  to  believe  that 
it  loill  be  done  before  very  long. 

Man's  ingenuity  has  freed  him  from  many  phases  of  the  struggle 
for  existence  to  which  other  creatures  are  subject.  He  has  gained 
an  insuperable  advantage  over  the  wild  beasts,  and  his  inventive  genius 
defies  the  attacks  of  climate  and  the  elements.  In  his  struggle  against 
disease  he  has,  as  we  have  seen,  made  wonderful  progress,  although 
he  still  has  far  to  go.  There  is  some  reason  to  hope  that  after  the 
present  global  war  has  burned  itself  out  we  may  be  able  to  free  our- 
selves from  the  one  phase  of  the  struggle  for  existence  that  man's 
ingenuity  has  steadily  made  more  terrible,  the  struggle  of  man  against 
man.  With  all  the  phases  of  the  struggle  for  existence  well  in  hand 
we  may  then  turn  to  a  struggle  for  improvement  of  our  kind  by  the 
application  of  two  other  branches  of  biological  science,  genetics  and 
eugenics.  Within  our  own  generation  preventive  medicine  has 
grown  out  of  therapeutic  medicine;  perhaps  our  children  may  live 
to  see  a  still  newer  branch  of  "improvement  medicine,"  in  which  en- 
docrinology, nutritional  studies,  problems  of  aging  and  rejuvenescence, 
and  eugenics  will  lead  to  greater  health,  more  happiness,  longer  life, 
and  better  evolutionary  prospects  than  have  hitherto  been  our  lot. 


I 


THE  LOCUST  PLAGUE^ 


Bj'  B.  P.  UVABOV,  D.  Sc. 
Entomologist,  Anti-Locust  Research  Centre,  British  Museum  {Natural  History) 


THE  OLDEST  ENTOMOLOGICAL  PROBLEM 

The  locust  problem  has  confronted  man  since  the  earliest  beginnings 
of  agriculture.  Biblical  references  to  locust  plagues  are  well  known, 
and  Joel's  description  of  a  locust  invasion  has  never  been  surpassed  for 
its  dramatic  picturesqueness  combined  with  amazing  accuracy  of  detail. 
The  earliest  known  record  of  locusts  is  a  picture  of  a  locust  on  the  wall 
of  an  Egyptian  tomb  of  the  Twelfth  Dynasty,  about  2400  B.  C.  Ref- 
erences to  locusts  abound  in  ancient  Egyptian,  Hebrew,  Greek,  and 
Chinese  texts,  and  Roman  writers  such  as  Titus,  Livy,  and  Pliny  have 
left  us  many  data,  some  fantastic,  but  some  of  definite  value.  A  criti- 
cal examination  of  this  information  is  still  awaited,  and  it  may  shed 
new  light  on  certain  sides  of  the  problem. 

The  more  recent  literature  on  the  locust  problem  is  enormous,  and 
the  number  of  books  and  papers  on  the  subject  was  estimated  15  years 
ago  at  about  2,000;  since  then  this  figure  has  been  almost  doubled, 
owing  to  intensive  new  research.  The  more  important  contributions 
are  published  in  about  a  dozen  languages,  and  the  task  of  coping  with 
this  flood  is  not  an  easy  one. 

WORLD-WIDE  PROBLEM 

It  is  often  thought  that  locust  plagues  are  restricted  to  a  few  coun- 
tries and  that  the  world  at  large  need  not  be  concerned  about  them. 
This  view  is  largely  due  to  the  fact  that  central  and  northwestern 
Europe  is  now  practically  safe  from  locusts,  though  its  southern  coun- 
tries, e.  g.,  Portugal,  Spain,  Italy,  the  Balkan  Peninsula,  the  Ukraine 
and  the  Caucasus,  know  their  depredations  only  too  well. 

The  zone  where  agriculture  has  to  reckon  with  locusts  and  their 
lesser  relatives,  grasshoppers,  becomes  even  wider  in  temperate  Asia, 

1  Lecture  delivered  before  the  Dominions  and  Colonies  Section,  Royal  Society  of  Arts, 
London,  December  15,  1942,  and  published  in  the  Journal  of  the  Royal  Society  of  Arts, 
vol.  91,  No.  4631,  1943.  Revised  and  brought  up  to  date  by  the  author,  and  here  reprinted 
by  permission  of  the  Royal  Society  of  Arts.  The  object  of  the  present  paper  is  to  give  a  brief 
account  of  the  locust  problem  and  to  show  how  recent  advances  in  its  study  have  made  it 
possible  to  envisage  its, lasting  solution. 

331 


332  ANNUAL  REPORT   SMITHSONIAN    INSTITUTION,    1944 

where  a  broad  belt  of  the  fertile  Siberian  lands  produces  not  only 
grain  in  abundance,  but  also  grasshoppers  which  take  their  toll  of 
the  harvest.  South  of  that  belt,  Soviet  Middle  Asia,  producing  cotton, 
fruit,  etc.,  is  subject  to  ravages  of  the  Asiatic  migratory  {Locusta 
migratoria  migratoria)  and  the  Moroccan  {Dociostaurus  maroccanus) 
locusts.  Farther  east,  in  China,  the  Oriental  migratory  locust  {Locusta 
migratoria  manilensis)  has  repeatedly  caused  wholesale  famines,  and 
is  actually  causing  untold  miseries  at  present.  The  range  of  this 
locust  extends  to  the  Philippine  Islands,  where  records  of  its  ravages 
are  found  in  the  earliest  Spanish  chronicles,  and  to  Borneo,  Celebes, 
Indo-China  and  the  Malayan  peninsula. 

Returning  westward  again,  we  meet  the  vast  zone  where  the  desert 
locust  {Schistocerca  gregaria)  holds  its  sway  over  agriculture,  which 
is  here  carried  out  always  under  precarious  conditions,  making  its 
products  particularly  precious  to  the  population,  so  that  a  loss  of 
harvest  amounts  to  a  major  catastrophe.  It  is  this  desert  locust  that 
has  been  known  to  man  since  Biblical  times,  and  which  is  still  as 
active  as  it  was  thousands  of  years  ago.  The  area  of  its  depredations 
is  enormous,  stretching  from  India  in  the  east  to  the  Atlantic  coast 
of  Africa  in  the  west,  and  from  Russian  Middle  Asia  in  the  north  to 
below  the  Equator  in  eastern  Africa.  The  tropical  parts  of  Africa  also 
have  to  cope  with  two  other  kinds  of  locust,  the  African  migratory 
(Locitsta  migratoria  migratorioides)  and  the  red  {Nomadacris  sep- 
temfasciata)  locust.  The  latter  extends  its  ravages  to  South  Africa, 
which,  in  addition,  has  a  very  serious  problem  in  the  endemic  brown 
locust  {Locustana  pardalina) . 

Australia,  the  continent  where  agricultural  development  started  rela- 
tively recently,  but  where  it  has  made  great  strides,  is  already  paying 
a  heavy  tax  to  locusts  and  grasshoppers. 

Turning  to  the  Western  Hemisphere,  both  the  United  States  and 
Canada  have  to  wage  an  almost  incessant  war  against  grasshoppers, 
while  wide  regions  in  Central  and  South  America  are  periodically  dev- 
astated by  swarms  of  the  American  locust  {Schistocerca  paranensis) . 

Thus,  none  of  the  five  continents  is  free  from  these  pests,  which,  in 
fact  are  absent  only  from  the  forest  and  the  tundra  belts  in  the  north, 
from  the  equatorial  forests,  and  from  the  high  mountains.  The  regions 
either  permanently  infested  by  them  or  subject  to  their  periodical  in- 
cursions include  no  less  than  77  separate  countries  (fig.  1). 

WHAT  LOCUSTS  COST  THE  WORLD 

Beginning  with  the  Egyptian  locust  plague,  described  in  the  Bible, 
there  runs  through  history  a  tragic  tale  of  devastations  caused  by 
locusts,  followed  by  famines  decimating  populations  of  whole  countries. 
Thus,  in  the  Roman  colonies  of  Cyrenaica  and  Numidia  no  less  than 


LOCUST  PLAGUE — UVAROV 


333 


334         ANNUAL  REPORT  SMITHSONIAN   INSTITUTION,    1944 

800,000  people  died  in  the  year  125  B.  C.  after  a  locust  invasion.  Great 
famines  have  been  caused  by  locusts  in  India,  China,  and  other  coun- 
tries. As  recently  as  1930,  losses  of  crops  estimated  at  nearly  1,000,000 
pounds  were  caused  by  locusts  in  Morocco.  In  Nigeria,  in  the  same 
year,  1,000  tons  of  grain  had  to  be  imported  to  prevent  famine;  in 
Tanganyika  Territory  75  to  100  percent  of  native  crops  were  destroyed 
in  1929,  and  in  Kenya  in  the  same  year  £200,000  had  to  be  spent  on 
relief  from  the  famine  caused  by  locusts  and  drought. 

These  are  impressive  figures,  but  it  may  be  argued  that  locust  inva- 
sions occur  only  periodically,  and  that  a  distorted  picture  of  their  eco- 
nomic importance  is  obtained  by  considering  exceptional  cases. 

To  assess  the  cost  of  locusts  and  grasshoppers  to  the  world,  the  Anti- 
Locust  Research  Centre  attempted  to  collect  statistical  data  for  a 
10-year  period,  1925-34,  which  covered  both  bad  locust  years  and  those 
free  of  them.  Statistics  of  this  kind  were  not  easy  to  obtain,  and  only 
49  countries  (out  of  77  suffering  from  locusts)  submitted  them.  Never- 
theless, the  total  was  staggering,  showing  that  crops  to  the  value  of 
£83,120,800  went  to  feed  the  locusts  in  10  years.  The  losses  would  cer- 
tainly have  been  greater  if  no  defensive  measures  had  been  taken,  but 
the  latter  cost  another  13  million  pounds.  On  the  basis  of  these  figures, 
it  was  not  an  exaggeration  to  estimate  the  average  cost  of  locusts  and 
grasshoppers  to  the  world  at  15  million  pounds  per  annum.  To  this 
must  be  added  the  enormous  figure  of  unpaid  labor  which  is  used  almost 
everywhere  for  large-scale  defensive  measures.  The  data  on  this  point 
are  very  incomplete,  but  the  number  of  man-days  often  runs  into 
millions  in  one  year  and  in  one  country. 

AGRICULTURAL  PROGRESS  AND  LOCUSTS 

It  has  been  argued  that  locusts  and  grasshoppers  represent  a  danger 
only  in  backward  countries,  and  that  the  advance  of  agriculture  should 
inevitably  lead  to  their  disappearance  as  pests.  A  long  interval  during 
which  the  United  States  of  America  were  almost  free  from  grass- 
hoppers led  some  of  the  most  eminent  American  entomologists  to 
believe  that  agricultural  progress  had  made  a  repetition  of  the  grass- 
hopper plagues  impossible.  These  hopes  were  rudely  shattered  in  re- 
cent years,  when  grasshopper  outbreaks  recommenced  on  a  truly  Ameri- 
can scale. 

Moreover,  there  are  definite  cases  on  record  where  direct  encourage- 
ment was  given  to  locusts  by  otherwise  excellent  developments.  The 
Danube  delta,  for  example,  had  become  unsuitable  for  locust  breeding 
on  a  large  scale  toward  the  end  of  the  last  century,  but  recent  regulation 
of  the  river  channel  resulted  in  the  emergence  of  new  areas  of  land 
which  were  quickly  utilized  by  locusts,  and  an  area  which  had  not 
produced  locust  swarms  for  many  years  became  again  a  source  of 


i 


LOCUST  PLAGUE — UVAROV  335 

danger.  In  northern  Borneo,  locusts  can  breed  only  in  areas  where 
the  jungle  has  been  cleared  for  cultivation  and  abandoned  after  a  few 
seasons;  such  shifting  cultivation  there,  and  probably  in  other  similar 
areas,  is  a  direct  cause  of  locust  outbreaks.  In  western  Australia, 
the  clearing  of  dry  forests  in  the  interests  of  sheep  breeding  has  created 
a  type  of  grassland  admirably  suited  for  locusts.  Overgrazing  of 
natural  pastures  is  largely  the  cause  of  the  great,  and  growing,  grass- 
hopper menace  in  Argentina,  some  parts  of  the  United  States,  Canada, 
and  parts  of  Russia.  Such  facts  led  the  Fourth  International  Locust 
Conference,  held  in  1936  at  Cairo,  to  pass  a  resolution  pointing  out  that 
the  mass  development  of  locusts  and  grasshoppers  is  furthered  rather 
than  hindered  by  man's  activities,  and  that  no  hopes  can  be  entertained 
of  the  problem's  becoming  less  acute  merely  as  a  result  of  the  general 
development  of  a  country. 

To  this  must  be  added  the  consideration  that  the  agricultural  de- 
velopment of  new  areas,  e.  g.,  in  Africa,  central  Asia,  etc.,  tends  to 
increase  the  danger  from  locusts  in  direct  proportion  to  the  increase 
in  the  value  of  crops  exposed  to  their  ravages. 

THE  USES  OP  LOCUSTS 

It  may  well  be  asked  whether  it  might  not  be  possible  to  find  some  use 
for  the  mass  of  organic  matter  represented  in  locust  swarms,  some  of 
which  have  been  estimated  to  amount  to  hundreds  of  tons.  Chemical 
analyses  show  that  locusts  contain  protein,  fats,  and  mineral  salts, 
which  would  be  of  value  in  the  preparation  of  fertilizers  and  of  food 
for  cattle  and  poultry.  From  the  technical  point  of  view  the  idea  is 
sound,  but  no  industry  can  be  based  on  a  raw  material  which  may  be 
overabundant  one  year  and  nonexistent  the  next. 

The  use  of  locusts  for  food  is  well  known,  since  John  the  Baptist 
lived  on  them,  as  Bedouins  in  Arabia  still  continue  to  do  when  other 
food  is  scarce.  The  Assyrians  apparently  considered  locusts  as  food  fit 
for  kings,  since  a  bas  relief  of  the  seventh  century  B.  C.  shows  locusts 
being  brought  up  to  the  table  of  Asshurbanipal.  Locusts  are  still 
eaten  in  many  countries,  and  the  Philippine  Department  of  Agricul- 
ture has  recently  published  a  pamphlet  describing  33  different  ways 
of  cooking  them.  Some  of  the  recipes  sound  rather  attractive  in  war- 
time, perhaps,  because  they  include  such  ingredients  as  eggs,  bananas, 
lemons,  and  pineapples.  More  plainly  cooked  locusts  were  recently 
described  by  an  entomologist  as  "neither  repulsive  nor  producing  any 
pleasant  sensation." 

LOCUSTS  AND  THEIR  HABITS 

We  have  been  speaking  of  locusts  as  a  plague  of  agriculture,  but  in 
order  to  understand  the  problem,  it  is  necessary  to  have  a  clear  idea 


336  ANNUAL  REPORT   SMITHSONIAN   INSTITUTION,    1944 

of  what  locusts  are  and  how  they  live.  A  locust  is  nothing  but  a  spe- 
cies of  grasshopper,  but  usually  larger  in  size  and  characterized  mainly 
by  gregarious  habits. 

The  life  cycle  of  locusts  and  grasshoppers  is  fairly  simple.  The 
eggs  are  deposited  by  the  female  in  the  soil,  in  packets,  or  "egg-pods," 
each  containing  30  to  100  eggs.  In  countries  with  a  cold  winter,  eggs 
lie  dormant  throughout  this  season,  and  in  spring  the  young  locusts, 
or  "hoppers,"  emerge  from  them  onto  the  surface  of  the  soil.  In  the 
Tropics,  the  eggs  may  hatch  in  2  to  3  weeks,  if  there  is  rain  or  moisture 
in  the  soil.  The  difference  between  grasshoppers  and  locusts  becomes 
apparent  in  the  hopper  stage ;  the  former  may  be  numerous,  but  each 
one  lives  independently  of  the  others,  whereas  the  latter  congregate 
in  dense  groups,  or  bands.  Further  development  consists  in  rapid 
growth,  stimulated  by  voracious  feeding  on  green  vegetation,  and  in 
the  periodic  moulting  which  occurs  4  to  6  times  before  the  adult  insect 
appears ;  these  differ  from  the  hoppers  only  in  size  and  the  presence 
of  two  pairs  of  wings.  The  whole  cycle  occupies  a  year  in  temperate 
climates,  but  in  the  Tropics  there  may  be  several  generations  within  a 
year. 

The  most  striking  feature  in  the  behavior  of  locust  hoppers  is  their 
mass  movement  in  bands,  which  may  cover  several  square  miles.  The 
relentless  march  of  hopper  bands  which  are  not  stopped  by  obstacles, 
even  by  water,  creates  an  impression  of  a  dark  purpose,  of  a  movement 
toward  an  objective,  and  many  more  or  less  fantastic  explanations 
have  been  offered  to  account  for  it.  Recent  investigations  have,  how- 
ever, definitely  proved  that  the  movement  of  hoppers  depends  very 
largely  on  temperature  and  occurs  only  on  sufficiently  hot  days,  while 
excessive  heat  again  causes  it  to  stop.  The  hopper  movements  are  not 
caused  by  hunger  and  do  not  aim  at  finding  food,  since  hoppers,  driven 
by  heat,  often  leave  a  fertile  area  and  march  into  open  desert. 

When  hoppers  become  adult  and  acquire  wings,  they  soon  begin  to 
fly  about  in  swarms.  Again,  a  swarm  does  not  leave  an  area  because 
of  lack  of  food,  and  it  does  not  necessarily  fly  toward  more  fertile 
lands,  but  its  flight  is  initiated,  directed,  and  interrupted  by  various 
weather  factors.  Swarms  may  reach  great  size  and  contain  fantastic 
numbers  of  individuals.  Thus,  a  swarm  in  East  Africa  measuring 
3  by  60  miles  was  estimated  to  consist  of  a  million  million  locusts ;  and 
even  larger  swarms  are  on  record. 

The  distances